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Van Epps Heather L - - 2005
In 1934, pathologist Harry Goldblatt established the first animal model of hypertension. This model provided researchers with the tools to delineate the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to design enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of chronic hypertension.
Cholewa Brian C - - 2005
The present experiments were performed to determine the influence of intravenous administration of renin substrate on plasma angiotensin II levels and mean arterial blood pressure in conscious C57BL/6J mice. Mice with chronic indwelling femoral arterial and venous catheters were acutely or chronically administered intravenous doses of a synthetic peptide corresponding ...
Holsworth Daniel D - - 2005
Ketopiperazine 2 was designed from a previously published analog. Compound 2 was shown to be a novel, potent inhibitor of renin that, when administered orally, lowered blood pressure in a hypertensive double transgenic (human renin and angiotensinogen) mouse model. Compound 2 was further optimized to sub-nanomolar potency by designing an ...
Sakai Koji - - 2005
Hypertension remains one of the largest human health problems, because hypertensive patients carry increased risk for ischemic heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, and renal failure. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been intensively investigated for more than 100 years because it is a powerful regulator of blood pressure, and the antihypertensive benefits ...
Fang Ber-Ren - - 2005
A 37-year old woman was suspected of having renovascular hypertension because of recent onset severe hypertension (blood pressure 220/135 mmHg; compared to 132/65 mmHg two years earlier) and an abdominal bruit. A captopril renal scan indicated the presence of right renal artery stenosis. Additionally, a captopril plasma renin activity (PRA) ...
Benson, Victoria Louise
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in response to pressure overload is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, making its prevention an important therapeutic goal. The role of a calcineurin-dependent molecular pathway in the induction of pressure-overload LVH is controversial. The present study tested the hypothesis that, in the setting of ...
Morelli Andrea - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Terlipressin has been suggested as the ideal drug to treat anesthesia-induced hypotension in patients under long-term renin-angiotensin system inhibitor treatment for arterial hypertension. The authors compared the effects of terlipressin and norepinephrine on systemic hemodynamic parameters and gastric mucosal perfusion using a laser Doppler flowmetry technique in patients treated ...
Bloomfield Eric L - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Control of blood pressure can be a problem for intracranial procedures. To investigate the relationship between hemodynamic variables and endogenous vasoactive substances, we studied patients undergoing resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). METHODS: This was a nonrandomized, prospective study of six patients who had resection of an intracranial AVM and ...
Bagrov Alexei Y - - 2005
For the past 50 years biomedical scientists have been in quest of an unidentified factor (hormone) that elevates blood pressure and regulates renal sodium transport, i.e., natriuretic hormone. Recent discoveries have led to the identification of such factors which are present in humans, rodents and amphibians, and which, in a ...
Gociman, Barbu Razvan.
Essential hypertension is an important cause of human cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in most developed countries. Analysis of hypertensive siblings has revealed significant genetic linkage and alleilic association between angiotensinogen, the precursor of angiotensin II, and essential hypertension. Angiotensinogen is one of the components of the renin-angiotensin system that plays ...
Henriksen Jens H - - 2004
Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic hemodynamics ...
Fritsch Samuel - - 2004
While parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R)-mediated vasodilatory, cardiac stimulatory, and renin-activating effects of exogenous PTH/PTH-related protein (PTHrP) are acknowledged, interactions of endogenous PTHrP with these systems remain unclear, mainly because the unavailability of viable PTHrP/PTH1R knockout mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing PTH1R in smooth muscle strongly have supported the PTHrP/PTH1R ...
Fernández Javier - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Albumin administration prevents renal failure and improves survival in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This study characterizes the mechanisms of action of albumin in this condition. METHODS: Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics, plasma renin activity and plasma concentration of interleukin-6, serum concentration of nitric oxide and ascitic fluid levels of nitric oxide ...
Francois Helene - - 2004
Members of the family of prostanoids, made up of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, are generated via COX-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid. These lipid mediators exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion. As COX inhibition is often associated with sodium retention leading to edema and ...
Lee Dexter L - - 2004
The goal of this study was to determine the dependence of the acute hypertensive response to a novel model of acute psychosocial stress on the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems. Baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and locomotor activity were measured with telemetry in mice for a 1-h period ...
Brown Morris J - - 2004
Immunization against components of the renin-angiotensin system offers a potential alternative to daily medication in some patients with hypertension or heart failure. Our primary objective was to determine whether a sustained antibody titre to Ang I (angiotensin I) can be achieved in hypertensive patients. The secondary objective was to determine ...
Lavoie J L - - 2004
Hypertension is a polygenic and multi-factorial disorder that is extremely prevalent in western societies, and thus has received a great deal of attention by the research community. The renin-angiotensin system has a strong impact on the control of blood pressure both in the short- and long-term, making it one of ...
Ritz Eberhard - - 2004
To halt progression of renal disease, the combination of several interventional strategies is recommended. The most important components comprise lowering of systolic blood pressure to approximately 120 mm Hg; providing pharmacologic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers; and reducing proteinuria to rates of ...
Blankestijn Peter J - - 2004
The renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems are often activated in hemodialysis (HD) patients; the pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. Medications aimed at reducing renin and sympathetic activity may improve the cardiovascular prognosis, independent of its effect on blood pressure. This knowledge has important implications for the choice of treatment ...
Aljuri Nikolai - - 2004
The most important goal of this study is to enhance our understanding of the crucial functional relationships that determine the behavior of the systemic circulation and its underlying physiological regulatory mechanisms with minimal modeling. To the present day, much has been said about the indirect hydraulic effects of right atrial ...
Høilund-Carlsen Poul Flemming - - 2004
Systolic left ventricular function was examined by radionuclide ventriculography in 12 habitual smokers with known or suspected ischaemic heart disease, aged 33-69 years, before, during, and after smoking of two cigarettes in a row and was repeated on a non-smoking control day. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, renin, and angiotensin ...
Li Yan Chun - - 2004
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, volume and electrolyte homeostasis. Inappropriate activation of the RAS may lead to hypertension. Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested a correlation between Vitamin D-deficiency and high blood pressure. Our recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D is ...
Uddin Mukarram - - 2004
Blood pressure lowering kallikrein-kinin and blood pressure raising renin-angiotensin systems play a major role in the maintenance of normal blood pressure. In a previous study, we have shown that a kallikrein-like prorenin converting enzyme (PRCE C) is elevated in the submandibular gland tissue of a mouse line (BPH) that was ...
Ramunni Alfonso - - 2004
Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been proposed to increase renal vascular resistance (RVR) and to play a role in the development of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among RVR, RAS and blood pressure (BP) profile ...
Saruta Takao T Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. - - 2004
Approximately 40% of Japanese patients with essential hypertension, including low-renin hypertension, are inadequately managed. Low-renin hypertension generally responds poorly to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, but may respond more optimally to diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and aldosterone blockers. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study evaluated the efficacy ...
Resnick Lawrence M - - 2004
The extent to which the clinical effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are related to ambient renin system activity remains poorly defined. Therefore, we measured blood pressure (BP), large (C1) and small (C2) arterial compliance, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), plasma renin activity (PRA), and the 24-h urinary excretion of sodium ...
Cachat François - - 2004
Renal vein thrombosis and the congenital nephrotic syndrome have been associated with nephrotic-range proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome and hypertension in the newborn period. We describe a newborn with severe hypertension and proteinuria secondary to unilateral renal artery stenosis. Proteinuria completely disappeared with blood pressure control (with sodium nitroprusside and an angiotensin-converting enzyme ...
Maki Shinichi - - 2004
Endothelin (ET)-1 and ET-2 are potent vasoconstrictor peptides with mitogenic activity. In this study, we investigated roles of ET system in renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-mediated hypertension, using transgenic hypertensive mice (THM) with over-expression of both human renin and angiotensinogen genes. In the first step, it was revealed that expression of ET ...
Lavoie Julie L - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological significance of a tissue renin-angiotensin system in the proximal tubule of the kidney. To accomplish this, we produced mice that express human renin (hREN) under the control of the kidney androgen-regulated promoter (KAP), which is androgen responsive. One of the ...
Flordellis Christodoulos S - - 2004
Until recently elevated blood pressure was considered as a hemodynamic entity representing an increase in workload for the heart and the arterial tree. Control of hypertension meant hemodynamic unloading, through inhibition of vasoconstrictor pathways, principally renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic system. In recent years however a new pharmacological approach has evolved ...
Sequeira Lopez Maria Luisa S - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The renin-angiotensin system has a major role in the control of blood pressure and homeostasis balance. It also plays a fundamental role in kidney development. Recent insights into how the angiotensin-generating cascade controls developmental processes and homeostasis, and, when defective, causes disease, are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The ...
Lum Craig - - 2004
We compared the phenotype of two common mouse models, C-57BL/6J (C57), which carries only the Ren-1c gene, and 129/SvJ (Sv-129), with both Ren 1d and Ren-2. We hypothesized two renin gene Sv-129 would have increased blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system would be more influential in regulating renal function compared ...
Jacobsen P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Mechanisms underlying glucose-mediated development and progression of diabetic complications are incompletely understood. We tested the impact of short-term hyperglycaemia on systemic blood pressure and regulatory hormones in type 1 diabetic patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 18 patients [13 men, mean (SEM) diabetes duration 10 (1) years] without signs ...
Tanemoto Masayuki - - 2003
Three patients who suffered from congestive heart failure caused by severe hypertension were treated with a combination therapy consisting of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). Before initiation of treatment, all three patients showed elevations of serum creatinine concentration (sCr), plasma renin activity (PRA), and ...
Mann Samuel J - - 2003
The management of essential hypertension has increasingly focused on the use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers, which lower blood pressure (BP) through effects on blood volume and on the renin-angiotensin system. However, in many individuals these agents, whether given alone or in combination, fail to normalize ...
Azizi Michel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The prevailing sodium intake and renin-angiotensin system status influence the blood pressure response to an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist or an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, which is known to be reinforced by a low sodium intake or administration of a diuretic. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ...
Wood Jeanette M - - 2003
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, the leading causes of death in the Western world. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have proven to be successful treatments for hypertension. As renin specifically catalyses the rate-limiting step of the RAS, ...
Claybaugh John R - - 2003
This study was conducted to determine whether 100% FiO2 during hemorrhage would improve maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure and to assess the cardiovascular, arginine vasopressin, and renin-angiotensin system roles in the response. This also allowed evaluation of FiO2 effects on the baroreceptor control of these hormone systems. Six conscious ...
Butler D G - - 2003
In accordance with their vital role in cardiovascular physiology () corpuscles of Stannius (CS) from two teleosts and an holostean species showed marked and consistent degranulation and exocytotic responses to hypotensive stimuli. In eels (Anguilla rostrata LeSueur) acute blood withdrawal (hypovolemic hypotension) was followed by a prompt decrease in cardiac ...
Lavoie Julie L - - 2003
Since the discovery of renin as a pressor substance in 1898, the renin-angiotensin (RAS) system has been extensively studied because it remains a prime candidate as a causative factor in the development and maintenance of hypertension. Indeed, some of the properties of the physiologically active component of the RAS, angiotensin ...
Ramaha Ahmed - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Angiotensinogen is the substrate for renin in the system that releases angiotensin II. This renin-angiotensin system is an important regulator of blood pressure (BP), and defects in the system are linked to the development of hypertension. Native angiotensinogen is a 62,000-dalton monomer, but various high molecular weight forms also ...
Boccara Gilles - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Terlipressin, a precursor that is metabolized to lysine-vasopressin, has been proposed as a drug for treatment of intraoperative arterial hypotension refractory to ephedrine in patients who have received long-term treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. The authors compared the effectiveness of terlipressin and norepinephrine to correct hypotension in these patients. ...
Hall John E - - 2003
Researchers continue to be fascinated with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) more than 100 yr after its discovery because of its powerful role in controlling sodium balance, body fluid volumes, and arterial pressure. Development of drugs that block different components of this system has led to powerful treatments for hypertension, heart ...
Tripathi Suchi - - 2003
Renin angiotensin system in the genesis of hypertension was established long after Goldblatt's belief that the minute capillaries of the kidney regulate blood pressure and he also suggested kidney released a pressure substance which lead to rise of blood pressure. Guyton provided experimental and analytical data supporting the role of ...
Safar Michel E - - 2003
The mechanism(s) of systolic hypertension in the elderly imply structural and functional alterations of the large artery wall. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that, in the long term, the renin-angiotensin system may act on the geometry and stiffness of the large artery wall independently of blood pressure level through ...
Andersen Steen - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is the primary target in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease. Angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists reduce albuminuria and lower blood pressure, but the initial time course of these effects after initiation of treatment is unknown. We evaluated the time course of ...
Li Yan Chun - - 2003
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte, and volume homeostasis. Epidemiological and clinical studies have long suggested an association of inadequate sunlight exposure or low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] levels with high blood pressure and/or high plasma renin activity, but the mechanism ...
Baumbach Gary L - - 2003
We examined the hypothesis that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in vascular remodeling (defined as reduced external diameter) during chronic hypertension. We measured pressure, diameter, and cross-sectional area of the vessel wall in maximally dilated cerebral arterioles in transgenic mice that overexpress both human renin and human angiotensinogen ...
Bader Michael - - 2002
The local generation of all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the heart has been the basis for the postulation of a tissue RAS in this organ. Since angiotensin II is involved in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis the local generation of this peptide may be of ...
Varagic Jasmina - - 2002
In addition to the effect on arterial pressure, angiotensin II, the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), exerts mitogenic and growth promoting effects on cardiac myocytes and non-myocytic elements; and both of these effects significantly contribute to the development and progression of hypertensive heart disease (HHD). The traditional concept ...
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