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Garay Ricardo P - - 2007
Fluxes catalyzed by the human Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1 (hNKCC1) were extensively investigated in erythrocytes from essential hypertensive patients. Using different techniques, four hNKCC1 abnormalities were described in a significant proportion of hypertensives: (i) low net sodium extrusion, (ii) high unidirectional inward cotransport, (iii) low apparent affinity for internal sodium and ...
Fujita T - - 2007
Cilnidipine, a dual L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, dilates both efferent and afferent arterioles and is renoprotective. Our multi-center, open-labeled, and randomized trial compared the antiproteinuric effect of cilnidipine with that of amlodipine in hypertensive patients with kidney disease. A group of 339 patients, already receiving renin-angiotensin system inhibitor treatment, were ...
Schweda Frank - - 2007
The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located in the walls of renal afferent arterioles at the entrance ...
Zimrin Ann B - - 2007
Voluntary blood donors are the source of all red cell, platelet, and unprocessed plasma products used in clinical medicine. Paid donors provide most of the raw plasma used in commercially processed plasma products, such as albumin and intravenous gamma globulin. Each year, less than 5% of the population donates blood, ...
Göschke Richard - - 2007
The action of renin is the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a key regulator of blood pressure. Effective renin inhibitors directly block the RAS entirely at source and, thus, may provide a vital weapon for hypertension therapy. Our efforts toward identifying novel small-molecule peptidomimetic renin inhibitors have resulted ...
Nguyen Geneviève - - 2007
Renin inhibitors are now available in therapeutic doses and it is accepted that they decrease blood pressure as efficiently as the classic inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS): angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARBs). One major issue will be to know how, beyond the normalization of blood ...
Weir Matthew R - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct renin inhibitors are the newest antihypertensive therapeutic class. The review describes their antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects and possible renoprotective capabilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials demonstrate direct renin inhibitors reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure comparable with other commonly used antihypertensive drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and ...
Hirsch Sheldon - - 2007
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and diuretics are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic kidney disease to reduce systemic blood pressure. The renin-angiotensin inhibitors also reduce intraglomerular pressure. The lower pressures may result in initial increases in the serum creatinine. The long-term renoprotection provided by these therapies establishes the basis for tolerating ...
Li Yan Chun - - 2007
As an important cascade involved in the regulation of blood pressure and volume homeostasis, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been targeted for blood pressure control. In the last decades, the most successful strategy to control the RAS has been the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the angiotensin type ...
Sepehrdad Reza - - 2007
The important role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in the treatment of systemic hypertension, heart failure, diabetic kidney disease, and atherogenesis has been clearly established. The theoretical therapeutic advantages for inhibiting the detrimental effects of the renin-angiotensin system at its most upstream point have served as the impetus for the development ...
Prime D D - - 2007
Observational studies have documented an association between lower rates of cardiovascular disease and hormone therapy (HT). Meanwhile, randomized clinical trials have documented increased rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in women receiving hormone therapy. These seemingly discordant findings have stimulated new research to examine estrogen's effects on the cardiovascular system, ...
Ram C Venkata S - - 2007
Hypertension remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting more than 60 million persons in the United States. Although the past 5 decades have witnessed advances in the therapeutic modalities available to treat hypertension and a dramatic decrease in morbidity and mortality related to hypertension, adequate blood pressure control ...
van den Born Bert-Jan H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Malignant hypertension is a renin-dependent form of hypertension. However, the variations in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation in malignant hypertension are not completely understood. A proposed mechanism for ongoing RAS activation is the presence of microangiopathic hemolysis resulting in renovascular ischemia. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between plasma renin ...
Imakiire Toshihiko - - 2007
The mechanisms of hypertensive nephrosclerosis are not fully understood. In experimental models of the disease, inflammatory reactions such as macrophage infiltration play an important role. In human hypertensive nephrosclerosis, however, there have been few studies examining the role of inflammation histologically. We investigated whether the number of infiltrating macrophages was ...
Mulatero Paolo - - 2007
Plasma renin levels can be used to classify hypertension. A significant proportion of hypertensive individuals display a low-renin profile and thus low-renin hypertension (LRH) requires appropriate diagnosis and treatment. LRH includes essential, secondary and genetic forms, the most common of which are low-renin essential hypertension and primary aldosteronism. Several studies ...
Moore Niamh - - 2007
Renin catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system. A T allele variant at position -5312 within a distal enhancer region has been reported to increase in vitro renin gene transcription. Among 387 White bank employees, ambulatory blood pressures were higher in 133 -5312T allele carriers than in 254 CC ...
Brown Morris J - - 2007
Renin maintains blood pressure through vasoconstriction when there is inadequate salt to maintain volume. In populations where blood pressure is more often high than low, and vascular death more common than haemorrhage or dehydration, therapeutic reductions in renin secretion or response are valuable. Whether long-term benefits are due entirely to ...
Heshmatian Behnam - - 2007
Central nucleus of the amygdala is involved in cardiovascular regulation. Although most components of the renin-angiotensin system have been found to be distributed in amygdala, renin expression in brain has remained controversial. This work was undertaken to elucidate the extent of renin presence in this nucleus. A cannula was implanted ...
Maas M H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Since the report that hypertension associated with Wilms tumor (WT) may be renin-induced, no larger series than 13 patients have been published. Nevertheless, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have become treatment of choice for hypertension in WT patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between ...
Sealey Jean E - - 2007
A review of six clinical trials of aliskiren involving >5,000 patients with mild to moderate hypertension indicated that this first of a new class of orally active antihypertensive drugs is no more effective than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (CEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or diuretics for lowering blood pressure. The starting ...
Lohmeier Thomas E - - 2007
Prolonged electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex produces sustained reductions in sympathetic activity and arterial pressure in normotensive dogs. The main goal of this study was to assess the influence of prolonged baroreflex activation on arterial pressure and neurohormonal responses in 6 dogs with obesity-induced hypertension. After control measurements, the ...
Dielis A W J H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In hypertensive patients, the activated renin-angiotensin system induces a prothrombotic state resulting from imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. Although blood pressure cannot be regulated in therapy-resistant hypertensive patients, they may still be responsive to medication that attenuates the renin-angiotensin system. OBJECTIVE: our objective was to study possible attenuating properties ...
Mitchell K D - - 2007
It is now well accepted that alterations in kidney function, due either to primary renal disease or to inappropriate hormonal influences on the kidney, are a cardinal characteristic in all forms of hypertension, and lead to a reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete sodium and the consequent development of ...
Wagner Charlotte - - 2007
Renin secretion and synthesis in renal juxtaglomerular cells are controlled by short feed back loops involving angiotensin II and the intrarenal blood pressure. The operating mechanisms of these negative feed back regulators are widely unknown, except for the fact that both require calcium to exert their inhibitory action. We here ...
Weber Michael A - - 2007
The previous dogma that the renin-angiotensin system exerts its effects entirely through angiotensin II is now under challenge as scientists explore the properties of the prorenin/renin receptor and start to study local vascular actions of renin independent of its production of angiotensin in the plasma. The demonstrated blood pressure effects ...
Crowley Steven D - - 2007
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. The components of the RAS including renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensin receptors are expressed throughout the body in tissues that may impact blood pressure control. Blocking actions of individual components of the RAS including renin, angiotensin-converting ...
Allikmets Kristina - - 2007
The importance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure has long ago been recognized. It has also been established that inhibition of RAAS, using inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), is an effective way to ...
Van de Wal R M A - - 2006
Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of cardiovascular prognosis. Reduction of UAE can be achieved by ...
Saez Anabelle O - - 2006
The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, acting via the effects of the hormone angiotensin (Ang) II. Ang II increases blood pressure and can exert growth-promoting effects leading to end-organ damage. Excess RAAS activity has been shown to be a major underlying ...
Rubinstein Israel - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine whether prolonged oral therapy with sitaxsentan, a potent selective ET(A) endothelin receptor antagonist, normalizes systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive hamsters, a new rodent model of high-renin genetic hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive hamsters received either oral sitaxsentan (15 mg ...
O'Brien Eoin - - 2006
In recent years, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been shown to be crucial not only in blood pressure haemostasis but also in the evolution of atherosclerosis, which ultimately determines morbidity and mortality. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and, recently, the angiotensin receptor blockers (with their low adverse-effect profile) have added a new ...
Fagard R H - - 2006
1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on ...
Cheng Huifang - - 2006
Angiotensin (Ang) II plays important roles in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal injury. Pharmaceutical approaches to block its activity led to the development of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Numerous trials have documented their efficacy in controlling blood pressure, minimising left ventricular remodelling, preventing progression ...
Azizi Michel - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Initial attempts to inhibit renin in humans have faced numerous difficulties. Molecular modeling and X-ray crystallography of the active site of renin have led to the development of new orally active renin inhibitors, such as aliskiren. Recent preclinical and clinical data suggest that this drug may be ...
Guo Deng-Fu - - 2006
Angiotensin II regulates blood pressure via activation of the type 1 receptor. We previously identified a novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein and demonstrated that it promotes receptor recycling to the plasma membrane. To delineate the pathophysiological function of the ARAP1 in the kidneys, we generated transgenic mice that ...
Grote Karsten - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation leads to increased production of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and both have been implicated in the initiation and progression of arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiac hypertrophy. The cytosolic subunit p47phox is critically involved in agonist-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Here, we investigated the role ...
Ferro A - - 2006
Despite improvements in its detection and treatment, hypertension remains a significant public health problem worldwide. In recent years, many international hypertension societies and organisations have set increasingly rigorous blood pressure (BP) targets, with the aim of reducing cardiovascular complications, and this has in turn necessitated the use of more antihypertensive ...
Le Thu H - - 2006
The aspartyl protease renin was first isolated from the kidney by Tigerstedt more than a century ago. In the kidney, renin secretion is tightly linked to sodium intake and renal perfusion pressure, reflecting the important role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in controlling body fluid volume and blood pressure. The ...
Campese V M - - 2006
The association between hypertension and chronic renal disease is well known. The pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex and multifactorial, which may explain why it is resistant to treatment. The traditional paradigm is that hypertension in CKD is due either to an excess of ...
Henriksen Jens H JH Department of Clinical Physiology, 239 Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. - - 2006
Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin), and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nitric oxide, and ...
Weir Matthew R - - 2006
Much debate surrounds the question of the optimal therapeutic choices for medication to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular events. Experimental evidence suggests that drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system retard vascular disease through their direct ability to antagonize the effects of angiotensin II, which has vasoconstrictive, vascular proliferative, and ...
Hadley G P - - 2006
Hypertension is a frequent problem in children with renal tumour, yet there are few reports from centres in the third world. A retrospective study of blood pressure in a cohort of 46 patients with renal tumours seen over a 3-year period was carried out. Fifty percent of patients presenting with ...
Huisman H W - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally high testosterone levels have been thought to have a detrimental effect on lipid profiles. Recently, reports have shown that testosterone has a beneficial effect on lipid profiles. On the other hand, androgens may increase blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin system. The aim of this study was to determine ...
Suzaki Yuki - - 2006
It is well recognized that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the regulation of arterial pressure and sodium homeostasis. Recent years, many studies have shown that local tissue angiotensin II levels are differentially regulated and cannot be explained on the basis of circulating concentrations. All of the components ...
Dielis Arne W J H - - 2005
Despite increased pulsatile stress, thrombotic rather than hemorrhagic events represent a major complication of hypertension. The pathophysiology of thrombosis in hypertension involves the interaction among vascular endothelium and particularly the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems. Because hypertension is often associated with some degree of inflammation, the combination of chronic inflammation and ...
Schweda Frank - - 2005
Renal perfusion pressure (RPP) regulates renin release with a reduction of RPP stimulating and an elevation inhibiting renin secretion. The precise sensing and effector mechanisms by which changes in arterial pressure are linked to the exocytosis of renin are not well-defined. The present experiments were designed to study the potential ...
Fernández Javier - - 2005
The administration of albumin improves circulatory function, prevents hepatorenal syndrome, and reduces hospital mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This randomized unblinded pilot study compared the effect of albumin (10 patients) and the synthetic plasma expander hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (10 patients) on the systemic hemodynamics of patients ...
Weinberger Myron H MH Hypertension Research Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5111, USA. - - 2005
Sodium retention and volume expansion, mediated in part by aldosterone, are prominent features in low-renin hypertension. Agents that block aldosterone at its receptor sites, therefore, should have significant clinical benefit in patients with low-renin hypertension. This 16-week, multicenter, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group, titration-to-effect trial compared the blood pressure and neurohumoral responses ...
Wang Xiuqing - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Renin has been linked to the pathogenesis of some forms of hypertension, including cold-induced hypertension (CIH). Although several antihypertensive drugs that inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1)) receptors are available, they are short-lasting and have side effects. Inhibition of renin [the first and ...
Henriksen J H - - 2005
This review looks at the alterations in the systemic haemodynamics of patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of renal origin. Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation ...
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