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Dalla Vestra M - - 2009
The importance of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in cardiovascular and renal diseases has long ago been recognized. However despite the availability of many effective drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, RAAS blockade is incomplete in several patients with consequent uncontrolled high blood pressure and not ...
Harrison-Bernard Lisa M - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of sodium balance, extracellular fluid volume, vascular resistance, and, ultimately, arterial blood pressure. In the kidney, angiotensin II exerts its effects to conserve salt and water through a combination of the hemodynamic control of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and ...
Stanton Alice V - - 2010
Angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and diuretics all cause reactive rises in plasma renin concentration, but particularly high levels have been reported with aliskiren. This prompted speculation that blockade of plasma renin activity with aliskiren could be overwhelmed, leading to paradoxical increases in blood pressure. This meta-analysis of data ...
Kehoe Patrick G - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of blood pressure. Observational and experimental studies suggest that alterations in blood pressure and components of the brain RAS contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in changes that can lead or contribute to cognitive decline. The complexity ...
Ram C Venkata S - - 2009
Despite the last three decades of progress in improving cardiovascular outcomes via renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade in hypertensive patients, substantial residual morbidity/mortality remains. Attempts to improve clinical outcomes by combining angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have yielded mixed results. Adverse effects of RAAS blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ...
Schrier Robert W - - 2009
The relationship between renal volume and hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) occurs in childhood. Hypertension is associated not only with increased kidney volume but also with significantly increased left ventricular mass index. Moreover, this increase in left ventricular mass index occurs in children who have ADPKD with ...
Dwivedi Girish - - 2009
In the UK and other developed nations, hypertension and its vascular complications are more common in ethnically African and South-Asian communities compared with Europeans. While these conditions are less common in rural India and Africa, they present a rising problem in expanding cities in all developing countries. Hypertension is, therefore, ...
Kher Vijay - - 2009
The importance of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) in blood pressure and electrolyte regulation has been well established. High RAS activity results in over-activation of the angiotensin AT1-receptor by its substrate, angiotensin II (AII), leading to increases in BP and direct growth-promoting effects on tissues that result in end-organ damage. ...
Kennelly Sean P - - 2009
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are important causes of cognitive decline in the elderly. As a result of an ageing population worldwide, the incidence of dementia is expected to rise exponentially over the coming decades. Vascular risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of both AD and VaD. ...
Stanton Alice V - - 2009
Hypertensive patients with low-baseline plasma renin activity (PRA) are known to respond best to natriuretic drugs, and those with high PRA respond best to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. However, there has been recent speculation that blood pressure (BP)-lowering responses to the renin inhibitor, aliskiren, might also be blunted in some ...
Tice Colin M - - 2009
Structure-based drug design led to the identification of a novel class of potent, low MW alkylamine renin inhibitors. Oral administration of lead compound 21l, with MW of 508 and IC(50) of 0.47nM, caused a sustained reduction in mean arterial blood pressure in a double transgenic rat model of hypertension.
Mercure Chantal - - 2009
Elevated levels of circulating prorenin, the precursor of renin, have been reported to precede the appearance of microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Although several studies using animal models have attempted to address the link between elevated prorenin and the tissue remodeling and damage associated with both hypertension and diabetes mellitus, ...
Prieto-Carrasquero Minolfa C MC Department of Physiology and Tulane Renal Hypertension Center, Tulane University, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, - - 2009
Recently, the focus of interest on the role of the renin angiotensin system in the pathophysiology of hypertension has shifted towards greater emphasis on new developments in local renin angiotensin systems in specific tissues. We have focused our recent investigations on the role of the intrarenal-intratubular RAS in hypertension. All ...
Schweda F - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in the regulation of the salt and volume status of the body and blood pressure. The activity of the RAS is controlled by the protease renin, which is released from the renal juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells into the circulation. Renin release is regulated in ...
Messerli Franz H - - 2009
Physicians have embraced the concept of dual renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade hoping that it would translate into better blood pressure control as well as incremental nephroprotective and cardioprotective effects. With regard to blood pressure, a small additional fall with dual RAS blockade was observed when compared with that seen in ...
Prisantmd L Michael - - 2009
Pharmacologic blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) has antihypertensive, anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been demonstrated to prevent atrial fibrillation and new-onset diabetes, and provide cardiac, cerebral, and renal protection. Combination therapy with ACEIs and ARBs, compared with ...
Jankowski P - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is a key component in the modern management of cardiovascular diseases. Agents that interfere with the different components of this system such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, sartans and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists represent valuable therapeutic tools to reduce cardiovascular risk in brachial blood pressure independent mechanisms. ...
Pimenta Eduardo - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important mediator of blood pressure (BP) and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons and is a major contributor to hypertension-related target organ damage. The concept of renin inhibition for managing hypertension by blocking the RAAS pathway at its point of activation is ...
Kobori Hiroyuki H Department of Medicine, Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA 70112-2699, USA. - - 2009
We reported previously that urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) levels provide a specific index of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) status in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive rats. To study this system in humans, we recently developed a human angiotensinogen ELISA. To test the hypothesis that UAGT is increased in hypertensive patients, we recruited ...
Usalan Celalettin - - 2008
AIM: Genetic influences on the acute stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and on endothelial activation were studied by examining healthy blood donors with and without hypertensive parents. METHODS: Healthy blood donors were assigned to two groups, according to the presence or absence of a parental history of hypertension. Plasma ...
Ishiguro Kimiko - - 2009
One ultimate goal of hypertension therapy is to cause permanent reversal ("regression") of already established hypertension. Our aim was to examine whether high-dose "pulse" treatment with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor could cause regression of established hypertension and to link this action to reversal of arteriolar hypertrophy and changes in vascular ...
Khakoo Aarif Y - - 2008
Several lines of evidence suggest that hypertension and angiogenesis may be related phenomena but a functional link remains elusive. Here, we propose that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), in addition to its central role in arterial hypertension, also regulates blood vessel formation during normal development and cancer. This mechanistic hypothesis is ...
Pimenta Eduardo - - 2008
Aliskiren, the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) was recently approved for the treatment of hypertension. In this review, we discuss the history of the development of DRIs and available data regarding the effects of DRIs in the treatment of hypertension and related target ...
Bie P - - 2009
Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP, and under experimental conditions, ...
- - 2008
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease worldwide. Drug treatments include those that target the renin-angiotensin system, a key hormone cascade in the regulation of blood pressure. One of these is aliskiren (Rasilez - Novartis), which belongs to a new class of drugs, direct renin inhibitors. ...
Sealey Jean E - - 2009
Suppressed baseline plasma renin activity (PRA) levels or large reactive increases in renin secretion are two possible reasons for treatment failure with antirenin system drugs. To investigate their prevalence we reanalyzed data from three published clinical trials of the renin inhibitor aliskiren. Aliskiren failed to lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) ...
Marcheselli Simona - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major regulatory system of cardiovascular and renal function. Many new aspects of this system have been revealed in recent years, leading to new therapeutic approaches. It's well known that RAS blocking agents have potent antiatherosclerotic effects, which are mediated by their antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, ...
Siragy Helmy - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Direct renin inhibitors such as aliskiren offer a novel way of treating hypertension and its co-morbidities, conditions with a considerable prevalence, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The burden of hypertension worldwide and the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in this disease will be reviewed. Current treatments for hypertension and ...
Gaddam Krishna K - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren has recently been approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. The potential for these newer agents having an advantage over the existing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) antagonists in the treatment of hypertension and related target organ damage has drawn the interest of ...
Mackenzie Isla S IS Hypertension Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, Level 7, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK. - - 2009
Interactions between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and other mechanisms determining sodium balance are important in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Low-renin hypertension is a common type of resistant hypertension and is often associated with increased sodium retention. The importance of investigation, factors determining renin and aldosterone levels, and drug therapies in low-renin ...
Isbil-Buyukcoskun Naciye - - 2008
Central administration of choline increases blood pressure in normotensive and hypotensive states by increasing plasma concentrations of vasopressin and catecholamines. We hypothesized that choline could also modulate the renin-angiotensin pathway, the third main pressor system in the body. Plasma renin activity (PRA), which serves as an index of the function ...
Sultana Afroza - - 2008
Renin is the rate limiting enzyme in the renin-angiotensin (RA) system that regulates blood pressure and electrolyte balance. In this study, we investigated the renin inhibitory effect of a royal jelly (RJ)-derived peptide. A dipeptide YY was isolated from the digested fraction of RJ proteins by proteases and was found ...
McMurray John J V - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Loss of negative feedback inhibition of renin release during chronic treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor leads to a compensatory rise in renin secretion and downstream components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) cascade. This may overcome ACE inhibition but should be blocked by a direct renin inhibitor. We studied ...
Müller Dominik N - - 2008
Hypertension is one of the major health care problems worldwide since it markedly increases the risk for development of heart disease, stroke, generalized vascular disease, and renal failure. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with its major end-product angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a fundamental role in blood pressure regulation through direct ...
Westermann Dirk - - 2008
The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system is one of the most commonly utilized ways to lower blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. Up till now, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as well as angiotensin receptor blockers are the established inhibitors of this system, and both classes are used in clinical routine. ...
Nussberger Jürg - - 2008
Hypertension is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Antihypertensive treatment, particularly blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, contributes to prevent atherosclerosis-mediated cardiovascular events. Direct comparison of different antihypertensive treatments on atherosclerosis and particularly plaque stabilization is sparse. ApoE(-/-) mice with vulnerable (2-kidney, 1-clip renovascular hypertension model) or stable (1-kidney, 1-clip ...
Zhou Chunlei - - 2008
To determine whether the cardiovascular effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D is dependent on calcium and/or phosphorus, mice with targeted deletion of the 25(OH)D 1alpha-hydroxylase and their wild-type littermates were fed a normal diet or a diet to rescue the ambient serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Mice on the normal diet were treated ...
Morgan Trefor - - 2008
1. Blood pressure varies throughout the day and night and is maintained at different times by different control systems. 2. During the awake interval, the sympathetic nervous system is preeminent but during sleep the renin angiotensin system is the controller. 3. Sleep blood pressure is a more powerful predictor of ...
Shafiq Moiz M MM Hypertension Division, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8586, - - 2008
The first oral direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, recently received approval for the treatment of hypertension. This article addresses the premise, promise, and potential limitations of this new class of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor. Although aliskiren adds to a list of more than 100 drugs approved for the treatment of hypertension, its ...
Azizi Michel - - 2008
Initial attempts to inhibit renin in humans have faced numerous difficulties. Molecular modeling and X-ray crystallography of the active site of renin have led to the development of new orally active renin inhibitors such as aliskiren. Aliskiren has a low bioavailability (2.6% to 5%) compensated by its high potency to ...
Bodineau Laurence - - 2008
Overactivity of the brain renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the development and maintenance of hypertension. We reported previously that angiotensin II is converted to angiotensin III by aminopeptidase A in the mouse brain. We then used specific and selective aminopeptidase A inhibitors to show that angiotensin III is one ...
Loriga Giacomina - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AII) is the well-known determinant of kidney damage increasing intraglomerular pressure, matrix expansion and fibroblast proliferation. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition, limiting the hemodynamic effects of AII, reduces proteinuria and is renoprotective in the long term. METHODS: We studied 15 chronic proteinuric patients by Doppler ultrasonography to clarify ...
Lakhan Se - - 2008
An 89-year-old white male presented with memory impairment, slowness in responsiveness, and frequent falls over a two-year duration. Six months earlier, the patient was believed to have had a "dementia with parkinsonian features," but showed no response to incrementing doses of both donepezil and carbidopa-levodopa. Urinary urgency was believed to ...
Siamopoulos Kostas C - - 2008
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major worldwide public-health problem which affects about 10% of the population, has an increased annual incidence rate of about 5-8%. This increased incidence is mainly due to type 2 diabetes and hypertension and the increasing incidence of elderly patients with CKD. Although the progression to ...
Sureshkumar Kalathil K - - 2008
Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. The incidence of hypertension is increasing globally and the rate of blood pressure control remains inadequate. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in volume regulation and maintenance of blood pressure. Pathological activation of RAAS results ...
Musini Vijaya M - - 2008
Hypertension is a chronic condition associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is an important target site for five antihypertensive drug classes: beta blockers, renin inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and aldosterone inhibitors. Renin is the enzyme responsible for converting angiotensinogen to angiotensin ...
Minami Junichi J Department of Hypertension and Cardiorenal Medicine, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan. - - 2008
Although the therapeutic response to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is assumed impaired in patients with low-renin hypertension, data are scarce about the association between levels of plasma renin activity (PRA) before treatment and response of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) to ARBs in essential hypertension. We prospectively studied 11 untreated ...
Choudhary Rashmi - - 2008
This study was designed to determine the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) on the development of cardiac remodeling in a pressure overload rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation and the aortic constriction procedure. A subgroup of sham control and aortic constricted rats were treated with ...
Mizutani Shigehiko - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of normal blood pressure and the etiology of hypertension; however, minimal attention has been paid to the degradation of the effector peptide, angiotensin II (AngII). Since aminopeptidase A (APA)-deficient mice develop hypertension APA appears to be an essential enzyme ...
Raizada Veena - - 2007
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal system that controls body fluid volume, blood pressure, and cardiovascular function in both health and disease. Various tissues, including the heart and kidneys, possess individual locally regulated RASs. In each RAS, the substrate protein angiotensinogen is cleaved by the peptidases renin and angiotensin-converting ...
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