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Moerer Onnen - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method of monitoring patients during mechanical ventilation because it can provide a noninvasive continuous image of pulmonary impedance, which indicates the distribution of ventilation. This article will discuss ongoing research on EIT, with a focus on methodological aspects and limitations ...
Park Sang-Heon - - 2011
Arterial hypoxaemia remains a problem during one-lung ventilation (OLV). We determined whether a preemptive alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) before OLV improves arterial oxygenation during OLV in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Forty-two patients were allocated randomly to receive either a tidal volume of 10 ml kg(-1) (group C) or ARS of ...
Rocha Crispino Santos M A - - 2011
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there ...
Dellacà Raffaele L - - 2011
PURPOSE: We evaluated whether oscillatory compliance (C(X5)) measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT) at 5 Hz may be useful for positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) optimisation. METHODS: We studied seven pigs in which lung injury was induced by broncho-alveolar lavage. The animals were ventilated in volume control mode with a tidal volume ...
De Keyser Robin - - 2011
The paper discusses the application of a direct adaptive controller to a pressure controlled artificial ventilation problem. In pressure controlled ventilators, the manipulated variable is the maximum flow applied to the patient during the active phase (inspiration), and the regulated variable is the peak pressure at end-inspiration. This simulation case ...
Ruth Graham M - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: Biologically variable ventilation improves lung function in acute respiratory distress models. If enhanced recruitment is responsible for these results, then biologically variable ventilation might promote distribution of exogenous surfactant to nonaerated areas. Our objectives were to confirm model predictions of enhanced recruitment with biologically variable ventilation using computed tomography ...
Zoccal Daniel B - - 2011
Enhanced sympathetic outflow to the heart and resistance vessels greatly contributes to the onset and maintenance of neurogenic hypertension. There is a consensus that the development of hypertension (clinical and experimental) is associated with an impairment of sympathetic reflex control by arterial baroreceptors. More recently, chronic peripheral chemoreflex activation, as ...
Porra Liisa - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: To assess the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on regional ventilation distribution in normal lung and after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. DESIGN:: Experimental study. SETTING:: International research laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Six healthy New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5 ± 0.1 kg. INTERVENTIONS:: Rabbits were anesthetized, tracheostomized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Synchrotron radiation computed ...
Rozé Hadrien - - 2011
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of daily titration of the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) level in relation to the maximal diaphragmatic electrical activity (EAdi(maxSBT)) measured during a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) during pressure support ventilation (PSV). METHODS: The study included 15 consecutive patients in whom mechanical ventilation weaning was ...
Cuvas O - - 2011
Background: This study evaluates the influence of sniffing position combined with mouth opening on the effectiveness of facemask ventilation in paralyzed pediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy during sevoflurane-N(2) O anesthesia. Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 40 children 5-11 years of age who were scheduled for an elective adenotonsillectomy operation were ...
Mariani Gonzalo Luis - - 2011
We tested the hypothesis that an open lung strategy with recruitment maneuvers will improve oxygenation and decrease lung injury in comparison with a permissive hypercapnia strategy in preterm lambs. Preterm lambs born by operative delivery at 131 ± 1 days of gestational age (term = 150 days) were randomized to ...
Mausser Gerlinde - - 2011
Background:  Supraglottic high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in laryngotracheal surgery in infants with modified jet laryngoscopes offers the surgeon an unimpaired operating field. However, supraglottic HFJV is associated with the development of high airway pressures, inadvertent positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels, and barotrauma. Methods:  We investigated the total lung volumes (TLV) ...
Volyanskyy Konstantin Y - - 2011
In this paper, we develop a neuroadaptive control architecture to control lung volume and minute ventilation with input pressure constraints that also accounts for spontaneous breathing by the patient. Specifically, we develop a pressure\mbox{-} and work-limited neuroadaptive controller for mechanical ventilation based on a nonlinear multicompartmental lung model. The control ...
Inoue Satoki - - 2011
We report an adolescent developing ventilation failure due to supraglottic air leakage with the use of an uncuffed hand-made tracheal tube fit to her tracheobronchial deformity. To eliminate the supraglottic air leakage, a size 2.5 laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted into the oral pharynx. Most of air leakage arose ...
Michalek-Sauberer Andrea - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: Guidelines for the management of a difficult airway recommend performing a cricothyrotomy in a "can't intubate/can't ventilate" situation. We investigated the tidal volumes delivered by controlled and spontaneous ventilation by seven commercially available cricothyrotomy sets (cuffed: Quicktrach II, Portex Cricothyroidotomy Kit, and Melker cuffed cannula and uncuffed: Airfree, 4.0-mm ...
Michils Alain - - 2011
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and methacholine are commonly used to assess airway hyperreactivity. However, it is not fully known whether the site of airway constriction primarily involved during challenges with either agent is similar. Using a ventilation distribution test, we investigated whether the constriction induced by each agent involves the lung ...
Aliverti A - - 2011
Background: Anaesthesia based on inhalational agents has profound effects on chest wall configuration and breathing pattern. The effects of propofol are less well characterised. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of propofol anaesthesia on chest wall motion during spontaneous breathing and positive pressure ventilation. Methods: ...
Dongelmans Dave A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: With adaptive support ventilation, respiratory rate and tidal volume (VT) are a function of the Otis least work of breathing formula. We hypothesized that adaptive support ventilation in an open lung ventilator strategy would deliver higher VTs to patients with acute lung injury. METHODS:: Patients with acute lung injury ...
Mentzelopoulos Spyros D - - 2011
PURPOSE: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), combined high frequency oscillation (HFO) and tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) improves oxygenation versus standard HFO, likely through TGI-induced lung recruitment. Experimental data suggest that steady flows such as TGI favor the filling of the lower (i.e., subcarinal) lung. We used whole-lung computerized tomography ...
Choi Eun Mi - - 2011
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) on respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in steep Trendelenburg position. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 34 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing RLRP. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly allocated to either the ...
Ventre Kathleen M - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: To review articles relevant to the field of pediatric respiratory disease that were published after the 2008 Rogers' Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care. DATA SOURCES:: The authors searched the PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) from the National Library of Medicine for citations from the pediatric and adult literature relevant to pediatric ...
Sharma Mala - - 2011
Systemic hypertension has been well documented as a major risk factor for premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reduction of high blood pressure (BP) by nonpharmacological means is widely recommended, either as a primary prevention therapy or as an adjunctive treatment with antihypertensive drugs. RESPeRATE is a commercially available electronic device ...
Sandberg C - - 2011
The changes in respiratory physiology that occur with increasing altitude are driven by the fall in the partial pressure of oxygen that occurs with decreasing barometric pressure. At altitude, respiratory system changes occur which impact on each step of the oxygen cascade that occurs within the body. These changes are ...
Crescimanno Grazia - - 2011
SUMMARY AT A GLANCE: Volume-guaranteed pressure support (PSV-VTG) theoretically guarantees minute ventilation more effectively than older modes of non-invasive ventilation. The clinical effects of PSV-VTG were evaluated in patients with neuromuscular disease and chronic hypoventilation. PSV-VTG did not out-perform older ventilatory modes in terms of efficacy of gas exchange or ...
Hanna Kenny - - 2011
Donor management with airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) improves oxygenation and increases lung donation while maintaining equivalent graft survival. Retrospective case series. Private, tertiary care, level I trauma center. Forty-five consecutive organ donors. Management with assist/control ventilation (ACV) or APRV. Demographic characteristics, medical history, mode of brain death, and partial ...
El Tahan Mohamed R - - 2011
The application of volume controlled high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) to the non-dependent lung (NL) may have comparable effects to continuous positive-airway pressure (CPAP) on the surgical conditions during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). After local Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, we randomly allocated 30 patients scheduled ...
Waheed Zeeshan - - 2011
An important cause of pulmonary oedema is Negative Pressure Pulmonary Oedema (NPPE) which characteristically develops soon after extubation from an endo-tracheal intubation. In this case report we identified a case of previously healthy man who was intubated for General Anaesthesia for extraction of impacted molar tooth. Soon after extubation he ...
Jeon Woo Jae - - 2011
Several publications have reported the successful, safe use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)-Classic devices in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. However, there have been no studies that have examined the application of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) or pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a LMA during gynecological laparoscopy. The aim of this study is ...
Chapman David G - - 2011
The mechanisms by which deep inspiration (DI) avoidance increases airway responsiveness in healthy subjects are not known. DI avoidance does not alter respiratory mechanics directly; however, computational modeling has predicted that DI avoidance would increase baseline ventilation heterogeneity. The aim was to determine if DI avoidance increased baseline ventilation heterogeneity ...
Tusman G - - 2011
Background: Changes in the shape of the capnogram may reflect changes in lung physiology. We studied the effect of different ventilation/perfusion ratios (V/Q) induced by positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) and lung recruitment on phase III slope (S(III) ) of volumetric capnograms. Methods: Seven lung-lavaged pigs received volume control ventilation at ...
Marchese Andrew D - - 2011
Intensive-care mechanical ventilators regularly enter the market, but the gas-delivery capabilities of many have never been assessed. We evaluated 6 intensive-care ventilators in the pressure support (PS), pressure assist/control (PA/C), and volume assist/control (VA/C) modes, with lung-model mechanics combinations of compliance and resistance of 60 mL/cm H(2)O and 10 cm ...
Owen L S - - 2011
Background Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) may be beneficial but the mechanisms of action are undetermined. Aim To investigate the effects of non-synchronised NIPPV on spontaneous breathing in premature infants. Methods 10 infants receiving ventilator generated non-synchronised NIPPV were studied for 30 min. Delivered pressure was measured at the ...
Schumann Stefan - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: For mechanical ventilation to be lung-protective, an accepted suggestion is to place the tidal volume (VT) between the lower and upper inflection point of the airway pressure-volume relation. The drawback of this approach is, however, that the pressure-volume relation is assessed under quasistatic, no-flow conditions, which the lungs never ...
Adelborg Kasper - - 2011
The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial determinant of outcome following cardiac arrest. Interruptions in chest compressions are detrimental. We aimed to compare the effect of mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV), mouth-to-pocket mask ventilation (MPV) and bag-valve-mask ventilation (BMV) on the quality of CPR. Surf lifeguards in active service were ...
Natalini Giuseppe - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Properly titrated opiates decrease respiratory rate, neither affecting tidal volume nor inducing respiratory acidosis. We tested the hypothesis that remifentanil could improve breathing pattern and reduce inspiratory effort in patients with acute respiratory failure associated to tachypnea or rapid shallow breathing. METHODS: We enrolled fourteen patients who showed tachypnea ...
L'her Erwan - - 2011
BACKGROUND: It has been pointed out that in the wake of a virulent flu strain, patients with survivable illness will die from lack of resources unless more ventilators are available. The aim of this study was to provide clinicians an objective comparison of simple, lightweight, and handy ventilators that could ...
Convertino Victor A - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review the physiology and clinical benefit derived from inspiration through a low level of added resistance for the treatment of hypotension. BACKGROUND: Recent animal and clinical studies demonstrate that one of the body's natural response mechanisms to hypotension is to harness the ...
Sehlin Maria - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The Boussignac CPAP has been found to effectively treat acute pulmonary oedema. However, data on airway pressure in association with the Boussignac CPAP are sparse. We therefore designed this study to evaluate the stability of the Boussignac CPAP in terms of maintaining adequate inspiratory and expiratory pressure levels. We ...
Stewart Julian M JM Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, USA. - - 2011
Increasing arterial blood pressure (AP) decreases ventilation, whereas decreasing AP increases ventilation in experimental animals. To determine whether a "ventilatory baroreflex" exists in humans, we studied 12 healthy subjects aged 18-26 yr. Subjects underwent baroreflex unloading and reloading using intravenous bolus sodium nitroprusside (SNP) followed by phenylephrine ("Oxford maneuver") during ...
Custer Jason W - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: Modern health care systems may be inadequately prepared for mass casualty respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Current health policy has focused on the "stockpiling" of emergency ventilators, though little is known about the performance of these ventilators under conditions of respiratory failure in adults and children. In this study, ...
Haubrich Christina - - 2011
Background: An autoregulation-oriented strategy has been proposed to guide neurocritical therapy towards an optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPOPT). The influence of ventilation changes is however unclear. We sought to find out whether short-term moderate hypocapnia (HC) shifts the CPPOPT or affects its detection. Methods: Thirty head injured patients requiring sedation ...
Shibata Shigeki - - 2011
Sedentary aging leads to increased cardiovascular stiffening, which can be ameliorated by sufficient amounts of lifelong exercise training. An even more extreme form of cardiovascular stiffening can be seen in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which comprises ~40~50% of elderly patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure. There are ...
Zacharias Dimitriadis - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle strength is an important part of lung function. The assessment of the ability of respiratory muscles to generate force is important for recognizing respiratory muscle weakness not only in pathological populations, but also in healthy people. The main purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest ...
Grippo Antonello - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) elicited by transmural pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) subjects have reported conflicting data. Different features of pressure stimuli and/or in the timing of stimuli application seem to account for these contradictory results. The negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique, highly reproducible in terms of rise ...
Tang Fang - - 2011
To compare the effectiveness of various ventilation modes during suspension laryngoscopy and to investigate risk factors associated with CO(2) retention in high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV). Part I: Randomized controlled study; Part II: Outcomes research. In Part I, saturation of peripheral oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2) )(,) and pH ...
Kumar Mala - - 2011
To evaluate the role of Unsynchronized Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) in prevention of extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates weighing less than 2,000 g. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Preterm neonates weighing less than ...
Polglase Graeme R - - 2011
Early postnatal events may play a critical role in the development of cardio-respiratory diseases of prematurity. While the exact mechanism is unknown, capillary leakage resulting in increased interstitial fluid volume has been postulated to play a critical role. We investigated the effects of capillary leakage, induced by a volume load, ...
Lowhagen K - - 2011
In acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), recruitment manoeuvres (RMs) are used frequently. In pigs with induced ALI, superior effects have been found using a slow moderate-pressure recruitment manoeuvre (SLRM) compared with a vital capacity recruitment manoeuvre (VICM). We hypothesized that the positive recruitment effects of SLRM could ...
Ludwig Corinna - - 2011
Intermittent positive-pressure breathing is thought to avoid atelectasis and improve pulmonary function after major lung resections. Since no clear scientific data was available to confirm this, our objective was to determine whether atelectasis can be avoided and if postoperative lung function is improved. Prospective analysis was carried out in 135 ...
Pelosi Paolo - - 2011
This article discusses the methods available to evaluate chest wall mechanics and the relationship between intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and chest wall mechanics during general anaesthesia in normal and obese individuals, as well as in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. The interactions between the abdominal and thoracic compartments pose a ...
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