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Results 401 - 450 of 941
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Parker J C - - 1993
We compared pulmonary capillary filtration coefficients (Kf,c) using measurements of transcapillary filtration rates based on laser densitometry of perfusate hematocrit changes (Jy,l) and gravimetric measurement of the rate of lobe weight gain (delta Wt/delta t) after an increase in capillary pressure (Pc) in isolated autologous blood-perfused dog lungs. Although the ...
Legallais C - - 1993
A new process using pressure and flow pulsations was investigated in the second stage of cascade filtration for ApoB removal. Due to enhanced filtration by the pulsations, the retentate flow vanished naturally without clamping the line, which reduced albumin and ApoA1 losses. The performance of Eval 4A and cellulose PF100 ...
Deng A - - 1993
During systemic acute blockade of endogenous endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) with N-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA), a significant rise in arterial blood pressure (BP) occurred in the anesthetized rat. Renal vasoconstriction was also seen, with complex changes in glomerular hemodynamics; both preglomerular (RA) and efferent arteriolar (RE) resistances increased, producing a fall in ...
Fox M - - 1993
We describe a preparation for measuring blood pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart rate, and renal excretory variables (volume, electrolytes, glomerular filtration rate) in hamsters. The new approach offers an advantage over previously described methods by eliminating the problems associated with restraint. Hamsters were surgically implanted with venous and ...
Kasiske B L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative effect of different antihypertensive agents on proteinuria and renal function in patients with diabetes. DATA SOURCES: We used MEDLINE and bibliographies in recent articles to identify studies of the effects of antihypertensive agents on renal function in patients with diabetes. STUDY SELECTION: We selected 100 ...
Hansen K W - - 1993
The renal effects of intravenous injection of 10 mg enalapril were investigated in 16 normotensive microalbuminuric type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. After enalapril the following changes were observed: fractional albumin clearance (theta Alb) decreased from 9.9 (3.0-23.8) to 8.2 (2.0-18.3) x 10(-6) (2 P < 0.01); filtration fraction (FF) decreased ...
Frei U - - 1992
Glomerular hemodynamics of the clipped kidney in two kidney-one clip Goldblatt-hypertensive rats were studied by micropuncture techniques after administration of either captopril (20 mg/kg of b.wt./day p.o.) or diltiazem (3 mg/kg of b.wt./hr i.v.). Both drugs decreased mean arterial and poststenotic renal arterial pressure to comparable levels. Total kidney glomerular ...
Batra S - - 1992
Microvascular geometry was evaluated in rat left ventricular midmyocardium (male Sprague-Dawley, n = 14), arrested in systole (S) or diastole (D), by bolus injections of CaCl2 or KCl, respectively. The histological method employed in this study allowed for the visualization of capillary pathways from arteriole to venule. Capillary length, as ...
Katz M A - - 1992
The basement membrane contributes to resistance to ultrafiltration of the capillary wall, but efforts to conduct studies of this material have been hindered by difficulty in obtaining homogenous sources and by compression from high filtration pressures. We utilized Matrigel in a conductivity chamber and showed that it reproducibly yielded a ...
Fleming S J - - 1992
We examined the effect of acutely lowering the colloid osmotic pressure by removing plasma (36.2 +/- 3.1 ml/kg) and replacing it with Hartmann's solution (93.0 +/- 8.2 ml/kg) in 6 conscious merino sheep. The colloid osmotic pressure was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) from 20.3 +/- 0.9 to 8.5 +/- ...
Belcaro G - - 1992
To evaluate capillary filtration a group of normal subjects and two groups of subjects with venous incompetence (50 with deep and 50 with superficial incompetence) were studied with the vacuum suction chamber (VSC) device applied onto the internal perimalleolar region. This method was compared with straingauge plethysmography rate of ankle ...
Karim F - - 1992
1. Dogs were anaesthetized with thiopentone sodium and alpha-chloralose and artificially ventilated. The carotid sinus regions were vascularly isolated and perfused with arterial or venous blood to stimulate the chemoreceptors. Left atrial receptors were stimulated by distending four balloons, three in the left pulmonary vein-atrial junctions and one in the ...
Pedersen M M - - 1992
1. In order to investigate the modulation of kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, intraindividual variation in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, urinary albumin excretion rate and mean arterial blood pressure was assessed in 22 normoalbuminuric patients [age 31 +/- 8 years, duration of diabetes 9 +/- 5 years, ...
Amato D - - 1992
To evaluate the contribution of systemic hypertension in the progression of nephropathies to glomerular sclerosis, a mild form of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis was associated with Goldblatt hypertension and studied after 18 weeks. We studied four groups: Group I, controls; Group II, Goldblatt hypertension; Group III, PAN nephrosis; and Group ...
Johnston P A - - 1992
Increases in the delivery of solute to the loop of Henle result in increased reabsorption, vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole, and a reduction in the glomerular filtration. Although the details of this tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism are not completely worked out, it appears certain that alterations in reabsorption by the ...
Schmitz P G - - 1992
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may ameliorate experimental glomerular injury by either hemodynamic or nonhemodynamic mechanisms. In a long-term study, we examined the effects of 30 wk of enalapril treatment on the development of glomerular disease in obese Zucker rats (OZR). Enalapril significantly (P less than 0.05) lowered blood pressure, fasting serum ...
Elliott A R - - 1992
We previously showed that when the pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to determine whether some of ...
Chamienia A L - - 1992
The renal actions of atriopeptin III were examined in anaesthetised rats at differing perfusion pressures before and following blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. At normal perfusion pressure 1000 ng kg-1 atriopeptin III caused reversible increases in glomerular filtration rate, of 20%, urine flow, absolute and fractional sodium excretions of 51-93%. ...
Loon N - - 1992
We used differential solute clearances and a theoretical analysis of glomerular ultrafiltration and dextran sieving to characterize the hemodynamic response of nine healthy humans to infusion of isoncotic, 5% albumin in saline or saline vehicle alone. During albumin infusion (10.2 +/- 0.2 ml.kg-1.30 min-1) plasma volume increased by 18%, but ...
Baumann J E - - 1992
In six chronically instrumented, conscious dogs the hypothesis was tested that the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is important for autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). RBF was measured by a Transonic flowmeter. Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled by an aortic cuff. EDRF synthesis ...
Thomson S C - - 1992
The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture. The physical determinants of SNGFR were assessed in adult male Munich Wistar rats 5-7 d after ipsilateral surgical renal denervation (DNX). DNX was performed to isolate inhibitory ...
Kamper A L - - 1992
In order to study the influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the progression of chronic nephropathy, 70 patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15 (range, 6 to 54) mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomized in an open study to basic treatment with enalapril or conventional antihypertensive treatment. ...
Takabatake T - - 1992
The effect of endothelin (ET)-1 infusion on renal hemodynamics and the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism was examined in rats. ET-1 reduced early proximal flow rate (EPFR) measured in the absence of distal flow from 28 +/- 1 to 23 +/- 1 nl/min at a subpressor dose (100 pmol.100 g body ...
Boberg U - - 1992
In previous studies on Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats, we found an impaired tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response before, during and after development of hypertension. In the present study MHS rats and rats of the Milan normotensive strain (MNS) were investigated after 24 hours of volume depletion (VD) and subsequently after 5% ...
Daniels B S - - 1992
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is an integral structural component of the glomerular filter, but its contribution to the hydraulic and macromolecular permeability properties of the glomerulus has been the subject of much controversy. We have modified previously reported methods to develop a technique with which to study filtration properties ...
Medeiros I A - - 1992
In the present work the influence of perfusion pressure on renal functions and renin release was studied before and after the blockade of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors using isolated kidneys from 7-week-old genetically hypertensive (LH), normotensive (LN), and low blood pressure (LL) rats of the Lyon strain. Kidneys were ...
Yip K P - - 1992
Proximal tubular pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and early distal tubule Cl- oscillate at 35 mHz in normotensive rats because of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF); the oscillation bifurcates to chaos in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To examine the importance of TGF-initiated vascular interactions between nephrons in these dynamics, we measured tubular pressure ...
Ronco C - - 1992
Ultrafiltration and pressure profiles in hollow fiber dialyzers with different hydraulic permeabilities have been investigated with a new scintigraphic method. Radiolabelled albumin macroaggregates, used as a nondiffusible marker molecule, were added to the blood in an in vitro circuit and circulated through cuprophan and polysulphon dialyzers. Since the marker molecule ...
Hyver S W - - 1992
We have developed an in vivo pressure monitoring system to study the phenomenon of reverse ultrafiltration of dialysate during high-flux and high-efficiency dialysis. Under the usual operating conditions of either type of dialysis, driving pressures existed for reverse ultrafiltration of dialysate into the venous end of the blood compartment. Whether ...
Vidal N A - - 1992
Our purpose was to study the influence of the stimulation of the cerebroventricular system on some mechanisms related to hydrosaline equilibrium and blood pressure regulation. Renal function and blood pressure (group 1) as well as the baroreceptor reflex (group 2) were studied. In group 1, we measured diuresis, natriuresis, creatinine ...
Bock H A - - 1992
Glomerular hyperfiltration, which is expected to occur after uninephrectomy, could potentially damage the non-transplanted donor kidney in living donor transplantation. We therefore prospectively measured renal function (inulin and PAH clearance), albumin excretion and blood pressure in the donors of 30 consecutive living donor kidney transplants before uninephrectomy (n = 29) ...
Murakami K - - 1992
The effect of manidipine, a new Ca2+ antagonist, on intrarenal hemodynamics was assessed in essential hypertension and compared with nicardipine, a previously studied Ca2+ antagonist. Identical 2-week studies were repeated before and during the administration of manidipine (10 mg once daily, 2 weeks) in 3 patients with essential hypertension who ...
Linné T - - 1992
Renal function was serially investigated during the development of hypertension in a 12.8-year-old girl with chronic glomerulonephritis. Clearances of inulin (CIn) and para-aminohippuric acid (CPAH), filtration fraction, and sodium excretion were measured during hydropenia and isotonic saline volume expansion. Blood pressure was initially labile, but after a few years fixed ...
Kimura G - - 1991
Split intrarenal hemodynamics in stenotic and contralateral kidneys of unilateral renovascular hypertension (RVH) were estimated by Gomez's formulae. Ten patients with RVH were studied. Split para-amino hippurate and inulin clearances were measured by ureteral catheterization as indexes for renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rates, allowing the estimation of intrarenal ...
Memoli B - - 1991
The aim of this study was the evaluation, in healthy subjects, of the renal functional reserve (RFR), that is, the GFR increase induced by a combined infusion of amino acids (AA) and dopamine (D), in conditions of extracellular volume depletion caused by diuretic administration. In particular, this study was undertaken: ...
Hackbarth H - - 1991
Rats with a high number of superficial nephrons (MWF/Ztm) also show an elevated urinary protein excretion and a high systolic blood pressure. To investigate a possible correlation between the number of superficial glomeruli and these physiological changes, MWF/Ztm rats were crossed and backcrossed to Wistar cryptorchic (WC/Ztm) animals with no ...
Holstein-Rathlou N H - - 1991
The tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism is of importance in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A second mechanism of potential importance is the change in proximal pressure caused by a change, for example, in the rate of proximal fluid reabsorption. The quantitative contributions of these two mechanisms to the ...
Larochelle P - - 1991
In patients with essential hypertension, glomerular filtration rate remains normal or elevated, whereas renal blood flow tends to be lower, which results in an increased filtration fraction. The afferent (preglomerular) arteriolar resistance determines the fraction of the pressure that is transmitted to the glomerular capillary network, whereas the efferent (postglomerular) ...
Denton K M - - 1991
The determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration in superficial glomeruli of a strain of English cross-breed rabbits have been studied using micropuncture techniques. Mean arterial blood pressure in the anaesthetised rabbits was 70 +/- 2 mmHg. The glomerular filtration rate in the kidney prepared for micropuncture was 4.4 +/- 0.4 ml/min, the ...
Hall J E - - 1991
One-kidney, one-clip hypertension (1-K, 1-C HT) is initiated by increased preglomerular resistance which decreases nephron perfusion and causes several intrarenal changes that lead to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP). Elevated MAP serves to return nephron perfusion and sodium excretion to normal, so that fluid intake and output are balanced. Increased ...
Drumond M C - - 1991
Previous mathematical models of glomerular filtration have ignored the pulsatility of the glomerular capillary pressure, using only steady-state equations and time-averaged pressures and flows. Because the actual pressure pulses are rapid and of large amplitude and because the governing equations are nonlinear, it is questionable whether the effects of the ...
Fitzpatrick M M - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long term outcome of renal function in infants and children after diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome. SETTING: The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, and the Royal Free Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: 103 children with the syndrome who presented between 1966 and 1985; 88 attended for ...
Kimura G - - 1991
Intrarenal hemodynamics were estimated clinically in essential hypertension. Two-week studies were performed in 30 patients with essential hypertension who were given a regular sodium diet in the first week and a sodium-restricted diet in the second week. Intrarenal hemodynamic parameters such as afferent arteriolar (preglomerular) resistance, efferent arteriolar resistance, and ...
Melis M S - - 1991
A study conducted on rats using classical clearance techniques and arterial pressure measurements showed that stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana leaves produced a fall in systemic blood pressure, as well as diuresis and natriuresis per milliliter of glomerular filtration rate. Verapamil tended to increase the renal and systemic effects of stevioside. ...
Pelayo J C - - 1991
In the present micropuncture study, the autoregulation of glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure (PG) in Munich-Wistar rats 24 h after 75% nephrectomy (Nx) or sham operation (Sh) was investigated. The effect of varying renal perfusion pressure (RPP) on paired determinations of directly measured PG was evaluated in glomeruli of nephrons in ...
Leyssac P P - - 1991
The dynamics of intrarenal pressures, early distal tubular fluid conductivity (EDC), and renal flood flow (RBF) were studied in rats given acetazolamide (ACZ), an inhibitor of proximal reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and end-proximal flow were estimated by clearances of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium. Proximal tubular pressure (Pprox) increased initially by ...
Kawata T - - 1991
Our results revealed that renal blood flow (RBF) increased during both isooncotic and hypooncotic plasma expansion by 4% of body weight (BW). Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) sensitivity assessed by the measurement of proximal stop-flow pressure at loop perfusion rates of 0 to 40 nl/min and RBF autoregulation were not substantially affected ...
Morsing P - - 1991
The tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism was studied in rats with chronic partial ureteral occlusion (hydronephrosis) with the use of the stop-flow pressure techniques and measurements of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. In hydropenic conditions, TGF was normal in hydronephrotic kidneys, but TGF sensitivity and activity increased in response to extracellular ...
Morsing P - - 1991
The role of bradykinin in resetting the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism was studied with the stop-flow technique in control and hydronephrotic Inactin-anesthetized rats. Glomerular function was assessed by measuring stop-flow pressure (Psf); the maximal decrease in stop-flow pressure (delta Psf) with increased loop of Henle perfusion and the perfusion that ...
Maspers M - - 1991
The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible humoral beta 2-adrenergic effect on the capillary pressure autoregulation capacity in cat skeletal muscle during bleeding. For this purpose capillary pressure autoregulation in response to graded decrease in arterial pressure was studied in sympathectomized muscle in the control state, and ...
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