Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 920
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Weinmann W - - 1994
Two capillary electrophoretic (CE) separation techniques with either simultaneous solvent flow induced by hydrostatic pressure or CE followed by low pressurization with helium were developed for the analysis of extremely hydrophobic proteins, such as the lung surfactant protein SP-C. For both related procedures, buffer solutions containing up to 70% of ...
Klahr S - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Restricting protein intake and controlling hypertension delay the progression of renal disease in animals. We tested these interventions in 840 patients with various chronic renal diseases. METHODS: In study 1, 585 patients with glomerular filtration rates of 25 to 55 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area ...
Oizumi K - - 1994
An animal model having both hypertension and reduced renal function was produced by intraperitoneal injection of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Using this model, two different dihydropyridine Ca blockers, CS-905 and nicardipine, were compared with regard to the relationship between hypotensive effects and changes in renal function ...
Sampson M J - - 1994
To examine the relationships between the normal dietary intakes of protein and phosphate, blood pressure, and the progression of diabetic nephropathy, we prospectively studied 20 Type 1 diabetic subjects of mean age 43 +/- 10 years (SD) with early nephropathy (mean serum creatinine 115 +/- 43 mumol l-1) over 1 ...
Caidahl K - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: With the advent of recombinant human GH (rhGH), it has become possible in controlled clinical studies to explore the effects of GH replacement in adults with GH deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine cardiovascular and renal effects of GH replacement in adults with GH deficiency. PATIENTS: ...
Denton K M - - 1994
1. The renal effects of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) formation using N-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA, 20 mg kg-1) were examined using micropuncture techniques in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Renal vascular resistance doubled from 2.7 +/- 0.5 to 5.0 +/- 1.1 mmHg ml-1 min-1 after NOLA (P < 0.01), with similar percentage increases in ...
Aukland K - - 1994
Every minute, the cortical peritubular capillaries in a 1-g rat kidney take up more than 0.5 ml tubular reabsorbate. Studies of renal lymph and measurements of pressure in capillaries (Pc) and interstitium (Pi) indicate that normally the protein colloid osmotic pressure of peritubular capillary plasma (COPp) provides the necessary absorptive ...
Johnsson E - - 1994
A modified rat kidney preparation was used to explore how changes in hydrostatic pressure affect the permselective properties of the glomerular capillary bed. The maximally vasodilated kidneys of 18 rats were perfused with albumin solutions (16.7 g l-1) at different flow rates and hence arterial pressures (PA). One kidney in ...
Johnsson E - - 1994
The renal hemodynamics were studied in an isolated perfused rat kidney model modified for investigations of the glomerular permeability characteristics. The tubular reabsorptive activity was inhibited by perfusion at low temperature (8 degrees C) in the presence of furosemide and nitroprusside resulting in a dramatic increase in the filtered load ...
Kriz W - - 1994
In a previous study of the changes in glomerular structure in the isolated perfused kidney (IPK), perfusion at high pressures lead to an enlargement of the glomerular tuft and to the formation of giant capillaries. The present paper analyzes the morphological and dimensional changes of the peripheral glomerular capillary wall ...
Guasch A - - 1994
Physiologic and morphologic techniques were used to elucidate the determinants of the GFR in 25 nephrotic patients with minimal change nephropathy. They were divided into two groups according to the finding of either a normal (Group 1, N = 13) or a depressed (Group 2, N = 12) inulin clearance. ...
Ronco C - - 1994
A new blood module for continuous renal replacement therapies has been utilized to perform CVVH in critically ill patients. The features of the new module named (HP300 and manufactured by Medica srl (Medolla, Modena) are the easy installation and transportability to the bedside, the simple and safe management and the ...
Wenzel U O - - 1994
We have recently shown that treatment with the calcium channel blocker nitrendipine may aggravate albuminuria and glomerular injury in rats with two-kidney, one clip renovascular hypertension if arterial blood pressure is not reduced. To test whether nitrendipine also exerts its adverse renal effects when normotension is achieved, we examined the ...
Day R O - - 1993
Nailfold capillaries in 28 patients with OA affecting the distal interphalangeal joints were compared to 23 age- and sex-matched controls without OA. Patients with OA showed a significantly lower density of capillaries in their nailfolds and significantly more capillary morphological abnormalities including haemorrhage, 'drop out', dilatation and irregularity. There was ...
Dillon J J - - 1993
Antihypertensive therapy reduces the rate at which glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines (delta GFR) in diabetic nephropathy; however, the optimal blood pressure is unknown. The quantitative relationship between treated blood pressure and delta GFR was analyzed retrospectively in 59 patients with established diabetic nephropathy and treated hypertension using weighted univariate ...
Braam B - - 1993
The balance between a high filtration rate and high reabsorption rate in the kidney is critical in the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume. One of the mechanisms that maintain this balance is the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism, which operates at the level of the macula densa assessing the load and/or ...
Holstein-Rathlou N H - - 1993
In normotensive, halothane-anesthetized rats, oscillations can be found both in the single-nephron blood flow and in the tubular pressure. Experimental data and computer simulations support the hypothesis that the oscillations are caused by the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. Model studies show that the key parameters determining the stability of the ...
Nowicki P T - - 1993
To determine whether intrinsic regulation of capillary exchange capacity is age-dependent during early postnatal life, we measured the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c), an index of capillary exchange capacity, within isolated perfused intestine from 3- and 35-day-old swine at different arterial pressures. Kf,c was determined gravimetrically, by means of the flow-equilibration ...
Nielsen S - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To relate deterioration in kidney function to some potential cardiovascular risk factors in type II diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four normoalbuminuric and 13 microalbuminuric patients completed a 3.4-yr prospective observational study. Glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin excretion rate, blood pressure, glycemic control, and lipids were measured on ...
Kimura K - - 1993
Renal arteriolar diameters were measured by using vascular casts in the remnant kidneys of subtotally nephrectomized rats. Two weeks after nephrectomy, both afferent and efferent arterioles were dilated, with development of glomerular hypertrophy. Thirteen weeks after nephrectomy, the afferent arteriole was dilated further, while the efferent arterioles became constricted. Glomerular ...
Lennon G M - - 1993
The effects of bacteria on in vitro ureteric contractility were studied, using a model which allowed selective exposure of organisms to the ureteric mucosa and smooth muscle, respectively. A cannula attached to a pressure transducer was ligated into the proximal lumen of 2.5-cm segments of canine ureter. The distal ureter ...
Kon V - - 1993
We studied the effects of interruption of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in rats that were volume depleted by water deprivation for 48 hours (AWD) with/without furosemide (AWD + F), a condition known to activate RAS. Following baseline micropuncture, AWD rats (N = 6) were treated with a specific angiotensin II ...
Jacobsen T N - - 1993
Patients with heart failure have impaired baroreflex control of the peripheral circulation with attenuated vasoconstrictor response during orthostatic stress. The aim of this study was to test if this impaired baroreflex control not only affects the arterial, but also the capillary bed. Blood flow and capillary filtration were measured in ...
Yuan Y - - 1993
This study reports measurements of albumin permeability in isolated coronary venules. The isolated microvessel technique allows the quantification of transmural exchange of macromolecules under tightly controlled physical and chemical conditions. Transvenular exchange of albumin was studied in isolated coronary venules during alterations in filtration rate caused by changes in intravascular ...
Bronk J T - - 1993
The effect of functional activity on bone formation and interstitial fluid space in a standardized tibial defect was measured in 19 dogs with one hind limb elevated and the other weight bearing and in 15 dogs bearing weight on all four legs. The interstitial fluid space (V(isf)) of the woven ...
Parving H H - - 1993
The effect of long-term, aggressive, antihypertensive treatment on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy was studied prospectively in 11 insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age, 30 years). Renal function was assessed every 4 months by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (single-bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique) and by albuminuria (radial immunodiffusion). During the median ...
Brown S A - - 1993
To investigate the determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration, renal micropuncture studies were performed in 9 cats. Mean single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), directly measured in outer cortical nephrons, was 29.4 +/- 3.0 nl/min. This was similar to the estimated value for SNGFR (31.3 +/- 4.6 nl/min) obtained by dividing left ...
Rossing P - - 1993
To evaluate the impact of systemic blood pressure and albuminuria on the progression of diabetic nephropathy, we followed 41 IDDM patients with persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h) by measuring glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-EDTA technique), blood pressure, and albuminuria. None of the patients were taking drugs other than insulin. Arterial ...
Nishikimi T - - 1993
To investigate intrarenal hemodynamics of aortocaval, arteriovenous (AV)-fistula rats and the effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibition, micropuncture studies were obtained before and after administration of quinapril (100 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1), an ACE inhibitor. AV fistula produced by needle multipuncture was characterized by elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), lower mean ...
Parker J C - - 1993
We compared pulmonary capillary filtration coefficients (Kf,c) using measurements of transcapillary filtration rates based on laser densitometry of perfusate hematocrit changes (Jy,l) and gravimetric measurement of the rate of lobe weight gain (delta Wt/delta t) after an increase in capillary pressure (Pc) in isolated autologous blood-perfused dog lungs. Although the ...
Legallais C - - 1993
A new process using pressure and flow pulsations was investigated in the second stage of cascade filtration for ApoB removal. Due to enhanced filtration by the pulsations, the retentate flow vanished naturally without clamping the line, which reduced albumin and ApoA1 losses. The performance of Eval 4A and cellulose PF100 ...
Deng A - - 1993
During systemic acute blockade of endogenous endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) with N-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA), a significant rise in arterial blood pressure (BP) occurred in the anesthetized rat. Renal vasoconstriction was also seen, with complex changes in glomerular hemodynamics; both preglomerular (RA) and efferent arteriolar (RE) resistances increased, producing a fall in ...
Fox M - - 1993
We describe a preparation for measuring blood pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart rate, and renal excretory variables (volume, electrolytes, glomerular filtration rate) in hamsters. The new approach offers an advantage over previously described methods by eliminating the problems associated with restraint. Hamsters were surgically implanted with venous and ...
Kasiske B L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative effect of different antihypertensive agents on proteinuria and renal function in patients with diabetes. DATA SOURCES: We used MEDLINE and bibliographies in recent articles to identify studies of the effects of antihypertensive agents on renal function in patients with diabetes. STUDY SELECTION: We selected 100 ...
Hansen K W - - 1993
The renal effects of intravenous injection of 10 mg enalapril were investigated in 16 normotensive microalbuminuric type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. After enalapril the following changes were observed: fractional albumin clearance (theta Alb) decreased from 9.9 (3.0-23.8) to 8.2 (2.0-18.3) x 10(-6) (2 P < 0.01); filtration fraction (FF) decreased ...
Frei U - - 1992
Glomerular hemodynamics of the clipped kidney in two kidney-one clip Goldblatt-hypertensive rats were studied by micropuncture techniques after administration of either captopril (20 mg/kg of b.wt./day p.o.) or diltiazem (3 mg/kg of b.wt./hr i.v.). Both drugs decreased mean arterial and poststenotic renal arterial pressure to comparable levels. Total kidney glomerular ...
Batra S - - 1992
Microvascular geometry was evaluated in rat left ventricular midmyocardium (male Sprague-Dawley, n = 14), arrested in systole (S) or diastole (D), by bolus injections of CaCl2 or KCl, respectively. The histological method employed in this study allowed for the visualization of capillary pathways from arteriole to venule. Capillary length, as ...
Katz M A - - 1992
The basement membrane contributes to resistance to ultrafiltration of the capillary wall, but efforts to conduct studies of this material have been hindered by difficulty in obtaining homogenous sources and by compression from high filtration pressures. We utilized Matrigel in a conductivity chamber and showed that it reproducibly yielded a ...
Fleming S J - - 1992
We examined the effect of acutely lowering the colloid osmotic pressure by removing plasma (36.2 +/- 3.1 ml/kg) and replacing it with Hartmann's solution (93.0 +/- 8.2 ml/kg) in 6 conscious merino sheep. The colloid osmotic pressure was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) from 20.3 +/- 0.9 to 8.5 +/- ...
Belcaro G - - 1992
To evaluate capillary filtration a group of normal subjects and two groups of subjects with venous incompetence (50 with deep and 50 with superficial incompetence) were studied with the vacuum suction chamber (VSC) device applied onto the internal perimalleolar region. This method was compared with straingauge plethysmography rate of ankle ...
Karim F - - 1992
1. Dogs were anaesthetized with thiopentone sodium and alpha-chloralose and artificially ventilated. The carotid sinus regions were vascularly isolated and perfused with arterial or venous blood to stimulate the chemoreceptors. Left atrial receptors were stimulated by distending four balloons, three in the left pulmonary vein-atrial junctions and one in the ...
Pedersen M M - - 1992
1. In order to investigate the modulation of kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, intraindividual variation in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, urinary albumin excretion rate and mean arterial blood pressure was assessed in 22 normoalbuminuric patients [age 31 +/- 8 years, duration of diabetes 9 +/- 5 years, ...
Amato D - - 1992
To evaluate the contribution of systemic hypertension in the progression of nephropathies to glomerular sclerosis, a mild form of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis was associated with Goldblatt hypertension and studied after 18 weeks. We studied four groups: Group I, controls; Group II, Goldblatt hypertension; Group III, PAN nephrosis; and Group ...
Johnston P A - - 1992
Increases in the delivery of solute to the loop of Henle result in increased reabsorption, vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole, and a reduction in the glomerular filtration. Although the details of this tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism are not completely worked out, it appears certain that alterations in reabsorption by the ...
Schmitz P G - - 1992
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may ameliorate experimental glomerular injury by either hemodynamic or nonhemodynamic mechanisms. In a long-term study, we examined the effects of 30 wk of enalapril treatment on the development of glomerular disease in obese Zucker rats (OZR). Enalapril significantly (P less than 0.05) lowered blood pressure, fasting serum ...
Elliott A R - - 1992
We previously showed that when the pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to determine whether some of ...
Chamienia A L - - 1992
The renal actions of atriopeptin III were examined in anaesthetised rats at differing perfusion pressures before and following blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. At normal perfusion pressure 1000 ng kg-1 atriopeptin III caused reversible increases in glomerular filtration rate, of 20%, urine flow, absolute and fractional sodium excretions of 51-93%. ...
Loon N - - 1992
We used differential solute clearances and a theoretical analysis of glomerular ultrafiltration and dextran sieving to characterize the hemodynamic response of nine healthy humans to infusion of isoncotic, 5% albumin in saline or saline vehicle alone. During albumin infusion (10.2 +/- 0.2 ml.kg-1.30 min-1) plasma volume increased by 18%, but ...
Baumann J E - - 1992
In six chronically instrumented, conscious dogs the hypothesis was tested that the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is important for autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). RBF was measured by a Transonic flowmeter. Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled by an aortic cuff. EDRF synthesis ...
Thomson S C - - 1992
The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture. The physical determinants of SNGFR were assessed in adult male Munich Wistar rats 5-7 d after ipsilateral surgical renal denervation (DNX). DNX was performed to isolate inhibitory ...
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