Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 920
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Cortes P - - 1996
Glomerular extracellular matrix accumulation may derive from the stretching of mesangial cells caused by excessive glomerular dilatation. The relationship of glomerular volume (VG) to intraglomerular pressure, expressed as compliance or as mean VG in the isolated, perfused rat glomerulus, was used to analyze factors that regulate VG. Glomeruli were highly ...
Leyssac P P - - 1996
Previous studies have given slightly different values of proximal tubular fluid/plasma lithium concentration ratios (TF/P)Li. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the technique of tubular fluid collection by micropuncture might contribute to this difference. Early distal and late proximal tubular fluid was collected by micropuncture during ...
Jahr J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The present study aims at analysing short-term effects of TNF alpha on capillary permeability, on transcapillary fluid fluxes, and on vascular tone in a whole organ cat skeletal muscle in vivo preparation. METHODS: The denervated muscle was isolated from the body but with intact vascular supply. The experimental setup ...
Dworkin L D - - 1996
The objective of this study was to determine whether the calcium antagonist amlodipine could slow the progression of chronic renal disease. We examined the effects of amlodipine on kidney structure and function in two experimental models of hypertension. In the first study, adult, male Munich Wistar rats underwent uninephrectomy and ...
Dellanna F - - 1996
Internal filtration is defined as the total water flux across the membrane within the closed blood and dialysate compartment of a dialyser. The aim of our study was to increase convection by increasing the amount of internal filtration and to study the effect on elimination of high and low molecular ...
Scheja A - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate an objective and quantitative method for assessment of capillary abnormalities in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Nailfold capillaries were investigated by capillary microscopy and photographed in 17 consecutive SSc patients (five with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dSSc) and 12 with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lSSc)) and in 17 ...
Mattana J - - 1996
Increased pressure, as may occur with hypertension, may alter cellular function by inducing repetitive mechanical strain. However, increased pressure itself may directly alter cellular function independent of stretching of cells. We undertook the present study to determine whether increased applied pressure could alter uptake of IgG complexes by macrophages. Increased ...
Singhal P C - - 1996
Glomerular hypertension has been considered to play an important role in the development of glomerulosclerosis. Mesangial expansion, a precursor of glomerulosclerosis, may be dependent not only on synthesis of matrix but also on degradation of the deposited matrix. In the present study we investigated the effect of simulated glomerular pressure ...
Mahy I R - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies of peripheral microvascular function in human heart failure have concentrated on changes in flow, and there is little information concerning the impact of heart failure on the principal determinants of transcapillary fluid exchange. This study investigated whether alterations in capillary pressure and microvascular fluid permeability can be ...
Karlsen F M - - 1995
Several factors are potentially able to change the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and thereby participate in its regulation, but only a few factors seem to be physiologically important. The variable nature of proximal tubular pressure should be recognized as important in the regulation of GFR. It is argued that a ...
Peterson J C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relations among proteinuria, prescribed and achieved blood pressure, and decline in glomerular filtration rate in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. DESIGN: 2 randomized trials in patients with chronic renal diseases of diverse cause. SETTING: 15 outpatient nephrology practices at university hospitals. PATIENTS: 840 ...
Mattana J - - 1995
Substantial in vivo evidence suggests a significant role for glomerular capillary pressure in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerulosclerosis. One presently available in vitro system allows one to study cells while undergoing stretch. However, no comparable system is available to allow one to study in an in vitro system how direct ...
Brown S A - - 1995
To evaluate remnant nephron hyperfiltration, cats underwent sham surgery (group 1, n = 6) or three-fourths nephrectomy (group 2, n = 6). Four to six weeks later, micropuncture studies demonstrated increases (P < 0.01) of single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) in group 2 (28.1 +/- 2.8 vs. 56.0 +/- 5.9 ...
Eaton S A - - 1995
Starling forces and hemodynamics in the digits of 5 horses were studied during early laminitis induced by oral administration of an aqueous extract of black walnut (Juglans nigra). The black walnut extract was prepared from heartwood shavings and was administered by nasogastric tube. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, central ...
Weindorf N G - - 1995
Capillary microscopy in patients with CVI can show many morphological abnormalities like tortuous and elongated capillaries, heterogenous distribution of capillary tufts or microvascular thrombosis. Microcirculatory changes also become evident when examination is done under different hydrostatic conditions. For this purpose a new fiberoptic microscope was used, with an optical surface ...
Belcaro G - - 1995
Using laser-Doppler flowmetry in association with other noninvasive microcirculatory techniques such as transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2 and capillary filtration measurements it is possible to define two major types of microangiopathy. Low perfusion microangiopathy (LPM) is observed in peripheral vascular disease, essential hypertension, Raynaud's disease etc. High perfusion microangiopathy (HPM) is ...
Kojima S - - 1995
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) was induced in 7 patients by programmed cardiac stimulation via an esophageal lead. Blood pressure, renal function, and hormonal factors were measured before, during, and after SVT. The glomerular filtration rate increased during SVT, while renal blood flow did not change. The parameters of glomerular hemodynamics were ...
Mackenzie H S - - 1995
In 1988, Brenner et al advanced the hypothesis that the nephron endowment at birth is inversely related to the risk of developing essential hypertension in later life (Am J Hypertens 1:335-347, 1988). This novel perspective on the origins of essential hypertension was taken from the viewpoint that the development and ...
Hedderwick S A - - 1995
We describe a 29-year-old woman with persistent arterial hypertension which resolved following complete excision of a capillary haemangioblastoma from within the spinal cord at the cervico-medullary junction. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for neuropeptide Y in capillary walls and nerves in the tumour. This raises the possibility of an association between ...
Hansen H P - - 1995
Initiation of antihypertensive treatment (AHT) in hypertensive insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) induces a faster initial (0 to 6 months) and a slower subsequent (6 months to end of observation) decline in GFR [delta GFR (ml/min/month) approximately 1.5 vs. 0.35]. Whether this initial phenomenon is reversible (hemodynamic) ...
Klahr S - - 1995
In the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study, a follow-up (mean, 2.2 yr) of 200 study participants with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) was conducted to determine the effect of lowering protein intake and blood pressure on the rate of decline in GFR. The rate of decline was ...
Maki D D - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have examined the effects of antihypertensive agents on proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate in patients with kidney disease, many questions remain unresolved. These questions include whether the effects of agents differ, whether their effects are similar in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with renal disease, and whether ...
Lee J - - 1995
The objective of this study was to investigate the structure of capillaries in rat skeletal muscle and their mechanical properties over a wide range of transmural pressures. Capillaries were fixed at controlled pressures and studied with intravital and electron microscopy. Capillary lumen dimensions depend on the local transmural pressure, with ...
Motwani J G - - 1995
We studied six healthy male subjects in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind fashion to determine the comparative effects on renal hemodynamics and natriuresis of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (5 mg on each of 5 days preceding the study), the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor candoxatrilat (200 mg IV), and the combination of ...
Jahr J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local circulatory effects of prostacyclin in skeletal muscle. DESIGN: A prospective experimental study. SETTING: A university laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twelve adult cats. INTERVENTIONS: The study was performed on autoperfused, sympathectomized gastrocnemius muscle. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Arterial blood flow, total and segmental vascular resistances (arterial vessels of ...
Fransen R - - 1995
1. Little direct information is available on the actions of angiotensin II beyond the proximal tubule. We therefore studied the effect of a mildly vasoconstrictive dose of angiotensin II on tubular handling of water, sodium (Na+) and lithium (Li+) in rats by means of free-flow micropuncture at the late proximal ...
Alejandro V - - 1995
Postischemic filtration failure in experimental animals results primarily from depression of the transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference (delta P), a quantity that cannot be determined in humans. To circumvent this limitation we determined the GFR and each of its remaining determinants in transplanted kidneys. Findings in 12 allografts that exhibited subsequent ...
Thorup C - - 1995
Renal effects of acute renal denervation (DNX) were studied in anaesthetized rats. In a first series, whole kidney clearance measurements were made 120 and 240 min after unilateral DNX. At 240 min, urine production was 3.59 +/- 0.87 microL min-1 in control kidneys and 7.74 +/- 1.97 microL min-1 in ...
Hansson L - - 1995
Antihypertensive treatment has been shown to slow down the decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with time. This has been most extensively studied in patients with diabetic nephropathy and, to some extent, with other forms of renal disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has been shown to be more effective in ...
Saad W A - - 1995
We investigated the participation of the beta-adrenoceptors of the septa area (SA) in sodium and potassium excretion and urine flow. The alterations in arterial pressure and some renal functions were also investigated. The injection of 2.10(-9) to 16.10(-9) M of isoproterenol, through a cannula permanently implanted into the SA produced ...
Tucker B J - - 1995
Head-down tilt (HDT) is utilized to simulate microgravity and produces a cephalad fluid shift, which results in alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance. These changes in volume homeostasis are due, in part, to alterations in multiple volume control mechanisms in which renal function is a major participant. We have previously ...
Badeer H S - - 1995
It is accepted that glomerular vascular resistance to blood flow is represented by a pressure drop of only a few mm Hg, but the hemodynamic basis for this concept is generally not well known. Our purpose is to review the evidence supporting the low resistance concept and to provide an ...
Anderson W P - - 1995
The relationship between arterial pressure and the rate of Na+ excretion is regulated by a number of mechanisms- some well known, some newly discovered, and probably some yet to be discovered. These mechanisms affect either the amount of Na+ filtered at the glomerulus or its rate of reabsorption from the ...
Numabe A - - 1994
Cardiac failure is multifactorial in causation, and the underlying physiologic mechanisms are variable, yet their renal effects have been considered more homogeneous. To investigate and compare the intrarenal hemodynamic characteristics in two experimental types (low- and high-output) of cardiac failure, renal micropuncture studies were performed in rats after myocardial infarction ...
Hodges U M - - 1994
Modified ultrafiltration after cardiopulmonary bypass in children has been shown to be associated with an increase in arterial blood pressure. As part of a series of studies to investigate the possible causes of this blood pressure elevation, the hypothesis that if filtration was removing a significant amount of fentanyl, then ...
Lockhart J C - - 1994
This study investigated the role of volume status and perfusion pressure on the hemodynamic response of cortical and medullary renal capillaries to systemic inhibition of nitric oxide. NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was infused intravenously (15-mg/kg bolus and 500-micrograms.min-1.kg-1 infusion), and blood flow in cortical capillaries (QCC) and in descending (QDVR) and ascending ...
Thompson A - - 1994
The short-term systemic and renal hemodynamic effects of two stroma-free hemoglobin (SFH) solutions, one unmodified and the other modified by cross-linking, were examined in anesthetized rats after hemorrhagic hypotension. Both forms of SFH increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to baseline (prehemorrhage) values. The increase in ...
Ornstein E - - 1994
To study the effect of AVM occlusion on cerebrovascular haemodynamics, a simplified model was simulated consisting of a feeding artery supplying a capillary bed in parallel with a fistula-like malformation, both emptying into a draining vein. An electrical circuit analogue of the physiologic system was developed using lumped proximal and ...
Thorup C - - 1994
This study was designed to compare the effects of systemic and intratubular infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) on the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism in anesthetized rats. We recently showed that intravenous infusion of L-NNA led to increases in mean arterial blood pressure (Pa), proximal ...
Shore A C - - 1994
The hemodynamic hypothesis suggests that raised capillary pressure may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. Although patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes NIDDM) develop a similar range of microvascular complications, differences in their expression and prevalence suggest that different pathogenic mechanisms may be operational. ...
Gibson K J - - 1994
To determine the cause of the transient natriuresis in lambs within 1-2 h of birth, renal function and blood volume (BV) were measured in nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep aged 139-145 d before and after delivery by cesarean section. After delivery, sodium excretion increased 8-fold. This was due to a ...
Gabbai F B - - 1994
The cell-free isolated perfused kidney (IPK) is characterized by normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and very low filtration fraction (FF). Addition of erythrocytes to the perfusate (IEPK) increases FF while maintaining "normal" GFR levels. Micropuncture studies were performed in IPK and IEPK to establish the determinants of the glomerular ultrafiltration ...
Yagil Y - - 1994
CS-905 is a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist which stands out for its prolonged hypotensive effect, and which is currently under investigation for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the current series of studies was to investigate the effects of CS-905 on renal function in relation to its effects on ...
Hahn M - - 1994
1. The effect of a rapid local reduction in finger temperature on finger nailfold capillary blood pressure and blood cell velocity was investigated in healthy subjects. 2. Cooling was achieved by placing the finger into an adjustable copper cylindrical finger holder, which incorporated a Peltier element within its base; thus ...
Blantz R C - - 1994
The glomerular barriers to water and macromolecular movement were examined 2 and 24 h after the administration of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific to an antigen located on the epithelial slit diaphragm and the external aspect of the glomerular basement membrane. By micropuncture techniques 2 h after mAb administration, single-nephron ...
Heller J - - 1994
It has been suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is accompanied by enhanced bradykinin and prostaglandin activities, which may contribute to the renal haemodynamic actions of ACE inhibitors. Therefore we investigated renal function by clearance and micropuncture techniques in dogs maintained either on normal or low-salt diet before and after ...
Ferrario R - - 1994
To assess the functional relevance of the enhanced glomerular nitric oxide (NO) synthesis during acute nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis, a NO synthesis inhibitor (NOI) NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was administered to normal (N + NOI) and acutely nephritic (NTS + NOI) Munich-Wistar rats, and systemic and glomerular hemodynamic responses were contrasted with those ...
Inman S R - - 1994
BACKGROUND: In the kidney, the afferent and efferent arterioles normally constrict or dilate in response to changes in systemic blood pressure to maintain glomerular filtration while protecting the glomerulus from excessive pressure. In diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the two most common causes of kidney failure, sustained hypertension within the glomerulus ...
Kontessis P S - - 1994
We measured Na+/Li+ CT in 16 IgA nephropathy patients. Records were reviewed (mean observation period 5.5 years) for serial measurements of blood pressure (BP), urinary protein excretion, GFR (51Cr-EDTA) and plasma creatinine. Na+/Li+ CT correlated with the slope of the plot of GFR versus time (rs = -0.66, p = ...
Bugge J F - - 1994
The relationship between angiotensin II and renal prostaglandins, and their interactions in controlling renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were investigated in 18 anaesthetized dogs with acutely denervated kidneys. Intrarenal angiotensin II infusion increased renal PGE2 release (veno-arterial concentration difference times renal plasma flow) from 1.7 +/- ...
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