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Results 201 - 250 of 948
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Herrera-Acosta Jaime - - 2002
To study whether prevention of renal injury using the anti-inflammatory drugs pentosan polysulphate (PPS) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is associated with improvement of glomerular haemodynamics, PPS and MMF were compared with losartan. The awake systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria (Uprot) and micropuncture studies were performed 30 days after five-sixths nephrectomy ...
Kiil F - - 2002
To examine whether local myogenic mechanisms account for autoregulation of renal blood flow, a theoretical analysis was undertaken on a model of the pre-glomerular vascular tree consisting of a main and a short, narrow juxtaglomerular segment. At atmospheric extravascular pressure in vitro data are consistent with a relationship r=r0(1 + ...
Kiil F - - 2002
Along the juxtaglomerular segment of the afferent arteriole the luminal pressure p approaches the glomerular capillary pressure of 55-60 mmHg. At such low luminal pressures the myogenic mechanism contracts only if extravascular pressure p(ex) is subatmospheric. According to Poiseuille's formula complete autoregulation requires that blood flow is F=5Kr(0)(4)/Deltax at arterial ...
Gross Volkmar - - 2002
Gene targeting techniques are a revolutionary tool in determining gene function. The mouse is the only mammal in which these methods can be performed. For morphologic and histologic characterization, a broad armamentarium is available for the mouse. However, for functional studies, the 20- to 25-g mouse provides unique challenges. We ...
Toyota Eiji - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The phase difference of coronary arterial and venous flows indicates the importance of intramyocardial capacitance vessels in storing diastolic flow and in discharging volume in systole. However, the anatomic and functional characteristics of the capacitance vessels are unclear. We aimed to clarify those characteristics with their transmural difference by ...
Tanaka Hikaru - - 2002
T-type Ca(2+) channels have properties different from those of the L-type and are involved in cardiac pacemaking and regulation of blood flow, but not in myocardial contraction. Efonidipine is an antihypertensive and antianginal drug with dihydropyridine structure that was recently found to block both L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels. In ...
Brands Michael W - - 2002
1. Hyperglycaemia can lead to hypertension in long- standing diabetes through cumulative effects to cause progressive glomerular injury. However, it is not known how hyperglycaemia directly affects blood pressure control. Moreover, it has been difficult to isolate the actions of hyperglycaemia from other factors that can influence blood pressure. Recent ...
Imig John D - - 2002
Control of glomerular filtration involves sensitive regulation of glomerular filtration pressure over a widely varying range of systemic arterial pressures. This control is exerted through precise adjustments in preglomerular resistance involving numerous activation and feedback mechanisms. Under physiological conditions, these mechanisms succeed in maintaining renal blood flow and glomerular filtration ...
Hansen Henrik P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diurnal variation in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the potential mechanisms responsible for such variations in GFR and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: In three 24-hour urine samples, divided into a night- and daytime portion, diurnal variation in albuminuria (ELISA) ...
Bobrova N A - - 2002
A one-dimensional dissipative magnetohydrodynamics code is used to investigate the discharge dynamics of a waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses: the gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide. Simulations are performed for the conditions of a recent experimental measurement of the electron density profile in hydrogen-filled capillaries [D. J. Spence et al., Phys. Rev. ...
Harwood S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the renal handling of endogenous ouabain-like compound (OLC). The aim of this study was to determine the normal renal clearance of OLC and the effect of mild experimental uremia on plasma OLC and its clearance. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were studied 8 weeks after subtotal ...
Suda T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In glomerular hypertension, mesangial cells (MC) are subjected to at least two physical forces: a high pressure and mechanical stretch. In 5/6 nephrectomized rat, a model of progressive glomerular sclerosis associated with glomerular hypertension, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is expressed in glomeruli, suggesting the possible role of MCP-1 in ...
Bellomo R - - 2001
Septic shock, systemic inflammation and pharmacological vasodilatation are often complicated by systemic hypotension, despite aggressive fluid resuscitation and an increased cardiac output. If the physician wishes to restore arterial pressure (>80-85 mmHg), with the aim of sustaining organ perfusion pressure, the administration of systemic vasopressor agents, such as noradrenaline, becomes ...
Kim S T - - 2001
During hemodiafiltration (HDF) treatment for chronic renal failure patients, replacing large volumes using high-flux membranes with relatively large pores is preferred from the standpoint of enhancing the elimination of large molecules (10 to 50 kd). Aggressive protein-permeable treatment often results in massive leakage of essential albumin, however, which may cause ...
Christensen P K - - 2001
Impaired autoregulation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) implies disturbances in the downstream transmission of the systemic blood pressure into the glomerulus, leading to capillary hypertension or hypotension dependent of the level of blood pressure. The impact on renal autoregulation of different antihypertensive drugs in animals has been elucidated, whereas ...
Grimm J B - - 2001
The effects of intramuscularly administered medetomidine and butorphanol (MB), and medetomidine, butorphanol, atropine (MBA) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined in six dogs as measured by 99m-Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) nuclear scintigraphy. Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate were measured at regular time intervals ...
Aukland K - - 2001
In the middle of the twentieth century, the suspicion that deep and superficial nephrons might serve different functions created a demand for measurement of single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR). Rather unexpectedly, the answer came from Odd E. Hanssen (1917-1964), a Norwegian physician working on his own in the Department of ...
Seghatchian J - - 2001
With the implementation of universal leucodepletion, an in-line, negatively charged LRF6H leucodepleting filter became an essential part of the Haemonetics MCS+ plateletpheresis system. A larger-scale (968) study using the standard protocol revealed a 2.79% leucodepletion failure rate (standard < 5 x 10(6) leucocytes per adult therapeutic dose). Factors influencing the ...
Vallon V - - 2001
For further elucidation of the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in macula densa (MD) cells, experiments were performed in anesthetized nNOS knockout mice (nNOS -/-). At comparable levels of arterial BP, renal blood flow was not significantly different between nNOS +/+ and nNOS -/- (1.7 +/- 0.2 versus ...
Ru Q H - - 2001
In capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography, the driving factor of the separation is electroosmotic flow (EOF). Pressurized capillary electrochromatography, in which the separation is controlled by EOF as well as the pressure, becomes more and more attractive. We studied the influence of various pressures on capillary electrochromatographic separation. The results ...
Ohlson M - - 2001
The effect of shape on the transglomerular passage of solutes has not been hitherto systematically studied. We perfused isolated rat kidneys to determine the fractional clearances (theta) at various filtration rates for four molecules of different shapes but with similar Stokes-Einstein radii (aSE = 34-36 A). The theta for hyaluronan, ...
Gallego B - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and structural renal damage observed in aortic-constricted hypertensive rats and to identify their possible relationship with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression. Progressive renovascular hypertension was induced by progressive aortic constriction between the two renal arteries. Three months after constriction, ...
Bentzer P - - 2001
The capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) is assumed to reflect both microvascular hydraulic conductivity and the number of perfused capillaries at a given moment (precapillary sphincter activity). Estimation of hydraulic conductivity in vivo with the CFC method has therefore been performed under conditions of unchanged vascular tone and metabolic influence. There ...
Holstein-Rathlou Niels-Henrik - - 2001
Experimental data for tubular pressure oscillations in rat kidneys are analyzed in order to examine the different types of synchronization that can arise between neighboring functional units. For rats with normal blood pressure, the individual unit (the nephron) typically exhibits regular oscillations in its tubular pressure and flow variations. For ...
Guidi E - - 2001
Familial hypertension, glomerular hemodynamic alterations, and dysregulation of tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGFB) have all been associated with the development of chronic renal failure. In the present study we evaluated renal and glomerular hemodynamics and TGFB responses in healthy kidney donors either with or without familial hypertension, before and after nephrectomy. Para-amino-hippurate ...
Denton K M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects on pre- and post-glomerular vascular resistance of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-induced hypertension in rats, before and after blockade of nitric oxide formation. DESIGN: Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Measurements were made in ACTH- (Synacthen Depot, 0.25 mg/kg twice daily for 8 days) and sham-treated anaesthetized ...
Tiller F M - - 2001
In accord with Darcy's law, the flow rate through a porous bed depends upon the pressure drop deltap(c). In general, increasing deltap(c) leads to increased values of flow rate and average percentage solids in filtration operations. When cakes become super-compactible, their behavior undergoes an unexpected change in which both the ...
Oyanagi-Tanaka Y - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Blood flow in the microvasculature plays a pivotal role in determining the outcome of injury and repair in inflamed tissue. Real-time observation of the kidney microvasculature, including the glomerular capillary tufts, is extremely difficult because of the methodological limitations of currently available microscope optics. In the present study, we ...
Hu X - - 2000
We tested the hypothesis that the effective oncotic force that opposes fluid filtration across the microvessel wall is the local oncotic pressure difference across the endothelial surface glycocalyx and not the global difference between the plasma and tissue. In single frog mesenteric microvessels perfused and superfused with solutions containing 50 ...
Mäkelä S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus. Its long-term prognosis is considered favorable. Some reports suggest, however, that a previous hantavirus infection increases the risk of hypertension. METHODS: We studied 46 previously healthy subjects (26 males and 20 females, ...
Ishimitsu T - - 2000
Plasma albumin leaks into urine as a result of glomerular hypertension and basement membrane injury, while urinary type IV collagen derives from mesangial matrix and glomerular basement membrane. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological significance of these urinary microproteins as an indicator of cardiovascular organ injuries ...
Barnidge J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the leukocyte chemoattractant N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) increases capillary fluid filtration rate (Jv/S), and if so, to determine whether the mechanism involves arteriovenular communication. METHODS: Intravital microscopy was used in the rat mesentery to measure capillary Jv/S by a micro-occlusion technique. ...
Ben-Nun J - - 2000
PURPOSE: To study the effect of acute hyperglycemia on the erythrocyte flow in specific retinal capillary paths. METHODS: A technique for fluorescent labeling of a known fraction of the erythrocyte moiety of systemic blood was combined with fluorescence viewing of the retinal capillary network in live cats. This technique was ...
Lopes de Faria J M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To investigate whether elevated erythrocyte Na+/Li+ countertransport (Na+/Li+ CT) activity is present in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: The rate of Na+/Li+ CT activity assayed in 21 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting PDR was compared with 10 patients with nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR) and with ...
Harrap S B - - 2000
Abnormal renovascular resistance and glomerular filtration rate are characteristic of established hypertension and may also be involved in its pathogenesis. To determine renal and body fluid correlates of the predisposition to high blood pressure, we examined 100 healthy young adults with high or low blood pressure. Within each group, half ...
Hancock T V - - 2000
Whole-body and organ-level transcapillary filtration rates and coefficients are virtually unexamined in ectothermal vertebrates. These filtration rates appear to be greater than in mammals when plasma volume shifts and lymphatic function are analyzed. Gravimetric techniques monitoring whole-body mass changes were used to estimate net systemic filtration in Bufo marinus and ...
Nosadini R - - 2000
Heterogeneity in renal structure has been described in type 2 diabetic patients with both microalbuminuria and proteinuria; in fact, only a subset of type 2 diabetic patients have the typical diabetic glomerulopathy. However, it is currently unknown whether abnormalities in albumin excretion rate (AER) have a different renal prognostic value ...
Kotchen T A - - 2000
The incidence of end-stage renal disease attributable to hypertension is 5-fold greater in African Americans than in whites. To determine whether glomerular hyperfiltration is an antecedent to renal failure, we compared responses of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate to graded infusions of norepinephrine (0. 01, 0.025, and 0.05 ...
Magyar C E - - 2000
Acute hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption that increases the levels of sodium chloride at the macula densa, the error signal to increase arteriolar resistance to autoregulate renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate, and contributes to pressure natriuresis. The molecular mechanisms responsible for ...
Hellmann H - - 2000
The involvement of the kidney in the pathogenesis of hypertension has long been recognised, although the specific renal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unknown. A current hypothesis attributes hypertension to a reduction in glomerular filtration area by glomerular loss. The present study analyses the relationship between glomerular number and ...
Persson A E - - 2000
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) has the very important functions of detecting the fluid flow rate to the distal tubule and thus controlling the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism [TGF]) and renin release from the afferent arteriole. In studies of the TGF it has been evident that the sensitivity ...
Konishi Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Studies of experimental animals show glomerular hypertension to be important in the progression of glomerular disease. We evaluated this connection clinically by examining the relationship between glomerular hemodynamics and histological changes in patients with immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy. METHODS: The subjects were 23 patients with IgA nephropathy. All patients underwent ...
Schnermann J - - 2000
The role of thromboxane (TP) in the vasoconstriction induced by tubuloglomerular feedback or 18-h ureteral obstruction was studied in wild type mice (TP +/+), and in heterozygous (TP +/-) and homozygous TP receptor knockout mice (TPR -/-). TGF function was assessed from the response of stop flow pressure (PSF) to ...
Forman M F - - 1999
During the pathophysiological progression of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites), broilers concurrently develop systemic hypotension (low mean systemic arterial pressure) that may initiate renal retention of water and solute, contributing to fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites). In male Single Comb White Leghorns, glomerular filtration is autoregulated over a ...
Weir M R - - 1999
Diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. Inadequate control of both systemic and glomerular capillary pressure in diabetics results in increasing hydraulic force and mechanical stretch on the glomeruli, with a subsequent increase in proteinuria and ultimately glomerulosclerosis. Therapeutic strategies that combine ...
Evensen H T - - 1999
A technique has been developed for high lane density loading of small-volume DNA samples in a horizontal agarose gel. This technique has been investigated with a simple hand-held tool that is made to couple to sample output from a new capillary-based sample automation system. The approach consists of piercing the ...
Okada N - - 1999
A method for the clinical assessment of glomerular hemodynamics has been published previously. We here examined whether, when using this method, renal creatinine clearance (Ccr) can be substituted for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study subjects comprised 57 inpatients from Osaka City General Hospital: 30 with type 2 diabetes ...
Christensen P K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The ability of the kidney to maintain constancy of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over a wide range of renal perfusion pressures is termed autoregulation. Defective autoregulation of GFR has been demonstrated in diabetic nephropathy. Whether this is also the case in patients with nondiabetic nephropathies is not known. ...
Kawabata M - - 1999
1. To obtain some insight into the renoprotective mechanism of the new calcium antagonist efonidipine hydrochloride, we evaluated the acute effects of efonidipine on proteinuria, glomerular haemodynamics and the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism in anaesthetized 24-25-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with glomerular injury. 2. Efonidipine infusion at 10 micrograms/kg per ...
Willinger M - - 1999
Because of the closed plasma (secondary) circuit in the Microspheres based Detoxification System (MDS), a convective blood purification system, the same amount of filtrated plasma is backfiltrated into the blood circuit. Therefore, there is no direct way to determine the ultrafiltrate production rate, which is an important factor of efficiency. ...
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