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Marsh Donald J - - 2007
The paper presents a study of synchronization phenomena in a system of 22 nephrons supplied with blood from a common cortical radial artery. The nephrons are assumed to interact via hemodynamic and vascularly propagated coupling, both mediated by vascular connections. Using anatomic and physiological criteria, the nephrons are divided into ...
Ferreira-Filho S R - - 2007
The number of healthy individuals undergoing unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation is increasing world-wide. Obesity and nephron reduction could promote a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in urinary protein excretion in these individuals. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is also a risk factor for these patients. This ...
Boerrigter Guido - - 2007
Soluble guanylate cyclase is a heterodimeric enzyme with a prosthetic heme group that, on binding of its main ligand, NO, generates the second messenger cGMP. Unlike conventional nitrovasodilators, the novel direct NO- and heme-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activator BAY 58-2667 is devoid of non-cGMP actions, lacks tolerance development, and preferentially ...
Stanghelle Daniel - - 2007
High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification ...
Singh Reetu R - - 2007
Maternal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone has been reported to result in a nephron deficit and development of hypertension in the offspring of rats. However, it is not known whether elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT), the natural glucocorticoid, has similar effects on blood pressure and nephron endowment. The present study ...
Seo G T - - 2007
The filtration characteristics of two different module configurations with coarse pore filter (non-woven fabric) were investigated for sludge floc separation in an activated sludge reactor for domestic wastewater reclamation. A polypropylene non-woven fabric filter (35 g/m2) was used for the two different module configurations, one flat and one tubular type, ...
Benck Urs - - 2007
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blockers lower proteinuria and preserve renal function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The antiproteinuric effects are greater than their blood pressure reduction, involving the sieving properties of the glomerular filter. In DN, glomerular staining for heparan sulfate proteoglycans is decreased. AngII ...
Pascual Jose Maria - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess factors related to long-term changes in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) of nondiabetic microalbuminuric (n = 252) or proteinuric hypertensive individuals (n = 58) in a prospective follow-up. METHOD: After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment and/or ...
Williams Donna A - - 2007
A complex glycoprotein meshwork covers the inner wall of blood vessels and is implicated in mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress (tau). A relationship between Deltatau and capillary Lp has been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Lp in response to Deltatau after exposing the capillary lumen to ...
Just Armin - - 2007
Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) is caused by the myogenic response (MR), tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), and a third regulatory mechanism that is independent of TGF but slower than MR. The underlying cause of the third regulatory mechanism remains unclear; possibilities include ATP, ANG II, or a slow component of ...
Lee Kyung Mi - - 2006
A bed-type filter composed of thin metal alloy fiber was closely examined with dust capturing in cold and hot runs. The investigation of an individual mechanism across the filter bed indicated that the aerated dust could be initially collected by depth filtration, and after a while, surface filtration dominated the ...
Kimura Noriyo - - 2006
The major glomerular abnormalities in hypertensive nephrosclerosis are described as glomerular obsolescence (GO), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and glomerular collapse (GC). However, glomerular cellular changes caused by hypertensive insults have not been well analyzed. Using an immunoenzyme method, we examined eleven biopsy samples from patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis for two synthetic and ...
Garg A X - - 2006
Although a quarter of children who survive diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome develop long-term renal sequelae, the prognosis of acute, self-limited Escherichia coli O157:H7 gastroenteritis has never been previously studied. Four years after a drinking water outbreak of E. coli O157:H7, we examined the risk of high blood pressure (>95th percentile ...
Palatini P - - 2006
Factors related to the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension are not well known. We did a prospective study to investigate whether glomerular hyperfiltration precedes the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension. We assessed 502 never-treated subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension without microalbuminuria at baseline and followed up for 7.8 years. ...
Rippe B - - 2006
Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, assumed to have a favorable prognosis. NE patients who manifested a higher glomerular filtration rate and mean systolic blood pressure, and more proteinuria, versus controls at 5 years of follow-up demonstrated no major abnormalities after 10 years. ...
Miettinen M H - - 2006
Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus. Its long-term prognosis is considered favorable. There are, however, some reports about subsequent hypertension, glomerular hyperfiltration, and proteinuria after previous hantavirus infection. Therefore, we studied 36 patients 5 and 10 years after acute NE, with 29 ...
Poladia Deepali Pitre - - 2006
Low birth weight (LBW) infants with reduced nephron numbers have significantly increased risk for hypertension later in life, which is a devastating health problem. The risk from a reduction in nephron number alone is not clear. Recently, using conditional knock-out approach, we have developed a mutant mouse with reduced nephron ...
Redón Josep - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure are scant The objective of the present study is to assess the relationship between renal function, measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the presence of early or established cardiovascular disease, in ...
Saxena Anjali Bhatt - - 2006
We examined the magnitude of adaptive hyperfiltration in the remaining kidney of 16 aging (>57 yr) and 16 youthful (<55 yr) individuals who had undergone a contralateral nephrectomy. Healthy volunteers who were youthful (n = 143) or aging (n = 37) provided control values for the binephric condition. One-kidney glomerular ...
Pedrini L A - - 2006
The aim of the present study was transmembrane pressure (TMP) modulation in high-volume mixed hemodiafiltration (HDF) to optimize efficiency and minimize protein loss. The optimal flow/pressure conditions in on-line mixed HDF assisted with a feedback control of TMP were defined in this prospective randomized study in order to obtain maximal ...
Perrin N E S S - - 2006
Diabetic nephropathy is a severe complication and few studies have described the early morphological changes over time. Two kidney biopsies were performed, within a 6-year interval, in 29 primarily normoalbuminuric patients, aged 24 years at the second biopsy. These were examined with light and electron microscopy. Glomerular filtration rate, and ...
Leong Patrick K K - - 2006
Injection of 50 microl 10% phenol into rat renal cortex activates renal sympathetic nerve activity which provokes acute hypertension that persists for weeks. We have previously shown with membrane fractionation that phenol injury caused a redistribution of the main proximal tubule (PT) apical transporter NHE3 (Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3) to ...
Hilfer R - - 2006
A macroscopic theory for capillarity in porous media is presented, challenging the established view that capillary pressure and relative permeability are constitutive parameter functions. The capillary pressure function in the present theory is not an input parameter but an outcome. The theoretical approach is based on introducing the residual saturations ...
Andronico Giuseppe - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Albumin excretion rate is usually increased in people who smoke, but the physiological basis of this phenomenon is not fully understood. METHODS: The effect of chronic smoking on renal haemodynamics was studied in a cohort of 66 men. Twenty-seven were smokers and 36 were hypertensive. In all subjects, the ...
Kim Sangho - - 2006
Previous studies have shown that functional capillary density (FCD) is substantially reduced by erythrocyte aggregation. However, only supranormal levels of aggregability were studied. To investigate the effect of erythrocyte aggregability at the level seen in healthy humans, the FCD of selected capillary fields in rat spinotrapezius muscle was determined with ...
Durvasula Raghu V - - 2005
Glomerular capillary hypertension is a final common pathway to glomerulosclerosis. Because podocyte loss is an early event in the development of glomerulosclerosis, it is logical that the deleterious effects of glomerular capillary hypertension involve podocyte injury. Yet, the mechanisms by which elevated intraglomerular pressure is translated into a maladaptive podocyte ...
Yap Belinda - - 2005
Neutrophils are subjected to mechanical stimulation as they deform into the narrow capillary segments of the pulmonary microcirculation. The present study seeks to understand the changes in the cytoskeletal structure and the extent of biological activation as a result of this process. Neutrophils were passed through narrow polycarbonate filter pores ...
Chen Quan - - 2005
Capillary pressure curves are widely used in materials, soil, and environmental sciences, and especially in the petroleum industry. The traditional (Hassler-Brunner) interpretation of centrifugal capillary pressure data is based on several assumptions. These assumptions are known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of capillary pressure curves. In this ...
Koike T - - 2005
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the renal structural properties in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Flow-pressure and pressure-glomerular filtration rate (GFR) relationships were determined for maximally vasodilated kidneys at 10 (pre-diabetic stage) and 42 weeks of age (diabetic stage) in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (OLETF), an animal ...
Alberding Jonathan P - - 2005
The role of the endothelium in regulating transmural fluid filtration into the artery wall under pulsatile pressure and the effects of changes in pulsatile frequency on filtration have received little attention. Previous experiments (Alberding JP, Baldwin AL, Barton JK, and Wiley E. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286: H1827-H1835, ...
Moritz Karen M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Removal of one kidney during the period of nephrogenesis in the sheep leads to offspring with elevated blood pressure and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 6 and 12 months of age. The mechanisms underlying the hypertension and the degree of renal impairment are not known. METHODS: Changes in ...
Verhave Jacobien C - - 2005
In the past decade, pulse pressure has emerged as a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. During aging, elevation of pulse pressure is a consequence of stiffening of the arterial wall. The relationship between pulse pressure and the renal aging process was studied in a cohort of 212 patients ...
Sharma Kumar - - 2005
Impaired autoregulation in chronic kidney disease can result in elevation of glomerular capillary pressure and progressive glomerular damage; however, the factors linking chronic glomerular disorders to impaired autoregulation have not been identified. We tested the hypothesis that the cytokine most closely associated with progressive glomerular disease, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, ...
Tudor Aura - - 2005
The increase of the peripheral blood flow resistance level is the major hemodynamic parameter in pathophysiology of essential hypertension (HT). The functional and morphological abnormalities of the microcirculation in the early stage, sometimes before the increase of the blood pressure, are intensely explored. Their identification is a proof for the ...
Bochud Murielle - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We estimated the heritability of three measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in hypertensive families of African descent in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). METHODS: Families with at least two hypertensive siblings and an average of two normotensive siblings were identified through a national hypertension register. Using the ASSOC program ...
Noonan William T - - 2005
NHE3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger knockout (Nhe3(-/-)) mice have severe absorptive deficits in the kidney proximal tubule and intestinal tract. The resulting hypovolemia has confounded efforts to carefully evaluate the specific effects of NHE3 deficiency on kidney function. Development of mice with transgenic expression of NHE3 in the small intestine (tgNhe3(-/-)) has ...
Rieg T - - 2004
Mice that lack or over-express a gene of interest are important tools for unraveling gene function. The determination of single nephron function by micropuncture or precise determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by inulin clearance method require experiments under anesthesia. A good anesthetic protocol should allow for reasonable and stable ...
Yao Chuanyi - - 2004
Several chiral drugs, promethazine, carteolol, celiprolol, and albuterol, were resolved with vancomycin as the chiral stationary phase by pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pressurized CEC) and capillary HPLC. The effects of pressure and electrical field strength on efficiency, resolution, and capacity factor in pressurized CEC were investigated. A mathematical model describing the ...
Perrin Nina Elisabeth Staffansdotter Sohlman - - 2004
To study the development of diabetic glomerulopathy, we performed two kidney biopsies after 10.5 and 17 years of type 1 diabetes in 19 normoalbuminuric, normotensive adolescents (10 males). The biopsies were examined with light and electron microscopy. The glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow, determined with inulin and ...
Vilkova N G - - 2004
The effect of high pressure gradients with the help of the membrane under which a decreased pressure is created and centrifugal forces on a decrease of the content of the dispersion medium in the emulsion and foam and increase in the capillary pressure was studied. In a centrifugal field at ...
Young Wen-Bin - - 2004
The capillary rise of liquid in a cylinder bank is examined in order to study the capillary pressure variation perpendicular to the direction of the cylinders. The calculations consider the local geometric variation of the flow channel and the position-dependent capillary pressure. The capillary flow around each cylinder is calculated ...
Van Dyck Maria - - 2004
Five patients with severe hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) were followed for 10-18 years. Because of proteinuria, arterial hypertension, and reduced glomerular filtration rates, they received either captopril (n=2) or enalapril (n=3), or both (n=1) for 8-15 years. Blood pressure was normalized and proteinuria reduced in all; glomerular filtration improved in ...
Gadola Liliana - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a consequence of chronic renal failure and it may produce bone demineralization, muscle proteolysis, and progression of chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of correction of metabolic acidosis with calcium citrate in an experimental model of renal mass ablation. ...
Cabrales Pedro - - 2004
Blood losses are usually corrected initially by the restitution of volume with plasma expanders and subsequently by the restoration of oxygen-carrying capacity using either a blood transfusion or possibly, in the near future, oxygen-carrying plasma expanders. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that high-plasma viscosity hemodilution ...
Fukuda Michio - - 2004
BACKGROUND: We reported that patients with sodium sensitive type of hypertension exhibited the lack of nocturnal fall in blood pressure with enhanced natriuresis during night. Sodium sensitivity is caused by diminished glomerular filtration capability and/or augmented tubular reabsorption of sodium, and seems tightly linked with glomerular capillary hypertension. In the ...
Fesler Pierre - - 2004
Blood pressure is a marker of elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, even within the normotensive range. The present study evaluates cardiorenal modifications observed in normotensive (<140/90 mm Hg) subjects. Using World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension definitions, 265 normotensive subjects were categorized as having optimal (n=73), normal (n=84), and high-normal ...
Shin Sehyun - - 2004
A newly designed pressure-scanning capillary viscometer is extended to measure the viscosity of whole blood over a range of shear rates without the use of anticoagulants in a clinical setting. In the present study, a single measurement of pressure variation with time replaces the flow rate and pressure drop measurements ...
Amoussou-Guenou K M - - 2004
The Microfiltrometer consists of a filtration system for diluted erythrocyte suspensions, through a filter containing 30 cylindrical micropores, 5 microm in diameter, under the influence of a driving pressure. A feeding sinusoidal alternating current of 40 kHz, 300 microA is delivered to the filter. The change in impedance is collected ...
Hahn Martin - - 2004
PGE(1) or PGI(2) acutely increase total skin perfusion in healthy volunteers. This study investigated whether skin nutritive perfusion and capillary pressure were increased by acute infusion of PGE(1). In a double blind randomised placebo controlled study the effect of Alprostadil (PGE(1), Prostavasin, intra-venous, infusion rate: 0.38 microg/h/kg,) on skin nailfold ...
Delles Christian - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the renoprotective mechanism of AT(1)-receptor blockers, we compared the effects of the AT(1)-receptor blocker valsartan with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine on renal hemodynamics and microcirculation. METHODS: A total of 58 patients (50.2 +/- 9.0 years) with mild to moderate essential hypertension were included in ...
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