Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 920
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Gooding K M - - 2010
Microvascular dysfunction is associated with end-organ damage. Macular oedema is an important component of diabetic retinopathy. Macular thickness can be accurately quantified by optical coherence tomography (OCT), enabling accurate assessment of the macular prior to clinically apparent abnormalities. We investigated whether macular (fovea) thickness in non-diabetic individuals is related to ...
Szczech Lynda A - - 2010
Little is known about the association of kidney dysfunction and outcome in acute severe hypertension. This study aimed to measure the association between baseline chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate), acute kidney injury (AKI, decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate > or =25% from baseline) and outcome in patients ...
van der Veldt Astrid A M - - 2010
Hypertension is a common side effect in cancer patients treated with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling and may represent a marker of clinical benefit. Functional rarefaction (a decrease in perfused microvessels) or structural rarefaction (a reduction in anatomic capillary density) may play an important ...
Benz Kerstin - - 2010
A potential role of the intrauterine environment in the development of low nephron number and hypertension in later life has been recently recognized in experimental studies and is also postulated in certain conditions in human beings. Nephrogenesis is influenced by genetic as well as by environmental and in particular maternal ...
Tanabe Paula - - 2011
We describe clinician-reported knowledge of the Joint National Committee (JNC7) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure definitions of Stage I hypertension; perceived causes of elevated blood pressure; barriers to blood pressure re-assessment; risk of adverse events associated with the elevated blood pressure. Health care providers from ...
Laugesen Jakob L - - 2010
Tubular pressure and nephron blood flow time series display two interacting oscillations in rats with normal blood pressure. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) senses NaCl concentration in tubular fluid at the macula densa, adjusts vascular resistance of the nephron's afferent arteriole, and generates the slower, larger-amplitude oscillations (0.02-0.04 Hz). The faster smaller ...
McDonough Alicia A - - 2010
One-hundred years ago, Starling articulated the interdependence of renal control of circulating blood volume and effective cardiac performance. During the past 25 years, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interdependence of blood pressure (BP), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have begun to ...
Phisitkul Sorot - - 2010
Metabolic acidosis often accompanies low glomerular filtration rate and induces secretion of endothelin, which in turn might mediate kidney injury. Here we tested whether treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with low glomerular filtration rate reduced the progression of kidney disease. Fifty-nine patients with hypertensive nephropathy and metabolic acidosis had ...
Miettinen Marja H - - 2010
We have found greater urinary protein excretion and higher glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and blood pressure in patients 6 years after acute nephropathia epidemica (NE) compared with seronegative controls. The present aim was to establish whether the long-term outcome is determined by the severity of acute illness. Serial plasma interleukin-6 ...
Chen Yuqing - - 2010
African-Americans are likely to develop hypertension and hypertensive nephrosclerosis. This grave prognosis, coupled with familial aggregation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Blacks, prompts a search for genetic risk factors for ESRD. Recent evidence implicates a crucial role for the sympathetic nervous system in progressive renal disease. We used the ...
West John B - - 2010
Avian pulmonary capillaries differ from those of mammals in three important ways. The blood-gas barrier is much thinner, it is more uniform in thickness, and the capillaries are far more rigid when their transmural pressure is altered. The thinness of the barrier is surprising because it predisposes the capillaries to ...
Gilbert Jeffrey S - - 2010
Antagonism of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 occurs during preeclampsia and is proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We reported recently that hypertension associated with chronic reductions in uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) is associated with increased soluble fms-like ...
Zhang Jie - - 2010
Antenatal steroid administration is associated with alterations in fetal kidney development and hypertension. However, a causal relationship between nephron deficit and hypertension has not been established. In this study, we measured nephron number, renal function, and blood pressure in sheep exposed antenataly to betamethasone. Pregnant sheep were given 2 betamethasone ...
Hosoba M - - 2009
Previous studies of diabetic patients indicate that increased urinary excretion of certain plasma proteins (molecular radii <55 A), such as IgG, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin, precede the development of microalbuminuria. Moreover, increases in these urinary proteins predict future development of microalbuminuria. To clarify whether blood pressure changes influence urinary excretion of ...
Moritz Karen M - - 2009
In rats, uteroplacental insufficiency induced by uterine vessel ligation restricts fetal growth and impairs mammary development compromising postnatal growth. In male offspring, this results in a nephron deficit and hypertension which can be reversed by improving lactation and postnatal growth. Here, growth, blood pressure and nephron endowment in female offspring ...
Singh C - - 2009
This report describes a 49-year-old woman diagnosed as idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHCPM) with imaging evidence of diffuse dural sinus thrombosis. Over the years, secondary to the raised intracranial pressure, she had developed an anterior basal encephalocele through the defects in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. The relation between ...
Palatini Paolo - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Predictors of microalbuminuria in the early stage of hypertension are not well known. We did a prospective study to investigate whether glomerular hyperfiltration assessed from serum cystatin C predicts development of microalbuminuria in hypertension. METHODS: We assessed 101 treatment-naive subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension and followed-up for a ...
Ginsbourg Shay - - 2009
In this study, the human RBC capillary flow has been modeled by passing 11 microl of RBC suspension (Hematocrit = 6%) in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of a viscosity of 1 and 2.6 cP (in the presence of 2% Dextran) through 5 microm pore diameter polycarbonate Nuclepore filters. We have ...
Miettinen Marja H - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We previously found increased urinary protein excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and blood pressure in a retrospective analysis of patients with previous nephropathia epidemica (NE). Here, we evaluated the long-term outcome after NE in a prospectively recruited patient group. METHODS: Proteinuria, GFR and ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure were assessed ...
Sato Yukihito - - 2009
Subclinical myocyte injury plays an important role in the progression of congestive heart failure. However, the clinical and hemodynamic factors that influence the concentrations of biomarkers of myocyte injury have not been clarified. Blood was sampled during diagnostic cardiac catheterization from 108 consecutive patients without acute coronary syndrome and acute ...
Yi S - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The N-amino-terminal fragment of the prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a marker of cardiac stress and elevated levels are indicative of heart failure. Few correlates of NT-proBNP levels have been identified in persons with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), and data from those without heart failure and from ...
Fava Cristiano - - 2008
The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of kidney function and the role of heritable factors in a sample of 249 siblings free from known cardiovascular disease and without antihypertensive drugs belonging to 110 families. Four different measures and estimates of kidney function were considered. Blood pressure ...
Chagnac Avry - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration. A major mechanism responsible for the obesity-associated hypertension is renal salt retention. An increased glomerular filtration fraction (FF) is expected to raise postglomerular oncotic pressure and to increase proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. The aim of the present study was to verify ...
Hill Gary S - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertensive nephrosclerosis is the second most common cause of end-stage renal disease, however morphologic evidence on the subject is poorly understood. A perennial and vexing problem in understanding kidney hypertension is that correlations between hypertension and vascular and glomerular lesions are only moderate, in part because all ...
VanTeeffelen Jurgen W G E - - 2008
Previous studies have suggested that agonists may increase functionally perfused capillary volume by modulation of blood-excluding glycocalyx volume, but direct evidence for this association is lacking at the moment. Using intravital microscopic visualization of mouse cremaster muscle, we determined the effects of bradykinin (10(-5) M) and sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) M) ...
Hermans Marc M H - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Arterial remodeling aims to maintain a constant circumferential wall stress (sigmac). A failing remodeling process is associated with stroke. Data on the relationship between chronic kidney disease and arterial remodeling are scarce. METHODS: We investigated the association between a lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and microalbuminuria with arterial remodeling ...
Zhang X - - 2008
A phenomenon that has defied explanation for two decades is the time scale for transient reabsorption in the classic experiments of Michel and Phillips on individually perfused frog mesentery microvessels. One finds that transient reabsorption lasts <2 min before a new steady state of low filtration is established when the ...
Hladunewich M A - - 2008
We evaluated the early postpartum recovery of glomerular function over 4 wk in 57 women with preeclampsia. We used physiological techniques to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow, and oncotic pressure (pi(A)) and computed a value for the two-kidney ultrafiltration coefficient (K(f)). Compared with healthy, postpartum controls, GFR ...
Mulè Giuseppe - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness and mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction are predictors of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recently, the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed as a surrogate index of arterial stiffness. It has been associated with an enhanced risk of stroke. The aim of our study was to assess ...
Saglam F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The observation that long-standing hyperuricemia is associated with chronic tubulointerstitial disease, afferent arteriolopathy, intrarenal vasoconstriction, and increased vascular resistance raises the hypothesis that hyperuricemia might contribute to chronic cyclosporine (CsA) nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hyperuricemia on chronic CsA nephropathy. METHODS: ...
Saran Anita M - - 2008
The prognostic significance of total kidney volume (TKV) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unknown. One hundred and seventy unrelated Caucasians with T2DM underwent multidetector-row computed tomography of the neck, chest, and abdomen to measure calcified plaque in the coronary artery (CorCP), carotid artery (CarCP), and infrarenal ...
Thomaseth Karl - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate the role of glycemic control on the evolution of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with mild-moderate hypertension under tight blood pressure control, and to address the current controversy whether diabetic nephropathy worsens, independently of blood pressure, proportionally to HbA1c at any ...
Boag A K - - 2007
Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrinopathy of older cats and is associated with an increased glomerular filtration rate (gfr). Renal dysfunction is also common in older cats and may develop after they have been treated for hyperthyroidism. This paper describes the changes in the gfr of 27 hyperthyroid cats in the ...
Boubred Farid - - 2007
Various antenatal events impair nephrogenesis in humans as well as in several animal models. The consecutive low nephron endowment may contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases in adulthood. However, little knowledge is available on the influence of the postnatal environment, especially nutrition, on nephrogenesis. Moreover, the ...
Fesler Pierre - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In large epidemiological studies and using serum creatinine or estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood pressure has emerged as a predominant determinant of the age-associated decline in renal function. METHODS: The present longitudinal study (median follow-up period of 5.8 years) was conducted in 132 never-treated patients with essential ...
Neal Christopher R - - 2007
Production of urine is initiated by fluid and solute flux across the glomerular filtration barrier. Recent ultrastructural studies have shown that under extreme conditions of no filtration, or very high filtration, a restriction to flow is predicted in a space underneath the podocyte cell body or its processes, the subpodocyte ...
Lee Kyungsoo - - 2007
Internal filtration contributes to convective clearance in high-flux hemodialysis but its contribution is limited by low pressure gradients. Therefore, a modification using a conventional dialyzer was conceived to enhance internal filtration and backfiltration (BF) rates. The modified dialyzer includes two longitudinal independent regions for blood flow, which were created by ...
Foley Robert N - - 2007
Whether the creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) thresholds used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify metabolic abnormalities similarly in minority and nonminority populations is unknown. We addressed this question among adult participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (n = 15,837). GFR was estimated ...
Steicke C - - 2007
The aim of this work was to develop a better understanding of a floating medium in a mechanical filtration mode. The experiments were carried out using a commonly available polystyrene floating medium filter with the grain size of 1mm. A sand medium filter with the similar grain size was also ...
Malan C A - - 2007
The filtration performance of five different types of filter intended for use in paediatric anaesthesia was measured. A total of 120 unused filters (24 samples of each filter type) were evaluated. The pressure drop and filtration performance, using challenges of sodium chloride particles, were measured for each filter at 3 ...
Mansano Roy - - 2007
Maternal water restriction (WR) may induce offspring plasma hypertonicity and enhanced vasopressin secretory responses. We determined effects of pregnancy WR on offspring body composition, renal morphology, and blood pressure. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 21) were randomized to WR, pair-fed (PF), and control from embryo day (e) 10 to ...
Thompson Joanne - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease is supranormal in childhood but falls steeply with age, often culminating in renal failure. The risk factors underlying these observations are unclear. We therefore sought to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and urinary albumin excretion ...
Bagby Susan P - - 2007
A large body of epidemiologic literature supports an inverse relation between birth weight and both systolic blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension, but mechanisms through which lower birth weight increases risk for hypertension are not established. This article advances the view that 1) permanently reduced nephron number is essential but ...
Marsh Donald J - - 2007
The paper presents a study of synchronization phenomena in a system of 22 nephrons supplied with blood from a common cortical radial artery. The nephrons are assumed to interact via hemodynamic and vascularly propagated coupling, both mediated by vascular connections. Using anatomic and physiological criteria, the nephrons are divided into ...
Ferreira-Filho S R - - 2007
The number of healthy individuals undergoing unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation is increasing world-wide. Obesity and nephron reduction could promote a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in urinary protein excretion in these individuals. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is also a risk factor for these patients. This ...
Boerrigter Guido - - 2007
Soluble guanylate cyclase is a heterodimeric enzyme with a prosthetic heme group that, on binding of its main ligand, NO, generates the second messenger cGMP. Unlike conventional nitrovasodilators, the novel direct NO- and heme-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activator BAY 58-2667 is devoid of non-cGMP actions, lacks tolerance development, and preferentially ...
Stanghelle Daniel - - 2007
High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification ...
Singh Reetu R - - 2007
Maternal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone has been reported to result in a nephron deficit and development of hypertension in the offspring of rats. However, it is not known whether elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT), the natural glucocorticoid, has similar effects on blood pressure and nephron endowment. The present study ...
Seo G T - - 2007
The filtration characteristics of two different module configurations with coarse pore filter (non-woven fabric) were investigated for sludge floc separation in an activated sludge reactor for domestic wastewater reclamation. A polypropylene non-woven fabric filter (35 g/m2) was used for the two different module configurations, one flat and one tubular type, ...
Benck Urs - - 2007
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blockers lower proteinuria and preserve renal function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The antiproteinuric effects are greater than their blood pressure reduction, involving the sieving properties of the glomerular filter. In DN, glomerular staining for heparan sulfate proteoglycans is decreased. AngII ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >