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Masuo K - - 2014
Many reviews focused on the role of sympathetic nervous activity in hypertension have been published. Recently a new treatment, radiofrequency renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension has been developed and examined in several clinical trials such as the Symplicity HTN and EnligHTN studies. In the Symplicity HTN-1 study ...
Gardinier Joseph D JD Biomechanics and Movement Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716 ; Department of Biological and Materials Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - - 2014
During physiological activities, osteoblasts experience a variety of mechanical forces that stimulate anabolic responses at the cellular level necessary for the formation of new bone. Previous studies have primarily investigated the osteoblastic response to individual forms of mechanical stimuli. However in this study, we evaluated the response of osteoblasts to ...
Sorota Steve S Cardiorenal Department, Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, - - 2014
: The regulation of blood pressure by the sympathetic nervous system is reviewed with an emphasis on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the development and maintenance of hypertension. Evidence from patients and animal models is summarized. Because it is clear that there is a neural contribution to ...
Nishihara Masaaki M Department of Cardiovascular Medicine - - 2014
Abstract Sympathoexcitation and oxidative stress in the brain have pivotal roles in hypertension with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether oral administration of irbesartan (IRB) and trichlormethiazide (TCM) decreases blood pressure (BP) via inhibiting sympathetic activity through anti-oxidant effects in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-cp). IRB/TCM treatment ...
Todoran Thomas M TM Division of Cardiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC; Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, - - 2014
Hypertensive heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Despite widespread availability of medical therapy, it remains a challenge to treat. Autonomic nervous system imbalance resulting in overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is integral to the development of hypertension and ultimately the development ...
Thomas Philip P Department of Nephrology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, - - 2014
Nearly one-third of the world's population has hypertension. The human and societal impact of hypertension is enormous. Primary hypertension accounts for 95 % of cases of hypertension in adults. The pathogenesis of primary hypertension is complex. The kidney and the sympathetic nervous system play important roles in the development and maintenance ...
- - 2014
Read the press release from NHS England and you could be forgiven for thinking that its latest staff survey has produced overwhelmingly positive findings. It is true that there has been progress on most measures, but in key areas major problems persist.
Grassi Guido G 1] Clinica Medica, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Prevenzione e Biotecnologie Sanitarie, Università Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy [2] IRCCS Multimedica, Sesto San Giovanni, Milan, - - 2014
Several studies have investigated the behavior of sympathetic cardiovascular drive in essential hypertension, providing conclusive evidence of the adrenergic activation characterizing this condition. These studies have also shown the importance of neuroadrenergic overdrive in the development and progression of the hypertensive state as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertension-related ...
Asahina Masato M Department of Neurology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, - - 2014
Background: According to Braak staging of Parkinson's disease (PD), detection of autonomic dysfunction would help with early diagnosis of PD. Objective: To determine whether the autonomic nervous system is involved in the early stage of PD, we evaluated cardiovascular and sudomotor function in early untreated PD patients. Methods: Orthostatic blood ...
Whitney Augusta A From R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center (A.W., R.V.O., E.H., M.F.S., A.N.P., T.T.M., W.A.E., R.C.A., C.L., J.W.N.), Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and Department of Orthopaedics (C.D.), University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, - - 2014
Intracompartmental pressure measurements are frequently used in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, particularly in patients with equivocal or limited physical examination findings. Little clinical work has been done to validate the clinical use of intracompartmental pressures or identify associated false-positive rates. We hypothesized that diagnosis of compartment syndrome based on ...
Gassler J P JP Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, - - 2014
The sympathetic nervous system is an effective homeostatic mechanism for modulating hemodynamics in times of stress and illness. Unfortunately, in some patients, this mechanism escapes physiologic control and through various mechanisms leads to resistant hypertension. Antihypertensive drug therapy is successful only to a point, leaving a significant percentage of patients ...
Van der Wal W A WA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the natural course of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in the lower leg. Twelve military men [mean age 30 (SD 4)] diagnosed with CECS after intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements immediately post-exercise in 21 legs, who did not undergo a fasciotomy, were reviewed ...
Leong Kui Toh Gerard KT Department of Cardiology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 529889; email: - - 2014
Resistant hypertension poses significant health concerns. There are strong demands for new and safe therapies to control resistant hypertension while addressing its common causes, specifically poor compliance to lifelong polypharmacy, lifestyle modifications, and physician inertia. The sympathetic nervous system plays a significant pathophysiological role in hypertension. Surgical sympathectomy for blood ...
Shannon R J RJ School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. - - 2014
The kinetics of the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) with acetone and dimethyl ether (DME) have been studied between 63-148 K and at a range of pressures using laser-flash photolysis coupled with laser induced fluorescence detection of OH in a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus. For acetone, a large negative ...
Barboza Fernanda Malaquias FM Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Products, Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa, 4748 Carlos Cavalcanti Avenue, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR, - - 2014
Microparticles of poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) containing manidipine dihydrochloride (MAN) were successfully prepared by the simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. All formulations showed loading efficiency rates greater than 80% and average particle size less than 8  μ m. Formulations had spherical shape with smooth and porous surface for ...
Xing Tao T Medicine, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, - - 2014
Sleep apnea is associated with repeated episodes of hypoxemia, causing marked increase in sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Considerable evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from apnea is the primary stimulus for sympathetic overactivity in sleep apnea patients. Several IH protocols have been developed either in animals or ...
Hinojosa-Laborde Carmen C U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research Fort Sam Houston, TX, - - 2014
Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock). The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and ...
Maranon Rodrigo O RO University of Mississippi Medical - - 2013
In postmenopausal women the mechanisms responsible for hypertension have not been completely elucidated and there are no gender specific guidelines for women despite studies showing that blood pressure is not as well controlled to goal in women as in men. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that the ...
Gil Juliana S JS Heart Institute, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São PauloSP, - - 2013
We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert ...
Ying Zhekang - - 2013
Particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) exposure increases blood pressure (BP) in humans and animal models. Abnormal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation has been implicated in the acute BP response to PM2.5 exposure. The mechanisms responsible for SNS activation and its role in chronic sustenance of hypertension (HTN) ...
Poe Donald P - - 2013
The pressure, temperature and density drops along SFC columns eluted with a CO2/methanol mobile phase were measured and compared with theoretical values. For columns packed with 3- and 5-μm particles the pressure and temperature drops were measured using a mobile phase of 95% CO2 and 5% methanol at a flow ...
Leong Kui Toh Gerard - - 2013
Resistant hypertension poses significant health concerns. There are strong demands for new safe therapeutics to control resistant hypertension, while addressing its common causes, specifically poor compliance to lifelong polypharmacy, lifestyle modification and physician inertia. The sympathetic nervous system plays a significant pathophysiological role in hypertension. Surgical sympathectomy for blood pressure ...
Das Undurti N - - 2013
Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is an effective treatment for resistant hypertension. But negative results with this procedure are also not uncommon. It is believed that the effectiveness of RDN is due to decreased sympathetic activity. It is suggested that the beneficial action of RDN could also at least, in part, ...
Kong Lingbo - - 2013
Germination of Bacillus spores with a high pressure (HP) of ∼ 150 megaPascals (MPa) is via activation of spores' germinant receptors (GRs). The HP germination of multiple individual Bacillus subtilis spores in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) was monitored with phase contrast microscopy. Major conclusions were: 1) >95% of wild-type ...
Geraldes Vera - - 2013
Background: Changes in the sympathetic nervous system are responsible for the initiation, development and maintenance of hypertension. An important central sympatho-excitatory region is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which may become more active in hypertensive conditions, as shown in acute studies previously. Objective: To depress chronically PVN neurons ...
Taylor J Andrew - - 2013
Though conventional wisdom suggests that a rise in blood pressure is a reality of advancing age, in fact, it appears that progressive elevation in sympathetic activity, not necessarily accompanied by increased blood pressure, is intrinsic to cardiovascular aging in humans. The mechanism behind this elevation would seem to reside in ...
Okada Yoshiyuki - - 2013
Cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. One possible mechanism may be sympathetic activation via the baroreflex. We tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of renin reduces BP without sympathetic activation, but diuresis augments sympathetic activity in elderly hypertensives. Fourteen patients with ...
Kim Chulsu - - 2013
Since it was discovered in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous attention as an emerging material for future devices, but it has been found that conventional lithographic processes based on polymer resist degrade its intrinsic performance. Recently, our group studied a resist-free scanning tunneling microscopy-based lithography in various atmospheres by injecting ...
Han Su Young - - 2013
Despite advances in our understanding concerning the pathology of hypertension, the mechanisms that underpin the origin of hypertension remain to be fully elucidated. This enigma is, at least in part, due to inherent limitations of various animal models of hypertension. Here, we show the genetically modified Cyp1a1-Ren2 rat model, in ...
Murray Rachel - - 2013
Girths are frequently blamed for veterinary and performance problems, but research into girth/horse interaction is sparse. The study objectives were (1) to determine location of peak pressure under a range of girths, and (2) to compare horse gait between the horse's standard girth and a girth designed to avoid detected ...
Parent Marianne - - 2013
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) were formulated into in situ forming implants (ISI) and microparticles (ISM) using PLGA and either N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) or triacetin. Physicochemical characterization was carried out, including the study of matrix structure and degradation. A strong correlation between drug hydrophobicity and the in vitro release profiles was ...
Jackson Kristy L - - 2013
Genetically hypertensive mice (BPH/2J) are hypertensive because of an exaggerated contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to blood pressure. We hypothesize that an additional contribution to elevated blood pressure is via sympathetically mediated activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. Our aim was to determine the contribution of the renin-angiotensin system ...
Maeda Kazuo - - 2013
Abstract Aims: To deduce the origin of preeclampsia characterized by hypertension and proteinuraia on the basis of results from animal studies and its therapeutic strategies. Methods: Sympathetic and parasympathetic zones of female non-pregnant rabbit brain were stimulated electrically with Kurotu's electrodes. Systolic blood pressure, urine volume, and proteinuria were evaluated ...
Bygstad Elisabeth - - 2013
Thoracoscopic sympathectomy at levels T2 or T2-T3 is a treatment for focal hyperhidrosis and facial blushing. These levels of the sympathetic trunk innervate the heart, and consequently, the procedure is reported to change the heart rate variability due to changes in efferent cardiac autonomic activity. Our objective was to investigate ...
Okada Yoshiyuki Y Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas, Texas; - - 2013
Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that increased large-artery stiffness and impaired sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) contribute to augmented morning surge in elderly hypertensive subjects. Morning surge was assessed as morning systolic BP averaged for 2 ...
Kim Byeong-Soo - - 2013
Structural phase transitions of N2-loaded and guest-free hydroquinone (HQ) clathrates have been investigated as a function of pressure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The N2-loaded β-form HQ clathrate reveals a structural transition to a new high pressure phase near 4 GPa, and exhibits gradual N2 release from the ...
Ukena Christian - - 2013
Despite advances in nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy, blood pressure control rates in hypertension are low. About 10 % of patients with hypertension fulfill the criteria of therapy resistance, which is defined as noncontrolled blood pressure despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs of different classes, including a diuretic, at optimal or maximal ...
de Leeuw Peter W - - 2013
Many studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system plays an important part in blood pressure regulation. One of its components is the baroreceptor reflex, which buffers sudden and also potentially chronic changes in blood pressure. The carotid baroreceptors have become a new target in the treatment of hypertensive patients ...
Volpe Massimo - - 2013
Renal sympathetic denervation has shown promise in treating hypertension resistant to drug therapy. This procedure lowers blood pressure via targeted attenuation of renal sympathetic tone. Up to now, it has also shown a favourable safety profile. Despite this, there is reason for cautious optimism, since longer follow-up is needed to ...
Yamamoto Hiromi - - 2013
AIMS: Cilnidipine is a unique Ca(2+) channel blocker that inhibits both L-type and N-type Ca(2+) channels. The present study aimed to assess the effects of intravenous cilnidipine on sympathetic outflow and sympathetic arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) regulations. MAIN METHODS: Carotid sinus baroreceptor regions were isolated from the ...
Rubinger Dvora - - 2013
Adequate sympathetic nervous system activation is essential for the compensatory mechanisms of blood pressure maintenance during the hemodialysis (HD) procedure. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity, however, may lead to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in HD patients. The present review focuses on recent findings on the sympathetic nervous ...
Santos Mário - - 2013
Resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem despite the available multidrug therapy. Over the next decades, its incidence will likely increase given that it is strongly associated with older age and obesity. Resistant hypertension patients have an increased cardiovascular risk, thus effective antihypertensive treatment will provide substantial health benefits. The ...
Böcklein Sebastian - - 2013
The active state of a catalyst: A high-pressure scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was used to bridge the pressure gap for the Ag-catalyzed ethylene epoxidation. An active oxygen species on an Ag(111) single crystal was characterized under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The same species was identified with STM in an ethylene/oxygen mixture. ...
Lewis Emily A - - 2013
Competitive adsorption and lateral pressure between surface-bound intermediates are important effects that dictate chemical reactivity. Lateral, or two-dimensional, pressure is known to promote reactivity by lowering energetic barriers and increasing conversion to products. We examined the coadsorption of CO and H2, the two reactants in the industrially-important Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, on ...
Harlan Shannon M SM Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2013
The fundamental importance of the hypothalamus in the regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular functions is well established. However, the molecular processes involved are not well understood. Here, we show that the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the hypothalamus is tied to the activity of the sympathetic ...
Zha Yan-Ping - - 2013
It is well known that low-intensity exercise training (ExT) is beneficial to cardiovascular dysfunction in hypertension. The tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for control of blood pressure and sympathetic tone, has been demonstrated to be increased in hypertensive rats. The aim of ...
Webb Alexander J - - 2013
Printable electronics is an innovative area of technology with great commercial potential. Here, a screen-printed functional ink, comprising a combination of semiconducting acicular particles, electrically insulating nanoparticles and a base polymer ink, is described that exhibits pronounced pressure sensitive electrical properties for applications in sensing and touch sensitive surfaces. The ...
Kaczmarski Krzysztof - - 2013
The efficiency of a packed column eluted with supercritical carbon dioxide at 323K and outlet pressures from 90 to 150bar was studied with the column in two different thermal environments. The 150mm×2.0mm ID stainless steel column was packed with spherical 5-μm porous silica particles with a covalently bonded nonpolar stationary ...
Eiken Ola - - 2013
+G(z) exposure above the tolerance threshold typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, with loss of: peripheral vision, central vision (black out), and consciousness (G-LOC). The aims of this study were to investigate: 1) whether G history influences latent time to, or sequence of, symptoms/signs upon G exposures exceeding the tolerance ...
Liu Mengxi - - 2013
Graphene grown on the same substrate but under different growth conditions may evolve diverse characteristics and disparate growth mechanisms. To explore this issue, graphene is prepared on Rh(111) by both ultrahigh vacuum and ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition methods and the different growth behaviors, the atomic-scale structures, and the stacking geometry ...
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