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Results 451 - 500 of 1603
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De Lazzari C - - 1998
One of the main purposes in using Left Ventricle Assist Devices (LVAD) to assist recovery in patients with heart failure, is to reduce the external work (EW) of the left natural ventricle. The simultaneous presence of mechanical ventilatory support can affect the value of this variable. The aim of our ...
Kadoi Y - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and analysis of ventriculoarterial coupling have been established as a useful tool to determine the left ventricular performance and arterial loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and ventriculoarterial coupling in anesthetized patients with either a normal heart ...
Solomon S B - - 1998
In patients with heart failure, decreased contractility resulting in high end-diastolic pressures and a restrictive pattern of left ventricular filling produces a decrease in early diastolic filling, suggesting a stiff ventricle. This study investigated the elastic properties of the myocardium and left ventricular chamber and the ability of the heart ...
McClain L C - - 1998
The observations in vivo of a non-linear, afterload-sensitive end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) and a linear, load-insensitive preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) relation may be reconciled by considering the PRSW as a product of both the ventricular ESPVR and the arterial elastance (Ea). We obtained pressure-volume data from eight conscious dogs. ...
Kubota T - - 1998
The increasing popularity of genetically engineered mice in cardiovascular research has made it important to evaluate cardiac function in small animals. We have developed a system to enable simultaneous pressure-dimension analysis of the mouse left ventricle. The chest was opened under anesthesia, and a 1.4 F micromanometer catheter was inserted ...
Kilby M D - - 1998
We investigated the acute hemodynamic effects of in utero fetal intravascular transfusion in anemic fetuses. A conductance catheter technique of measuring left ventricular (LV) volume and pressure-volume analysis was employed in six anemic ovine fetuses of 131 days gestation (range 131-133 days). The mean fetal weight at necropsy was 3,795 ...
Matsui Y - - 1998
Although dynamic cardiomyoplasty (DCMP) is currently being evaluated as an alternative to end-stage congestive heart failure, the overall results of DCMP are variable and inconclusive. We evaluated the effect of classic DCMP on systolic and diastolic cardiac function in normal heart using reliable indicators which minimize the influences of load ...
Yettram A L - - 1998
In systole the left ventricle of the heart behaves mechanically in two modes simultaneously, passive and active. When in the former mode, the ventricle has to carry and react to the pressure increase within the cavity, while in the latter, force is generated within the myocardium itself through the contraction, ...
Kameyama T - - 1998
We tested the feasibility of an isolated, balloon-in-ventricle, isovolumically contracting, crystalloid-perfused mouse heart preparation (n = 10) for studies of cardiac mechanoenergetics using the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) and myocardial oxygen consumption (VO2)-pressure-volume area (PVA) framework employed in larger species. The intraventricular balloon method was shown to be accurate for ...
Valach M - - 1998
In physiology, the mean arterial pressure is defined as an average pressure during one or several cardiac cycles. When calculus is not used, the mean pressure is approximately calculated as the diastolic pressure plus one third of the pulse pressure. In this article it is demonstrated that, when ventricular systolic ...
Araki J - - 1998
We briefly review that ventricular systolic pressure-volume area (PVA) can predict changes in myocardial O2 consumption (VO2) associated with cardiac work production (positive work) and absorption (negative work). PVA represents the total mechanical energy of cardiac contraction as it is an integral of mechanical energy generated during systole in the ...
Fraites T J TJ - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The early-to-late ventricular filling ratio (E:A) is widely used to index diastolic function. While filling patterns reflect diastolic properties, they can also modulate chamber pressures due to myocardial viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that such feedback can potentially temper effects of delayed relaxation and/or volume loading on diastolic pressures. METHODS AND ...
Keller B B - - 1997
Embryonic ventricular diastolic and systolic function was evaluated during normal ejection (coupled) and during acute ventricular outflow tract occlusion (uncoupled) in the stage 21 chick embryo. We simultaneously measured ventricular pressure with a servo-null system and ventricular dimensions using video microscopy. Experimental protocols included 1) baseline recording followed by acute ...
Guldner N W - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a dynamic cardiomyoplasty on failing hearts, it is essential to estimate the contraction force of the skeletal muscle and how its contraction is synchronized with the heart cycle. METHODS: In a 6-month study a small fluid-filled, balloon-mounted catheter was placed between the myocardium and ...
Klautz R J - - 1997
We investigated the relationship between heart rate and contractility in seven anaesthetized young piglets by measuring contractility at different atrial pacing rates. To study the origin of this relationship we repeated the measurements after blocking the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel with ryanodine. We assessed contractility using indices derived from ...
Hondo T - - 1997
Although pulmonary venous (PV) flow is closely related to left atrial (LA) pressure dynamics, few investigators have discussed it in relation to LA functions, i.e., reservoir, conduit, and booster pump functions. We examined changes in PV flow rate, LA dimension, and left ventricular filling volume in 11 dogs, and assessed ...
Berger D S - - 1997
In isovolumically beating hearts, the speed of left ventricular (LV) relaxation is uniquely determined by peak active stress (sigma max). In contrast, such a succinct description of relaxation is lacking for the ejection beats, although ejection is generally thought to hasten relaxation. We set out to determine how ejection modifies ...
Chang K C - - 1997
An elastance-resistance model has long been used to assess the systolic mechanical behavior of the ventricular pump under an in situ, open-chest experiment. However, there is difficulty in the clinical application of such a model because of the required isovolumetric signal that is obtained by occluding the ascending aorta in ...
Greim C A - - 1997
The relation between left ventricular end-systolic wall stress (ESWS) and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening (Vcfs) was examined in four non-random groups with 12 patients each. In group A, preload was increased by the administration of hydroxyethylstarch 30 mL min-1. In group B, preload was reduced by administering nitroglycerine ...
Harada K - - 1997
Ventricular systolic function was assessed in fetuses, 18 with and 18 without constriction of the ductus arteriosus by serial two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic studies. Ductal constriction was defined as maximum systolic velocity of > 140 cm/s and diastolic flow velocity of > 30 cm/s. Ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic areas were ...
Reynolds T - - 1997
The evaluation of left ventricular systolic function represents a common request for an echocardiographic examination. Several parameters have been proposed to quantitate left ventricular systolic function. The descent of the base of the left ventricle is founded on sound principle but currently requires multiple, time-consuming steps to derive during an ...
Murakami M - - 1997
The effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve (CSN) stimulation on the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration in arterial blood were studied in dogs. In 12 anesthetized and open-chest dogs, left ventricular pressure and volume were measured simultaneously with a microtip catheter and a conductance catheter, ...
de Simone G - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To study left ventricular longitudinal shortening in arterial hypertension and the relative contribution of longitudinal and circumferential fiber shortening to ventricular ejection. METHODS: Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiograms were obtained for 50 normotensive subjects (aged 49 +/- 12 years) and 50 never-treated mild hypertensive patients (aged 49 +/- 11 years), ...
Cabreriza S E - - 1997
Modern indices of left ventricular function require accurate measurement of left ventricular volume (LVV). Although conductance catheter (COND) measurements of LVV have been found to be reproducible under steady state conditions in closed chest animals, after median sternotomy, measurements of LVV are subject to exaggerated variation in parallel conductance (alpha ...
Strobel J S - - 1997
Little is known about the effects of cardiac preload and cardiac geometry on defibrillation efficacy with endocardial electrodes. We studied nine pigs implanted with an endocardial lead system in the normal and reduced preload state. In the reduced preload state, a balloon catheter was inflated in the inferior vena cava ...
Kohno K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether fentanyl directly alters left ventricular (LV) contractility and oxygen consumption. This is because of the difficulty in defining and evaluating contractility and energy use independently of ventricular loading conditions and heart rate in beating whole hearts. METHODS: This study was conducted to clarify the ...
Arnoult F - - 1997
BACKGROUND: In heart transplants, left ventricular function may be impaired in the absence of rejection or graft atherosclerosis. Matching between left ventricle and arterial receptor, i.e., ventriculoarterial coupling, and left ventricular efficiency have never been studied. METHODS: Left ventricular pressure-volume loops and single beat analysis were used to determine effective ...
Colan S D - - 1997
As a result of a number of factors, there is tremendous diversity in the pattern of cardiac mechanics encountered in athletes. Nevertheless, several trends can be identified, and several conclusions are possible. Hypertrophy of a mild to moderate degree and out of proportion to body size is a common finding. ...
Schultz A M - - 1997
Hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters were determined during the first 24 h in 13 burned patients with concomitant inhalation injury (burn surface area 40-60 percent). In all patients right ventricular function was severely compromised evidenced as a significant increase in end-diastolic volumes, decrease in ejection fractions, low stroke work indices and ...
Vogel M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of right ventricular volume and mass with three dimensional echocardiography and comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Measurements of right ventricular volumes performed on three dimensional datasets acquired by transthoracic echocardiography were compared to those obtained from magnetic resonance imaging performed on the same day. Volumes were measured ...
Matsuura W - - 1997
Although an increase in vagal tone is known to slow heart rate (HR), whether it also depresses left ventricular contractility through mechanisms independent of the bradycardic effect remains unknown. The chief aim of this investigation, therefore, was the separation of the observed vagally mediated depression of ventricular contractility into direct ...
Powell S R - - 1997
BACKGROUND: We examined the ability of zinc-bis-histidinate to preserve postarrest myocardial function when added to a standard crystalloid cardioplegic solution. METHODS: Domestic pigs (35 to 50 kg) on left-sided cardiopulmonary bypass were subjected to 90 minutes of regional ischemia followed by 60 minutes of hypothermic cardioplegic arrest induced by antegrade ...
White P A - - 1997
This study examines the accuracy of the conductance catheter technique and, in particular, parallel conductance [expressed as offset volume (Vc)] changes during the cardiac cycle in the human left ventricle. Two groups of patients were assessed: group 1, with an open atrial septal defect, and group 2, with an interventricular ...
Jellinek H - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation resulted in increased, decreased or unchanged end-diastolic volumes together with either profoundly decreased or unchanged right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF). The goal of our study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on measurements of RVEF performed during apneic periods with different levels of ...
Dickstein M L - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: Reports of improved ejection fraction, coupled with decreased filling pressures, have prompted a number of centers to begin evaluating the efficacy of heart reduction surgery to ameliorate symptoms of heart failure. However, the impact of this operation on cardiac mechanics is unknown. We applied a multiple compartment elastance model ...
Piriou V - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The effects of changes in preload on paradoxical myocardial wall motion during ischemia have been previously studied. However, the studies have been performed using slow volume changes. It was decided to study the effects of fast changes in preload, which would occur during caval occlusion, on the regional pressure-length ...
Gründeman P F - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Coronary bypass grafting of posterior circumflex branches requires full displacement of the heart (apex pointing ventrally), which, in the beating heart, results in an arterial pressure drop. We analyzed its origin. METHODS: To facilitate displacement, the Utrecht "Octopus" method was applied in 8 anesthetized beta-blocked pigs and the beating ...
Chang M C - - 1997
The ability to clinically assess myocardial contractility in a load-independent fashion facilitates the selection of appropriate inotropes, when needed, during shock resuscitation. Within the framework of the ventricular pressure-volume diagram, the slope of the ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (expressed as ventricular end-systolic elastance, Ees), has been shown to accurately reflect ...
Dickstein M L - - 1997
Three-compartment elastance modeling predicts that the magnitude of gain is solely dependent on the ratio of free wall and septal elastances. However, when nonlinearities in pressure-volume relationships are considered, the same model predicts that gain is load dependent. We therefore studied left-to-right ventricular interactions in the isolated cross-perfused canine heart ...
Vonk Noordegraaf A - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) offers the possibility to study blood volume changes within the right atrium during the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of EIT in the assessment of right ventricular diastolic function in COPD. DESIGN: By means of region of ...
Tamura M - - 1997
To evaluate changes in the right ventricular volume in early human neonates, twenty fullterm infants were examined at 2, 24 and 120 h of age by two-dimensional echocardiography. End-diastolic and end-systolic right ventricular volumes (RVEDV and RVESV, respectively) were calculated with a computer system based on the bi-plane Simpson's rule ...
Shoucri R M - - 1997
Ventriculo-arterial coupling is expressed as the ratio Emax/eam (maximum ventricular elastance/arterial elastance). Different areas under the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) are expressed in terms of Emax/eam. The explicit inclusion of the active force of the myocardium in the mathematical formalism describing the pressure-volume relation (PVR) leads to new insight into ...
Mori M - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the left ventricular mechanoenergetic effects of a novel Ca2+ sensitizing agent, MCI-154, on diseased human hearts compared with dobutamine. BACKGROUND: Unlike conventional cardiotonic agents, a Ca2+ sensitizer that could produce a positive inotropic action by altering the responsiveness of myofilament to ...
Cassidy S C - - 1997
To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection ...
Gillebert T C - - 1997
This contribution reviews the regulation of left ventricular pressure (LVP) fall by load and relates this regulation to left ventricular contractility. Load regulation of LVP fall has to be distinguished from neurohumoral regulation, from effects induced by arterial reflected waves and from long-term load effects on contractility. The response of ...
Machii T - - 1997
We investigated the acute effects of the positive inotropic agents (dobutamine and a novel phosphodiesterase inhibitor OPC-18790) on left ventricular diastolic chamber stiffness in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We obtained pressure-volume (PV) data before and after drug administration in 17 patients with DCM by using a conductance catheter ...
Emery J L - - 1997
We investigated whether strain softening (or the Mullins effect) may explain the reduced left ventricular stiffness previously associated with the strain-history-dependent preconditioning phenomenon. Passive pressure-volume relations were measured in the isolated, arrested rat heart during LV balloon inflation and deflation cycles. With inflation to a new higher maximum pressure, the ...
Schulz S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The classical description of ventriculoarterial coupling by calculating the ratio between the effective arterial elastance Ea to the end-systolic elastance Ees does not give insight into the underlying dynamics of the interaction between left-ventricular pressure (LVP) and aortic pressure (AOP) and flow (AOF). The aim of this study was ...
Fahrenberg J - - 1997
Stroke volume estimates and left ventricular ejection time (1) derived from calibrated finger pulse pressure recordings (Portapres 2, TNO-BMI, Amsterdam) based on the Model Flow method and (2) derived from impedance cardiography were compared in 20 student subjects. The recordings were made for seven conditions: supine rest, standing, mental arithmetic, ...
Takaki M - - 1997
We investigated rat left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics in three different preparations. We obtained an upward convex curvilinear end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) regardless of left ventricular (LV) contractility in in situ and excised cross-circulated rat hearts. We also obtained a linear myocardial O2 consumption per beat (VO2)-end-systolic pressure-volume area (PVA; a ...
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