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Scopinho America Augusto - - 2011
The lateral septal area (LSA) is a limbic structure involved with autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. An inhibitory influence of the LSA on baroreflex activity has been reported. However, the local neurotransmitter involved in this modulation is still unclear. In the present study, we verified the involvement of local LSA ...
de Man Frances S - - 2012
In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH), sympathetic adrenergic activity is highly elevated. Sympathetic overactivity is a compensatory mechanism at first, but might be detrimental for cardiac function in the long run. We therefore investigated whether chronic low-dose treatment with bisoprolol (a cardioselective β-blocker) has beneficial effects on cardiac function in experimental ...
Gentner Nicole J - - 2012
Chronic smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are known to adversely alter the structural and mechanical properties of arteries. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on circadian blood pressure patterns, arterial stiffness, ...
Lee Jing-Yi - - 2011
Gastro-oesophageal variceal haemorrhage is one of the most dreadful complications of portal hypertension and can be controlled with vasoconstrictors. Nevertheless, sympathetic tone abnormality and vascular hyporesponsiveness in portal hypertension may impede the haemostatic effects of vasoconstrictors. Propranolol, a β-blocker binding the G-protein-coupled adrenoceptor, is a portal hypotensive agent. However, whether ...
Letson Hayley L - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage is responsible for up to 40% of trauma mortality, and of these deaths, 33% to 56% occur during the prehospital period. In an effort to translate the cardioprotective effects of Adenocaine (adenosine, lidocaine) and Mg (ALM) from cardiac surgery to resuscitation science, we examined the early resuscitative effects ...
Kang Yong-Jin - - 2011
We investigated bladder function, with special focus on initial functional changes, by objective report of decompensated bladder according to the percentage of residual urine volume to bladder capacity in awake, obstructed rats. Thirty rats were randomly subjected to sham operations (n=10) or partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO, n=20). Cystometric investigations ...
Gaede Andrea H - - 2012
Hypertension is a major cause of morbidity. The neuropeptide catestatin [human chromogranin A-(352-372)] is a peptide product of the vesicular protein chromogranin A. Studies in the periphery and in vitro studies show that catestatin blocks nicotine-stimulated catecholamine release and interacts with β-adrenoceptors and histamine receptors. Catestatin immunoreactivity is present in ...
Runck Hanna - - 2011
We investigated the effects of intra-abdominal pressure on respiratory system compliance at different PEEP levels. 20 ventilated rats underwent four pressure levels (7, 9, 11, 13mmHg) of helium pneumoperitoneum and were allocated to one of the four PEEP groups (0, 3, 6 and 9cmH(2)O). From the expiratory pressure-volume curve the ...
Smith Pauline M - - 2011
The subfornical organ (SFO), a sensory circumventricular organ lacking the normal blood brain barrier with well documented roles in cardiovascular regulation, has recently been identified as a potential site at which the adipokine, leptin, may act to influence central autonomic pathways. Systemic and central leptin administration has been shown to ...
Cardinale Jeffrey P - - 2012
Hypertension is considered a low-grade inflammatory condition, and understanding the role of transcription factors in guiding this response is pertinent. A prominent transcription factor that governs inflammatory responses and has become a focal point in hypertensive research is nuclear factor-κB (NFκB). Within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a known brain ...
Li Tao - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: The authors previously found that 50-60 mmHg mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was an optimal target resuscitation pressure for hemorrhagic shock before bleeding was controlled in rats. However, the optimal target resuscitation pressure for hemorrhagic shock after bleeding has been controlled has not been determined. METHODS:: A model of ...
Fujita Megumi - - 2011
Hypertension is very prevalent in chronic kidney disease and critical for its prognosis. Sympathoexcitation and oxidative stress have been demonstrated to be involved in chronic kidney disease. We have shown previously that sympathoexcitation by brain oxidative stress mediates arterial pressure elevation in the salt-sensitive hypertension model, Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Thus, ...
Shimizu Ryosuke - - 2011
The interactive hypotensive effect of the combination treatment of losartan (LOS) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) was assessed using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Intravenous coadministration of these drugs showed a prolonged and enhanced time-course of the hypotensive effect. A population PK analysis revealed the delayed elimination of LOS ...
Chelko Stephen P - - 2012
The 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) model has provided many insights into the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension. However, studies using the 2K1C model often report low success rates of hypertension, with typical success rates of just 40-60%. We hypothesized that these low success rates are due to fundamental design flaws in the ...
Ryan Michael J - - 2011
One potential mechanism contributing to the increased risk for encephalopathies in women with preeclampsia is altered cerebral vascular autoregulation resulting from impaired myogenic tone. Whether placental ischemia, a commonly proposed initiator of preeclampsia, alters cerebral vascular function is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia in pregnant rats ...
Cao Ying - - 2012
Obstructive sleep apnea patients experience recurrent upper airway (UA) collapse due to decreases in the UA dilator muscle activity during sleep. In contrast, activation of UA dilators reduces pharyngeal critical pressure (Pcrit, an index of pharyngeal collapsibility), suggesting an inverse relationship between pharyngeal collapsibility and dilator activity. Since most UA ...
Zhou Qiquan - - 2011
Pathophysiological characteristics of hemorrhagic shock at high altitude are different from that at plain which involve severe injury, high mortality, difficult treatment and compromised liquid tolerance. High-altitude pulmonary/cerebral edema and multiple-organ dysfunction render the conventional treatment ineffective. Herein, we evaluated the resuscitation effects of hyperoxia solution on high-altitude hemorrhagic shock ...
Sampson Amanda K - - 2012
The complex role of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) in arterial pressure regulation has been well documented. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic low-dose angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion decreases arterial pressure in female rats via an AT(2)R-mediated mechanism. Estrogen can differentially regulate components of the RAS and is known to influence arterial ...
Wang Sheng Hung - - 2011
We used a self-comparison method and harmonic analysis to compare the blood pressure wave before and after the injection of antihypertensive drugs (atenolol, captopril, and losartan) in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly after the intraperitoneal injection of drugs. Atenolol significantly reduced all the harmonic ...
Rungatscher Alessio - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of epinephrine and levosimendan on cardiac function after rewarming from deep hypothermia. METHODS: Forty-five male Wistar rats (400-500 g) underwent cardiopulmonary bypass and were cooled to a core temperature of 13°C to 15°C within 30 minutes. After 15 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, they were ...
Vandevord Pamela J - - 2012
Identifying the level of overpressure required to create physiological deficits is vital to advance prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies for individuals exposed to blasts. In this study, a rodent model of primary blast neurotrauma was employed to determine the pressure at which acute neurological alterations occurred. Rats were exposed to ...
Howard Catherine G - - 2012
Angiotensin (ANG) II-dependent hypertension is characterized by increases in intrarenal ANG II levels, derangement in renal hemodynamics, and augmented tubular sodium reabsorptive capability. Increased nephron expression of renin-angiotensin system components, such as angiotensinogen by proximal tubule cells and renin by collecting duct principal cells, has been associated with an augmented ...
Chapanian Rafi - - 2011
The feasibility of generating an extended period of linear release of therapeutic proteins from photo-cross-linked, biodegradable elastomer monolithic devices in vitro has been previously demonstrated. The release is driven primarily by the osmotic pressure generated upon the dissolution of the encapsulated particles within the polymer. The osmotic pressure is provided ...
Chang Ching-Chih - - 2011
Eur J Clin Invest 2011 ABSTRACT: Background  Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor used in the treatment for arterial hypertension. It can also augment nitric oxide (NO) production, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension and modulation of porto-systemic collaterals. This study investigated the effects of ...
Veeramani Chinnadurai - - 2011
The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of Melothria maderaspatana leaf fractions on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertensive rats and to identify compounds from the active fraction by GC-MS analysis. Administration of DOCA salt significantly increased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to sham-operated control rats. When ...
Cardoso Paulo Francisco Guerreiro - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:To present a model of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) administration (inhaled vs. parenteral) and to assess the functional performance of the lungs in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation followed by median sterno-laparotomy and anticoagulation. The main pulmonary artery was ...
Kim Kyung-Hee - - 2011
The aims of this study were to establish a reliable model of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) in rats and verify the pathophysiological features of this model by evaluating cardiac function using serial echocardiography and a pressure-volume analysis. MR was created in 37 Sprague-Dawley rats by making a hole with a ...
Oliveira Ubirajara Oliveira de - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest resuscitation can present myocardial dysfunction determined by ischemic time, and inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) can reduce cardiac dysfunction during reperfusion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of angiotensin-I and different periods of ischemia on functional recovery in isolated rat hearts. METHODS: Isolated hearts from Wistar rats ...
Hsu Chien-Ning - - 2012
Hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage have been associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) both can inhibit NO availability by competition with L-arginine (L-Arg). However, whether a combined analysis of these 3 parameters can serve as an ideal biomarker of hypertension remains unclear. ...
Declercq V - - 2011
Obesity-related hypertension may be caused by activation of the local adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system, resulting in exaggerated production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Additionally, secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue, which prevents endothelial dysfunction, is altered in obesity. Consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to modulate cytokine ...
Gebhard Simon - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis. We investigated the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension on the platelet proteome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypertension was induced in cyp1a1ren-2 transgenic rats by feeding indole-3-carbinol (nā€Š=ā€Š10) and in Fischer 344 rats by subcutaneously infusing ANG II (nā€Š=ā€Š7). After 14 ...
Tang Xiaorui - - 2011
The baroreflexes stabilize moment-to-moment arterial pressure. Sinoaortic denervation (SAD) of the baroreflexes results in a large increase in arterial pressure variability (APV) across various species. Due to an incomplete understanding of the nonlinear interactions between central and peripheral systems, the major source of APV remains controversial. While some studies suggested ...
Agarwal Deepmala D Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, - - 2012
Exercise training (ExT) is a recommended adjunct to many pharmaceutical antihypertensive therapies. The effects of chronic ExT on the development of hypertension-induced renal injury remain unknown. We examined whether ExT would preserve renal hemodynamics and structure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and whether these effects were mediated by improved ...
Saravana Kumar Murugesan - - 2011
The present study was undertaken to assess the antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of veratric acid on N(ω)-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, weighing 180-220g, by oral administration of the l-NAME (40mg/kg body weight/day) in drinking water ...
Abe Chikara - - 2011
To examine a cooperative role for the baroreflex and the vestibular system in controlling arterial pressure (AP) during voluntary postural change, AP was measured in freely moving conscious rats, with or without sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation (SAD) and/or peripheral vestibular lesion (VL). Voluntary rear-up induced a slight decrease in AP (-5.6 ...
Rizzi Elen - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Increased oxidative stress upregulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and transforming grow factor (TGF-β), which are involved in hypertensive cardiac remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that tempol (an antioxidant) could prevent these alterations in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension. METHODS: Sham-operated or hypertensive rats were treated with tempol (18mg.kg(-1)day(-1) or vehicle) for ...
Mori Asami - - 2011
The aim of this study was to determine the role of β(3)-adrenoceptors in the action of endogenous catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) on rat retinal arterioles in vivo. Using an original high-resolution digital fundus camera, the rat ocular fundus images were captured. The diameter of retinal arterioles contained in the images ...
Wang Xin-Bao - - 2011
Sulfur dioxide is considered a toxic gas in air pollution and detrimental to many organs, however, it can be generated endogenously in the cardiovascular system in vivo. Gaseous sulfur dioxide has an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing effect at low concentrations, but is endothelium-independent at high concentrations and has a negative inotropic effect ...
Jaenisch Rodrigo B - - 2011
Respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves functional capacity in chronic heart-failure (HF) patients, but the basis for this improvement remains unclear. We evaluate the effects of RMT on the hemodynamic and autonomic function, arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and respiratory mechanics in rats with HF. Rats were assigned to one of four ...
Vasudevan Harish - - 2011
Endothelial dysfunction and increased blood pressure following insulin resistance play an important role in the development of secondary cardiovascular complications. The presence of testosterone is essential for the development of endothelial dysfunction and increased blood pressure. Testosterone regulates the synthesis of vasoconstrictor eicosanoids such as 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid (20-HETE). In a ...
Smith David W - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a devastating condition for which traditionally extra-cranial protection has been utilized in the form of helmets, which largely fail to protect against intracranial injury. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the pathologic outcome after TBI can be improved via slosh mitigation by internal jugular vein (IJV) ...
Blaudszun Grégoire - - 2011
The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) is proposed and used as a reliable index of left ventricle (LV) contractility despite the fact that its afterload-independency has been challenged. Furthermore, the physiological relevance of its volume-axis intercept, V0, remains unclear. Systemic haemodynamics and pressure-volume loops obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion were ...
Shimizu Hideo - - 2011
Both osteoporosis and high blood pressure are major diseases in aging populations. Recent studies demonstrated that some antihypertensive drugs reduced the risk of bone fracture in elderly patients. Although calcium channel blockers (CCB) are widely used as first-line antihypertensive agents, there is no evidence that they prevent osteoporosis. In this ...
- - 2011
[This corrects the article on p. 54 in vol. 14, PMID: 21120177.].
Chen Tao - - 2011
To probe into the intervening action of polysaccharides of Zhu Zi Shen (Rhizoma Panacis Majoris) (PZZS) on oxidative stress and hemodynamics in rats with adriamycin-induced chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). After SD rats were successfully modeled with adriamycin, they were randomly divided into a normal control group, a model group, ...
Penn Alexander H - - 2011
Hemorrhagic shock and splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) followed by reperfusion are associated with high mortality. However, rapid cardiovascular failure and death may also occur before reperfusion in hemorrhagic shock and SAO. We show in a rat SAO model that, upon gut ischemia, mean arterial blood pressure transiently elevates and then ...
Zhou Zhang-Yan - - 2011
This study aimed to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in erectile dysfunction (ED) in two-kidney one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats treated with the β-blocking agent propranolol. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a normal control group, a hypertensive control group and a propranolol ...
Li Huan - - 2011
The blood pressure lowering effect of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) that contained <3 kDa peptides, isolated by membrane ultrafiltration from the thermolysin digest of pea protein isolate (PPI), was examined using different rat models of hypertension as well as hypertensive human subjects. The PPH showed weak in vitro activities ...
Ferreira Halina C - - 2011
Lung mechanics, histology, oxygenation and type-III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA were studied aiming to evaluate the need to readjust ventilatory pattern when going from two- to one-lung ventilation (OLV). Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: the left lung was not ventilated while the right lung received: (1) tidal volume (V(T))=5ml/kg ...
Kitta Takeya - - 2011
PURPOSE: Stress urinary incontinence is often seen in postmenopausal women but limited information is available on hormone dependent changes of urethral function. Thus, we examined how ovariectomy and estrogen replacement affect urethral continence mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In female nulliparous Sprague-Dawley® rats under urethane anesthesia after ovariectomy with or without ...
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