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Results 701 - 750 of 1222
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Miller M A - - 1993
The aim of this study was to determine platelet intracellular free calcium with respect to age, sex, race, and agonist stimulation in patients with essential hypertension compared with normotensive subjects. Intracellular free calcium was measured, using Fura-2-AM, in 42 normotensive and 52 patients with untreated essential hypertension. Of these, 22 ...
Baron A D - - 1993
Insulin resistance has recently been found to be a common feature of essential hypertension. We have tested the hypothesis that reduced skeletal muscle blood flow in response to insulin may at least partially account for the wide range of insulin sensitivity observed in normotensive subjects. To this end, we studied ...
Ferrier C - - 1993
1. In prehypertension, abnormalities in cardiovascular control mechanisms have been described. It has been postulated that this may involve hereditary disturbances in the sympathetic regulation of blood pressure. Since the neurochemical methods used to test sympathetic nervous system activity have been rather imprecise, in the present study we have applied ...
Narkiewicz K - - 1993
In order to evaluate whether borderline hypertension might be associated with hyperinsulinaemia, twenty non-obese borderline hypertensives and twenty matched normotensives underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Blood pressure, plasma glucose and insulin were measured at fasting and 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 ...
Laurent S - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is known to decrease arterial elasticity and systemic compliance. However, the arterial tree is not a homogeneous system, and whether a distal medium-sized artery such as the radial artery behaves like proximal arteries has not been determined. The aims of the present study were, first, to characterize non-invasively ...
Klein R - - 1993
This study provides precise estimates of the prevalence of retinal lesions in nondiabetic persons with and without hypertension. The findings suggest that retinopathy (6% in normotensives and 11% in people with hypertension), and retinal arteriolar narrowing (11% in normotensives and 19% in people with hypertension) are common. Further longitudinal study ...
Antonicelli R - - 1993
The Camerano Study on Arterial Hypertension (AH) is a cross-sectional study, carried out on a wide population sample in a small town in Central Italy, and aimed at revealing the prevalence of certain characteristics of AH in the population examined. In particular, we studied some aspects of blood pressure (BP) ...
Lonati L - - 1993
We measured the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA) and of its bifurcation (BIF) in 20 borderline hypertensives (age 24 +/- 4 years) and in 20 normotensive subjects (age 23 +/- 6 years), as a control group. Both carotid axes have been scanned from different views on a ...
Muldoon M F - - 1993
Reviewed in the present article are over 150 family history studies of essential hypertension. By comparing normotensive individuals with and without a family history of hypertension, these investigations seek to identify potential pathophysiologic factors that predate the development of high blood pressure. The research literatures summarized here represent four general ...
Schwartz G L - - 1992
We investigated whether blood pressures are higher in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents than in normotensive offspring of normotensive parents outside the physician's office and, if so, whether these higher blood pressures are dependent on the level of dietary sodium intake. We compared 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure profiles between 11 ...
Sheps D S - - 1992
To test the hypothesis that hypertension diminishes pain perception, a study was made that evaluated the relation between arterial blood pressure and thermal pain perception in human subjects. The average mean arterial pressure in all 20 men studied (10 hypertensive, 10 normotensive) proved to be significantly related to both thermal ...
Grossman P - - 1992
Elevated blood pressure in psychophysiological studies of borderline hypertension is frequently attributed to the effects of increased sympathetic tone, and with few exceptions, the potential parasympathetic contributions have not been considered. Furthermore, of the investigations that have addressed vagal influences upon blood pressure, most have employed invasive pharmacological assessment of ...
Supiano M A - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity contributes to the mechanism by which hypertension is associated with insulin resistance in humans. We performed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests to determine tissue sensitivity to metabolic effects of insulin (SI) and ...
Widgren B R - - 1992
Blood pressure and heart rate responses to isometric handgrip exercise were studied at age 31 and after 5 years in young nonhypertensive men with positive family histories of hypertension (n = 13) and in those with negative family histories of hypertension (n = 13) for two generations to test whether ...
Allemann Y - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether currently normotensive offspring of essential hypertensive parents may have alterations in left ventricular mass (LVM) and function, and how these relate to some potential determinants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Echocardiographical indices of LVM (assessed by two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiogram), 'clinic' blood pressure and daytime ambulatory blood pressure ...
Erlinge D - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Neuropeptide Y is a co-transmitter with noradrenaline in sympathetic neurons supplying arteries and veins with potent contractile effects. To investigate the role of neuropeptide Y in hypertension, we measured the circulating levels of neuropeptide Y and noradrenaline in patients with severe hypertension. DESIGN: Samples were collected from patients with ...
Oshima T - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension has not been fully clarified. In order to characterize the relation between NaCl sensitivity and genetic features of hypertension, the responses to dietary Na manipulations were examined in essential hypertensive patients with and without a family history of ...
Tseng W P - - 1992
The outcome of untreated hypertension was investigated in a population of 17,713 persons in southern Taiwan who were aged 15 or over when they had taken part in a blood pressure survey in 1963. In the 27-year follow-up period, 55.8% of the overall mortality was comprised of those who were ...
Lamensdorf A M - - 1992
The present study investigated whether subjects with a positive family history of hypertension would display differential responses in blood pressure and heart rate across different laboratory tasks. We also wanted to know whether subjects would display stable within-subject responses across different laboratory tasks. Twenty-three family history positive subjects and 23 ...
Salerno J A - - 1992
To determine whether hypertension, the predominant risk factor for stroke and vascular dementia, is associated with brain atrophy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to quantify brain volumes and cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Eighteen otherwise healthy, cognitively normal older hypertensive men (mean +/- SD age, 69 +/- 8 years, duration ...
Reichel H - - 1992
Essential hypertension has been associated with disturbed calcium metabolism, but the available data are controversial. We measured parameters of calcium metabolism in groups of untreated male subjects (n = 78) with elevated diastolic blood pressure (101 +/- 6 mmHg, mean +/- SD) and age-matched male subjects (n = 79) with ...
Fabbri A - - 1992
1. We evaluated the inheritance of erythrocyte Na+/Li+ countertransport activity in IgA nephropathy by assessing this parameter in 19 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy and in their 53 relatives (32 parents and 21 siblings). The possible use of erythrocyte Na+/Li+ countertransport activity as a marker of poor prognosis was also ...
Luft F C - - 1992
To determine the effects of age on the responses of renin, aldosterone (PA), sodium excretion, and renal function to provocative maneuvers, we performed volume expansion and contraction in 390 normotensive and 212 hypertensive subjects in the second to seventh decades of life. The subjects were classified as Na-sensitive if their ...
Neutel J M - - 1992
This study was performed to evaluate the possible role of heredity in the clinical characteristics of hypertension. Metabolic, endocrine, and renal measurements were compared in subjects with normal blood pressure who had a family history of hypertension (n = 60) with those of subjects with normal blood pressure who did ...
Hamilton C A - - 1992
AIMS: The effects of endothelin upon blood pressure were investigated in normotensive and hypertensive rabbits. METHODS: Endothelin was injected intravenously into conscious animals and blood pressure was monitored. Groups were pretreated with vehicle, calcium antagonists, indomethacin to block prostaglandin release, or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to block endothelium-derived relaxing factor ...
Reneman R S - - 1992
AIM: To determine whether there are inhomogeneities in arterial wall distensibility with age and hypertension. BACKGROUND: It has been known for some years that arteries lose their elasticity with increasing age and that they are less distensible in subjects with established and borderline hypertension than in age-matched controls. RESULTS OF ...
Manhem K - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the haemodynamic effects of hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in 11 hypertensive women aged between 29 and 38 years. DESIGN: In randomized order, the subjects were examined on days 2-7 (follicular phase) and on days 20-24 (luteal phase). All medication ...
Rosskopf D - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Primary hypertension has been reported to be associated with an enhancement of Na(+)-H+ exchange. However, details of the kinetic properties of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger in hypertensives and its dependence upon age and gender in normotensives are unknown. PARTICIPANTS: We determined the activity of the platelet Na(+)-H+ exchanger in 20 ...
Veglio F - - 1992
In 45 patients with essential hypertension and 15 age-matched normotensive control subjects, the renal resistive index, as an expression of arterial impedance, was determined using Doppler ultrasound. In both kidneys the resistive index was assessed at baseline and after captopril test (50 mg orally). In the moderate and severe hypertensives, ...
Aldrich Harry A. - - 1992
To determine the effect of age on left ventricular status and systemic hemodynamics, we evaluated by echocardiogram older (age at or above 60 years, n equals 148) and younger (age is less than 60 years, n equals 472) employed adults. Using World Health Organization criteria, the population was divided into ...
Ostergren J - - 1992
Finger skin circulatory responses to three forms of sympatho-adrenal activation were investigated in 14 patients with mild hypertension and 14 matched normotensive controls. Finger nailfold skin capillary blood cell velocity was measured by video-photometric capillaroscopy and finger pulse volume by strain-gauge plethysmography (digital arterial pulse amplitude; DAPA). DAPA decreased more ...
Agha A - - 1992
Platelet homogenates from 200 ml blood of essential hypertensives (n = 28) and normotensives (n = 13) were deproteinized and separated by gel chromatography. The fractions obtained were then tested for vasopressor activity in the isolated perfused rat kidney. In both normotensives and hypertensives, two vasopressor fractions appeared. There was ...
Missault L - - 1992
Available data suggest that exercise capacity is limited in hypertension. The mechanism of this reduced maximal exercise capacity has not been fully elucidated. In this study 22 patients with mild essential hypertension (162 +/- 22 mmHg systolic and 95 +/- 8 mmHg diastolic) and 36 normotensive control subjects (128 +/- ...
Covi G - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To detect the existence of a possible relationship between arterial hypertension and adrenergic reactivity to pressure stimuli, and changes in left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF). PATIENTS: Fifty-nine young subjects with borderline arterial hypertension and ten sex- and age-matched controls were investigated. After three medical examinations, the subjects were divided ...
Widgren B R - - 1992
Normotensive young men (mean age 36 years) with positive (PFH) (n = 13) and negative (n = 29) family histories of hypertension were investigated in order to study systemic and renal hemodynamics at baseline conditions and during infusion of low doses (0.1 and 0.5 ng/min/kg) of angiotensin II (AII). The ...
Journo H J - - 1992
1. The forearm venous pressure-volume relationship was studied in 14 young men with borderline hypertension and in 16 control subjects of the same age and sex. Strain-gauge plethysmography was used to evaluate volume changes after slow increases and decreases in distention, in order to estimate the amplitude of the hysteresis ...
Bruehl S - - 1992
Hypertension has been found to be related to decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli. The current study explored whether this relationship extends into the normotensive range of blood pressures. Resting blood pressures were assessed in 60 male normotensives. Subjects then underwent a 1 min finger pressure pain stimulation trial. Pain ratings ...
Henneberry H P - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma osmolality (Posm)-plasma arginine vasopressin (PAVP) response relationships with particular characteristics of sensitivity, gain or response pattern (linear/non-linear) occur more frequently in hypertensive than normotensive subjects. DESIGN: Analysis of Posm-PAVP curves observed in individual normotensive and hypertensive subjects rather than whole groups was considered appropriate for ...
Palatini P - - 1992
Exercise training is currently recommended in the management of mild hypertension, but the relationship between training and ventricular arrhythmias has never been investigated in hypertensive subjects. Forty hypertensive sportsmen were studied by means of 24-h ECG Holter monitoring and the results were compared with those obtained in 40 sedentary hypertensives, ...
Williams S A - - 1992
A Laser-Doppler flowmeter was used to investigate the effect of essential hypertension on blood flow in maximally vasodilated skin, heated to 44 degrees C. Maximum Laser-Doppler flux (MLDF) was measured in 12 subjects with essential hypertension on no treatment and in 12 normotensive control subjects, and the resistance to flow ...
Cléroux J - - 1992
Several studies have indicated that a single bout of physical exercise induced a significant antihypertensive effect during the hours after the activity. However, little information is presently available on the underlying hemodynamic changes. We examined 13 essential hypertensive patients and nine normotensive subjects in a randomized, crossover study design during ...
Parmer R J - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in baroreflex control of heart rate may be important in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the influence of heredity on baroreflex function, we measured baroreflex sensitivity in 40 untreated patients with essential hypertension grouped by the presence (FH+) or absence (FH-) of a ...
Miller S B - - 1992
The present study examined the influence of trait anxiety on the cardiovascular responses of normotensive offspring of hypertensives and normotensives. Forty-eight young adult males, half of whom were offspring of hypertensives (PH+), were exposed to an extended active coping stressor. This was a 1 hr shock avoidance procedure with avoidance ...
Parati G - - 1992
Subjects with family history of hypertension represent a suitable model to investigate the mechanisms responsible for early cardiovascular structural and functional changes occurring in essential hypertension. In our study we have addressed the factors involved in determining the mild elevation in office blood pressure frequently observed in normotensive subjects with ...
Jorgensen R S - - 1992
We identified, via cluster analysis, subgroups of young men with a parental history of hypertension (PH+) who differed in their profiles of need for approval, covert experience of anger, and extent to which they express anger when provoked. The PH+ subgroup with high need for approval and low anger acknowledgment ...
Taddei S - - 1992
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is reduced in essential hypertensive subjects. To evaluate whether this abnormality is a primary defect or is a consequence of blood pressure increment, in offspring of essential hypertensive and normotensive subjects (n = 13 subjects for each group) matched for age, sex, body weight, and blood pressure, we ...
Gasser P - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To compare morphological and hemodynamic parameters of skin microcirculation in the fingertip in patients with essential hypertension and normotensive control subjects. DESIGN: Consecutive sample of patients. METHODS: Digital capillary blood flow measurements under normal and cooled conditions were assessed by nailfold video capillaroscopy using the technique of flying spot. ...
Fredrikson M - - 1992
Blood pressure reactivity and passive behavioral tasks was studied in patients with mild essential hypertension and normotensive controls. The passive condition included 10 presentations of a 6 sec, 78 dB, 1000 Hz tone without any response requirements. In the active condition subjects were given an additional 10 tone presentations and ...
Reimann I W - - 1992
The pressor effect of intravenous tyramine (TYR) and noradrenaline (NA) has been evaluated, respectively, in 157 tests in 19 healthy unmedicated subjects, and in 202 tests in 24 similar subjects, all of whom took part in greater than or equal to 3 test sessions. The pressor dose (PD) that raised ...
Floras J S - - 1992
Several lines of evidence suggest a psychophysiological link between stress, adrenomedullary activation, and the genesis of hypertension. Experimental data support four important concepts: 1) epinephrine stimulates prejunctional beta 2-adrenergic receptors that facilitate norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve endings; 2) epinephrine can be converted into a cotransmitter by neuronal uptake and ...
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