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Results 551 - 600 of 1222
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Muntinga J H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences between in-vivo properties of a vascular bed in hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. DESIGN: Despite the controversy about the origin of essential hypertension and its accompanying vascular changes, it is generally assumed that the characteristic increase in peripheral resistance when hypertension progresses is caused by arteriolar ...
Rudberg S - - 1997
Alterations in the renal dopamine [DA] system have been suggested to contribute to the development of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. To identify early abnormalities in renal handling of DA and sodium we challenged 16 normotensive patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), 18 normotensive nondiabetic subjects with familial borderline hypertension, and ...
Khder Y - - 1997
The radial artery compliance may be paradoxically increased in untreated arterial hypertension. However, the effect of blood pressure normalization on the radial artery compliance is not well known. We performed a cross-sectional study in order to investigate the effects of blood pressure control on the radial artery diameter and compliance ...
Nyklícek I - - 1997
The relationship between blood pressure and self-reports of physical symptoms and job-related problems was investigated in a sample of 262 male and female teachers. The subjects were divided into three groups: treated hypertensives (THT, N = 23); untreated hypertensives (UHT, N = 101); and normotensives (NT, N = 123). After ...
Schmieder R E - - 1997
There is controversy over whether endothelial function is impaired in human essential hypertension. All studies to date have used measurements of forearm blood flow by plethysmography to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelial function. In contrast to these studies, which have focused on resistance vessels, we have determined what effects the ...
Giannattasio C - - 1997
Compliance and distensibility of middle-sized conduit arteries are increased in hypertension and reduced in hypercholesterolemia. Despite their frequent association in the same individual, the combined effect of these two conditions on arterial mechanical properties is unknown. We studied four groups of age- and sex-matched subjects: 10 normotensive normocholesterolemic subjects, 10 ...
Masuo K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the prevalence of hyperinsulinemic subjects among young, nonobese, Japanese men, and to evaluate characteristics, in particular, of sympathetic nerve system activity and lipid fractions in hyperinsulinemic subjects. METHODS: Norepinephrine, plasma insulin, and lipid fractions were measured in 512 normotensive, 124 borderline hypertensive (BHT) and 88 established hypertensive ...
Wu K - - 1997
One hundred and thirty-one borderline hypertensive patients were followed up for 17 years. A cohort of normotensives strictly matched by age, sex, region and occupation served as controls (1:1). It was found that 64.6% of borderline hypertensive patients developed into established hypertensives after 17 years follow-up, 25.5% restored to normotensives ...
Nishimura H - - 1997
We investigated the usefulness of angiotensin II (AT II)-induced hypertensive chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the ovary, which was induced with dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA) in rats. Ovaries with DMBA-induced cancer had poor blood flow, while normal ovaries had abundant brood flow when blood pressure was normal. The brood flow of the normal ...
Köhler T - - 1997
The question of psychophysiological reactivity of borderline hypertensives is still controversial. METHODS: Young males with borderline blood pressure levels and normotensive controls were recruited during a routine examination. Samples of study I comprised 19 subjects, samples of study II 18 subjects. Two stressors were presented (distressing movie, mental arithmetic), each ...
Frostegård J - - 1997
Heat-shock proteins protect cells from damage but are also often the target of immune responses in inflammation and may therefore both induce and perpetuate the chronic inflammation characterizing atherosclerosis. Hypertension is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerosis, and recently, borderline hypertension also has been related to atherosclerosis. The present study ...
Ceresini G - - 1997
The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is localized in the peripheral and central nervous systems as well as in the adrenal medulla where it coexists with catecholamines. We evaluated the changes in GAL plasma levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures and in the plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine ...
Giannattasio C - - 1997
Arterial compliance and distensibility, measured by non-invasive and specific techniques, give us information on the cardiovascular alterations occurring in pathophysiological conditions. Recently, it has been observed that familial hypertension is characterized by a slight but significant increase of 24-hour blood pressure and, despite this, by normal arterial function. On the ...
Uehara Y - - 1997
We investigated whether the sex of hypertensive parents mediates determination of blood pressure in their normotensive offspring. We analyzed medical checkup data from 7279 Japanese university students. Six hundred and forty-one students had one hypertensive parent with or without hypertensive grandparents, and 609 of these were available for the present ...
O'Connell D P - - 1997
We performed the present studies to determine whether a proximal renal tubular dopamine D1-like receptor defect exists in human essential hypertension. Twenty-four subjects were studied (13 normotensive and 11 hypertensive) in a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study using fenoldopam, a selective D1-like receptor agonist. Subjects were studied in sodium metabolic balance ...
Stewart K M - - 1996
Increased nociceptive thresholds have been reported in hypertensive rats and humans, and also in normotensive humans at risk for developing hypertension by virtue of elevated resting blood pressure levels or a family history of hypertension. Because risk for hypertension may be more accurately predicted by a combination of risk factors, ...
Chang H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible role for mutations of the epithelial sodium channel in patients with essential hypertension. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study screening essential hypertension patients and normotensive controls for the presence of a genetic abnormality in the epithelial sodium channel beta-subunit in the Japanese population. SETTING: An institutional teaching ...
Sanchez R - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Non-modulating hypertensives are a subset of sodium-sensitive hypertensives characterized by a failure to modulate renal, vascular and adrenal glomerulosa responsivenesses to angiotensin II appropriately. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the plasma renin activity (PRA) and urinary kallikrein-like activity (Ku) under different sodium conditions in essential hypertensive patients and in the modulating ...
Salem M M - - 1996
Few studies have quantified the effect of hypertension on survival in the hemodialysis population. We report the effect of hypertension on 1-year survival in 649 hemodialysis patients (89% black). In univariate analysis, hypertension was associated with improved 1-year survival (relative risk [RR], 0.48; P = 0.002 compared with normotensive patients). ...
Tandon O P - - 1996
Brainstem auditory evoked potential responses (BAEPs) were recorded from CZ-A1 and CZ-A2 scalp regions in 23 hypertensive and 14 normotensive subjects. Hypertension was graded depending upon the extent of raised blood pressure. BAEPs in patients of grade I and II hypertension did not show any change when compared to normotensive ...
Kannel W B - - 1996
Control of hypertension, labile or fixed, systolic or diastolic, at any age, in either sex appears to be central to prevention of atherothrombotic brain infarction (ABI). Prospectively, hypertension proved the most common and potent precursor of ABI's. Its contribution was direct and could not be attributed to factors related both ...
Middeke M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The percentage of patients with office or white-coat hypertension has been reported in international studies to be 20-30% of the hypertensive population. These patients can be identified and distinguished from patients with established hypertension by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) or self-measurement. There is still no satisfactory explanation for ...
Brinton T J - - 1996
Abnormalities of the arterial pulse waveform reflect changes in cardiovascular structure and function. These abnormalities may occur early in the course of essential hypertension, even before the onset of blood pressure elevation. Previous studies of cardiovascular structure and function have relied on invasive intra-arterial cannulation to obtain the arterial pulse ...
Georgiades A - - 1996
Our primary aim in the present study was to investigate the association between blood pressure measured in the laboratory and in the ambulatory state in a group of middle-aged borderline hypertensive men and age-matched normotensive control subjects. In addition, we examined the relation between stress-induced blood pressure measurements and left ...
Delva P T - - 1996
Despite the importance of magnesium in essential hypertension, few data are available on the ionized intracellular concentration of this ion. We therefore studied intralymphocyte free intracellular magnesium (Mgi) in 32 untreated essential hypertensive subjects and 27 normotensive control subjects by means of a fluorimetric technique based on the use of ...
Horký K - - 1996
Arterial hypertension is not only a haemodynamic abnormality, but it is associated with several metabolic and humoral changes. Heredity appears to be participating in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH). We studied whether some metabolic, humoral and haemodynamic changes could be detected in genetically predisposed normotensive sons of hypertensive families ...
Blanco M - - 1996
In the present study we evaluated the effect of intravenous metoclopramide on blood pressure in normotensive (untrained, football players, runners) and hypertensive subjects. There was a decrease in blood pressure only observed in untrained female subjects and this was greater in hypertensive subjects. In football players and runners the decrease ...
Pose-Reino A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical implications of mild white coat hypertension (WCH). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 102 subjects (54 men, 48 women), 51 of whom were normotensive and 51 slightly hypertensive. None had ever received antihypertensive therapy. An ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) record (Accutracker II), a 24-h electrocardiogram and ...
Sander D - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the extent of autonomic activation following brain infarction differs between hypertensive and normotensive humans, and to investigate the role of the insular cortex for this sympathetic activation. DESIGN: Prospective, hospital-based study. SETTING: Department of Neurology of a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Forty-two patients with essential hypertension ...
Kronholm E - - 1996
Thirty-nine (39) middle-aged subjects with mild to moderate hypertension (WHO stages I-II) and 35 healthy normotensive controls from a community sample participated in this psychophysiological study, the aim of which was to study whether the electrodermal lability as an indicator of increased sympathetic activity is related to hypertension. Resting blood ...
Schobel H P - - 1996
Observations in animals and humans show that pain sensitivity might be lower (and pain tolerance higher) in hypertensive as compared to normotensive subjects. One hypothesis, derived from experimental studies, assumes that enhanced activation of baroreceptors leads to an enhanced central inhibition. A central hypothesis assumes changes in the central (endogenous) ...
Grandi A M - - 1996
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the relationships among hyperinsulinemia, a family history of hypertension, and essential hypertension. Insulin and C-peptide responses to an oral glucose load were studied in 175 lean normotensives (N) and untreated hypertensives (H) with (F+) and without (F-) a family history of ...
Kyriakides Z S - - 1996
To investigate if the response of the contralateral artery during coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is different in hypertensive than in normotensive patients and whether this response is related to plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). We examined the change in ET-1 plasma levels and the reactivity of the left circumflex artery (LCx) ...
Fillingim R B - - 1996
Recent research suggests that resting blood pressure is inversely related to pain sensitivity, even among normotensives; however, most of these studies have included only male participants. To determine whether this hypoalgesic effect of blood pressure was also present in females, we investigated thermal and ischemic pain responses in a group ...
Andronico G - - 1996
To verify the effect of a pressure load on the production of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) in essential hypertensives, we studied 15 patients and 8 normotensive controls before and during orthostatism. Upright standing was characterized both in normals and in hypertensives by significant higher rate-pressure product [RPP = systolic ...
Räikkönen K - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether feelings of exhaustion and emotional distress reflecting chronic perceived stress contribute to a pattern of pituitary and adrenocortical responses that would in turn be able to distinguish borderline hypertensives from normotensive controls. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Helsinki University Central Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one middle-aged, male borderline ...
Huikuri H V - - 1996
Low heart rate (HR) variability is a risk factor for cardiac mortality in various patient populations, but it has not been well established whether patients with long-standing hypertension have abnormalities in the autonomic modulation of HR. Time and frequency domain measures of HR variability were compared in randomly selected, age-matched ...
DeSouza C A - - 1996
The fibrinolytic system is thought to be impaired in older hypertensive adults, thus contributing to the elevated risk of atherothrombosis, stroke, and acute myocardial infarction in this population. However, studies that have examined the fibrinolytic system in hypertensive individuals have failed to control for the confounding effects of other metabolic ...
Hu H H Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 1996
To test the hypothesis that long-term lead accumulation, as reflected by levels of lead in bone (as opposed to blood which reflects recent lead exposure), is associated with an increased odds of developing hypertension. Case-control study of participants in the Veterans Administration (now Department of Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study, ...
Borghi C - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors predisposing subjects to the development of stable hypertension and to estimate their relative importance in 70 young patients with borderline hypertension monitored for 10 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal evaluation of the incidence of stable hypertension [diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 95 mmHg]. METHODS: Patients were examined at ...
Nelson R G - - 1996
To determine if parental hypertension is associated with proteinuria in offspring with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 438 diabetic Pima Indians (172 men, 266 women) aged 20 years or more and both of their parents were examined. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or more, diastolic ...
Gazzaruso C - - 1996
AIM: The purpose of the study was to investigate lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels and apolipoprotein (a) (apo(a)) phenotypes, and their relationship with a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). METHODS: One hundred and eight newly diagnosed patients with mild to moderate EH and ...
Noll G - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is still uncertain, but genetic factors and the sympathetic nervous system are likely to be involved. Sympathetic nerve activity and hormonal circulatory control mechanisms, however, are affected by blood pressure itself. Hence, early functional changes are best investigated in normotensive subjects at risk to ...
Manuck S B - - 1996
To determine whether offspring of hypertensives show enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity, we evaluated several indices of sympathoadrenal activation and cardiovascular responsiveness to behavioral stimuli among 90 normotensive, young adult men having either one or two hypertensive parents (PH+(-), PH++) or normotensive parents only (PH--) (n = 30/group). Measurements included ...
Gudbjörnsdóttir S - - 1996
The relationship between resting levels of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA) and blood pressure is a matter of controversy. Body weight has recently been identified as an independent determinant of muscle sympathetic discharge, which may have influenced previous studies focused on MSA and mechanisms of hypertension. In the present study, ...
Franz I W - - 1996
Evaluation of high blood pressure would be greatly facilitated by a standardized test procedure that could enable comparable and reproducible blood pressure determinations to be made. It would also be useful to have a standardized method for monitoring sympathetic activity, so that the occurrence and magnitude of inordinate stress responses ...
Casiglia E - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To define whether a diurnal rhythm of peripheral resistance exists in normotensive and hypertensive subjects, has any relationship with that of blood pressure and differs in dipper and non-dipper hypertensives. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-three subjects (13 normotensives and 30 mild-to-moderate essential hypertensives) confined for 24 h to bed were ...
Hoffstedt J - - 1996
A relationship between abdominal obesity and hypertension is well established. In search for an early-onset defect in adipocyte function linking these two conditions, we compared catecholamine sensitivity in subcutaneous abdominal fat cells with 24-hour systolic, mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure in 16 healthy, normotensive subjects. Clear inter-individual variations in ...
Galanti G - - 1996
The aim of this study was to establish the existence of primary acromegalic cardiomyopathy different from the cardiovascular complications often associated with acromegaly. Thirty-four acromegalic patients, referred to our non-invasive laboratory and divided into two groups on the basis of the presence of hypertension, underwent echocardiographic studies. A control group ...
Vaccaro O - - 1996
This study evaluates prospectively the relationship between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and blood pressure. From a population of 1376 men and women aged 40-59 years, all those with IGT (n = 54) plus 133 age- weight- and sex-matched normoglycaemic control subjects were selected after excluding treated hypertensive patients. Blood pressure, ...
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