Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1895
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Robinson G V - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several randomised controlled trials have shown that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA reduces blood pressure (BP). This randomised, sham-placebo controlled crossover trial assesses whether CPAP produces a similar clinically significant fall in BP in hypertensive ...
Miller Donald M - - 2006
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of the ProSeal LMA and SLIPA supralaryngeal airways (SLA) with the standard tracheal tube (TT) in 150 consecutive day-case laparoscopic gynecological surgery procedures requiring general anesthesia. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were randomized into three groups. An identical general anesthesia technique was used in ...
Gaitini Luis - - 2006
The Laryngeal Mask (LMA) Unique and the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) are single-use supraglottic devices. There are no published studies comparing these devices during spontaneous ventilation. We compared the LMA Unique and the Cobra PLA with respect to 1) ventilatory variables during spontaneous ventilation, 2) time to achieve an effective ...
Goldmann Kai - - 2006
Many problems with the Classic laryngeal mask airway (CLMA) in infants are believed to be related to its inadequate cuff design. One of the main limitations of the CLMA is that the resulting low-pressure seal can be inadequate for positive pressure ventilation (PPV). The ProSeal LMA (PLMA), a new laryngeal ...
Hagberg Carin - - 2006
Trials of the King LT trade mark (LT, King Systems, Noblesville, IN) in controlled ventilation of the lungs have shown that it is an effective supraglottic airway device. We designed this study to evaluate the King LT regarding ease of insertion, position within the airway, and anatomic sealing properties during ...
Martinón-Torres Federico - - 2006
This is the first study aiming to assess the effects of heliox in combination with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (Hx-nCPAP) as a rescue treatment in infants with refractory acute bronchiolitis. Fifteen out of 78 infants with acute bronchiolitis consecutively admitted to PICU fulfilled the inclusion criteria: clinical score>or=5 or ...
Calero Gabriel - - 2006
Flow limitation during sleep occurs when the rise in esophageal pressure is not accompanied by a flow increase which results in a non-rounded inspiratory flow shape. Short periods of flow limitation ending in an arousal or in a fall in SaO2 (hypopnea or upper airway resistance syndrome) are detrimental but ...
Pay L L - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The modified Airway Management Device (AMD) and the Proseal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) are both supraglottic airway devices designed to maintain airway patency and allow ventilation during anaesthesia. In this prospective, randomized trial, we compared the two devices in patients undergoing major gynaecological procedures. METHODS: Eighty-two patients ...
García-Río F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Slowing of inspiratory muscle relaxation has been used as an index for inspiratory muscle fatigue. However, maximum relaxation rate measured from oesophageal pressure traces after maximum sniff (P(oes) MRR) has limited clinical usefulness because it requires an oesophageal balloon catheter system. Objectives: It was the aim of this study ...
Abe Kazuo - - 2006
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on oxygenation and the shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) during one-lung ventilation (OLV). METHODS: Twenty-five patients who were undergoing resection of a descending aortic aneurysm were studied. Arterial oxygenation, Qs/Qt, and hemodynamics were evaluated just before ...
Sundy John S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of environmental endotoxin is important in the pathogenesis of asthma and other environmental airway diseases. Inhaled airway challenge using lipopolysaccharide in humans has been performed for over 20 years to assess the airway response to endotoxin. However, there are no published data on the short-term safety of endotoxin ...
Sohn Kiwon - - 2006
We used our computational model of the respiratory system which features non-linear variation of airway dimensions and airway-generation-based structure to show airflow velocities (cm/sec) during natural slow expiration on different end-expiratory lung volumes. Expiratory airflow rates at the mouth can be easily measured using a flow meter. However, because there ...
Visser W Anton - - 2006
Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the T7-8 or T8-9 intervertebral space into 2 groups. The control ...
von Goedecke Achim - - 2006
Bag-valve-mask ventilation in an unprotected airway is often applied with a high flow rate or a short inflation time and, therefore, a high peak airway pressure, which may increase the risk of stomach inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration. Strategies to provide more patient safety may be a reduction in inspiratory ...
McCool F Dennis - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The anatomy and neurophysiology of cough has been reviewed in the preceding section. The objective of this section is to describe how the varied anatomic components of the respiratory system work in concert to produce an effective cough. METHODS: This was accomplished by reviewing (1) the factors needed to ...
McCool F Dennis - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Airway clearance may be impaired in disorders associated with abnormal cough mechanics, altered mucus rheology, altered mucociliary clearance, or structural airway defects. A variety of interventions are used to enhance airway clearance with the goal of improving lung mechanics and gas exchange, and preventing atelectasis and infection. METHOD: A ...
McArdle Nigel - - 2006
OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea) is a common condition that is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. It is remains unclear what role OSA plays in determining cardiovascular risk. The immediate physiological changes that occur during upper airway obstruction are potential contributors to cardiovascular risk in OSA. These changes include increased sympathetic ...
Kasasbeh E - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common medical condition that occurs in a considerable percentage of the population. Substantial evidence shows that patients with OSA have an increased incidence of hypertension compared with individuals without OSA, and that OSA is a risk factor for the development of hypertension. It is ...
Tasci S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and to determine the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment on BNP levels. BACKGROUND: Increased sympathetic activity, repetitive rises in blood pressure, and apnea-induced wall ...
Dursunoglu Nese - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) might cause right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to determine the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on right ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI) in OSA patients without hypertension. 49 subjects without hypertension, diabetes mellitus, any cardiac and pulmonary disease had ...
Ferretti A - - 2006
The ability of negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique to differentiate between awake snorers with and without obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) was investigated. Forty-eight subjects with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and 7 healthy subjects, as non-snorer controls, underwent the NEP application of -5 and -7 cmH2O in the seated and supine ...
Mills Paul J - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by noradrenergic activation. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice and has been shown to effectively reduce elevated norepinephrine (NE) levels. This study examined whether the reduction in NE after CPAP is due to an increase in NE clearance and/or ...
Shardonofsky Felix R - - 2006
Desmin is a structural protein that is expressed in smooth muscle cells of both airways and alveolar ducts. Therefore, desmin could be well situated to participate in passive and contractile force transmission in the lung. We hypothesized that desmin modulates lung compliance, lung recoil pressure, and airway contractile response. To ...
Bagnoli P - - 2005
A new model lung (ML), designed to reproduce the tracheal pressure vs. fluid flow relationship in animals undergoing total liquid ventilation (TLV) trials, was developed to be used as a mock bench test for neonatal TLV circuits. The ML is based on a linear inertance-resistance-compliance (LRC) lumped-parameter model of the ...
Wexler David - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the aerodynamic consequences of conservative unilateral inferior turbinate reduction using computational fluid dynamics methods to accomplish detailed nasal airflow simulations. DESIGN: A high-resolution, finite-element mesh of the nasal airway was constructed from magnetic resonance imaging data of a healthy man. Steady-state, inspiratory airflow simulations were conducted at ...
Narkiewicz Krzysztof - - 2005
There is growing evidence of a causal relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension. Untreated OSA may have direct and deleterious effects on cardiovascular function and structure through several mechanisms, including sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. OSA may contribute to or augment elevated blood pressure levels ...
Migliori Claudio - - 2005
Our aim was to compare the effects of nasal bilevel positive airway pressure (N-BiPAP) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) on gas exchange in preterm babies. Twenty preterm infants (mean gestational age, 26.3 weeks; mean weight at study, 1,033 g) were evaluated. Patients received two repeated cycles of N-CPAP ...
Tiran Joseph - - 2005
Rhinomanometry is a method for measuring nasal resistance for the purpose of providing an objective evaluation of nasal patency. Posterior rhinomanometry is accomplished without the use of a mask, thus allowing the patient to breathe naturally. Here, we report on the improvements we have made to the existing posterior rhinomanometry ...
Silva Paulo Sérgio Lucas da - - 2005
Negative-pressure pulmonary edema is a rare but life-threatening complication of upper airway obstruction. Because negative-pressure pulmonary edema may occur in a large spectrum of pathologies associated with upper airway obstruction, awareness of this condition is crucial during daily clinical practice. We report a case of negative-pressure pulmonary edema during anesthetic ...
Trachsel D - - 2005
Young children are at increased risk for hypoxaemia and hypercapnia during flexible bronchoscopy due to the small size and increased collapsibility of their airways. Various strategies are used to prevent hypoventilation and to provide oxygen during the procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of continuous ...
Noble P B - - 2005
During bronchoconstriction elastic after-loads arise due to distortion of lung parenchyma by the narrowing airway. In the present study, the functional effect of parenchymal elastic after-load on airway narrowing was determined. Airway narrowing was measured in vivo over a range of transpulmonary pressures and compared with in vitro narrowing measured ...
West S D - - 2006
The simplest method of initiating and maintaining therapeutic continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has not been established. Ninety eight subjects with OSA requiring CPAP treatment (more than 10 dips in oxygen desaturation of >4% per hour of sleep study and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) ...
Fu Carolina - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of two continuous flow generators with a ventilator designed for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The performance of flow generators using different oxygen pressure supplies was also compared. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study using a mechanical lung model ...
Takrouri Mohamad - - 2005
A case of negative pressure bilateral pulmonary edema in a 28 years old healthy female patient, scheduled for diagnostic pelvic laparoscopy for infertility. Following extubation and apparent recovery from anesthesia, she had strong inspiratory efforts due to airway obstruction caused by coughing and laryngeal spasm, that lead to negative pressure ...
Agarwal R - - 2005
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the delivery of assisted mechanical ventilation to the lungs, without the use of an invasive endotracheal airway. NIV has revolutionised the management of patients with various forms of respiratory failure. It has decreased the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and its attendant complications. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema ...
Insalaco Giuseppe - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) by negative expiratory pressure (NEP) testing, quantified as the expiratory flow-limited part of the flow-volume curve, may be influenced by airway obstruction of intrathoracic and extrathoracic origins. NEP application during tidal expiration immediately determines a rise in expiratory flow (V) followed by a short-lasting V ...
Ferrier Katherine - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has a potential role in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). High rates of central sleep apnea (CSA) are found in patients with severe CHF, and equal proportions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and CSA in are found CHF patients referred to sleep clinics. The ...
Nobata Kouichi - - 2005
Lysophosphatidylcholine is increased in the airway of bronchial asthma, but its role is not clear. We investigated the role of lysophosphatidylcholine in asthma in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. Pressure at the airway opening was measured as an index of bronchial response. Increasing doses of lysophosphatidylcholine (1--10 mg/ml) were inhaled ...
Mansour Khaled F - - 2006
A noninvasive measurement of pharyngeal cross-sectional area (CSA) during sleep would be advantageous for research studies. We hypothesized that CSA could be calculated from the measured pharyngeal pressure and flow by finite element analysis (FEA). The retropalatal airway was visualized by using a fiber-optic scope to obtain the measured CSA ...
Bateman Leigh - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) provides a better airway than a facemask in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rabbits, and to test if it can be used for mechanically controlled ventilation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS: Sixteen young, healthy, specific pathogen-free Giant Flemish cross Chinchilla rabbits ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Appropriate bag-and-mask ventilation with patent airway is mandatory during induction of general anesthesia. Although the sniffing neck position is a traditionally recommended head and neck position during this critical period, knowledge of the influences of this position on the pharyngeal airway patency is still inadequate. METHODS: Total muscle paralysis ...
Goldmann Kai - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the LMA-ProSeal for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the pig. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. ANIMALS: Twelve German country pigs, weighing 25-62 kg. METHOD: Lungs of pigs were mechanically ventilated under general anaesthesia using the LMA-ProSeal. The ease of insertion, number of attempts and total time until ...
Eastwood Peter R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of varying concentrations of propofol on upper airway collapsibility and the mechanisms responsible for it. METHODS: Upper airway collapsibility was determined from pressure-flow relations at three concentrations of propofol anesthesia (effect site concentration = 2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 mug/ml) in 12 subjects spontaneously breathing ...
Papon Jean-François - - 2006
Nasal compliance is a measure related to the blood volume in the nasal mucosa. The objective of this study was to better understand the vascular response in vasomotor rhinitis by measuring nasal cross-sectional area and nasal compliance before and after mucosal decongestion in 10 patients with vasomotor rhinitis compared with ...
Hoekema Aarnoud - - 2006
When treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) several alternatives for standard (manual) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration are feasible. A practical alternative is titration without polysomnography during an afternoon nap (Nap-titration). The aim of the present study was to assess whether Nap-titration is appropriate for effective titration of CPAP. ...
Unterberg Christina - - 2005
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with oxygen desaturation, blood pressure increase, and neurohumoral activation, resulting in possible detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the therapy of choice for OSA. In a recent study, nocturnal atrial overdrive pacing (pacing) reduced the severity of ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2006
The pharyngeal airway can be considered as an airway luminal shape formed by surrounding tissues, contained within a bony enclosure formed by the mandible, skull base, and cervical vertebrae. Mandibular advancement (MA), a therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, is thought to increase the size of this bony enclosure and to ...
Xu Chun - - 2006
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was used to model the effect of airway geometry on internal pressure in the upper airway of three children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and three controls. Model geometry was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images obtained during quiet tidal breathing, meshed with an unstructured ...
Akashiba Tsuneto - - 2005
Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 96 consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) before and after nasal continous positive airway pressure treatment. CRP levels only displayed significant correlations with body mass index (BMI) before treatment. No significant changes were observed in BMI and CRP levels ...
Kindgen-Milles Detlef - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients who undergo surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms have a high risk for the development of respiratory complications, which cause significant postoperative morbidity and prolong hospitalization, compared to patients who undergo other types of surgery. We studied whether prophylactic noninvasive application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >