Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1943
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Patil Susheel P - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by pharyngeal occlusion due to alterations in upper airway mechanical properties and/or disturbances in neuromuscular control. The objective of the study was to determine the relative contribution of mechanical loads and dynamic neuromuscular responses to pharyngeal collapse during sleep. Sixteen obstructive sleep apnea patients and ...
Hui David S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers are concerned about the risk of acquiring contagious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza after recent outbreaks. We studied exhaled air and particle dispersion through an oronasal mask attached to a human-patient simulator (HPS) during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV). METHODS: Airflow was marked ...
McClean Dougal - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardiac pressure monitors require assurance of calibration. This study evaluated if airway pressure responses during Valsalva maneuver (VM) can be used for calibrating intracardiac pressure transducers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-eight heart failure patients performed VMs while cardiac and airway pressures were recorded. Patients were designated as Lower (L) ...
Hori Yohji - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dynamic narrowing of the retropalatal pharynx by the Bernouilli effect producing maneuver (BEPM) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) with computer-assisted analysis of nasopharyngoscopic images. METHODS: Endoscopic images of the retropalatal pharynx were obtained and their area was measured by NIH imaging. Because changes ...
Zaramella Patrizia - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral ...
Hua Yi-Ming - - 2006
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has a key role in pulmonary function, and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can increase exhaled NO (FE(NO)) in anesthetized animals and isolated lungs. The influence of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which is similar to PEEP, on the FE(NO) level has not been ...
Kirkness Jason P - - 2006
To examine the dynamic modulation of upper airway (UA) function during sleep, we devised a novel approach to measuring the critical pressure (Pcrit) within a single breath in tracheostomized sleep apnea patients. We hypothesized that the UA continuously modulates airflow dynamics during transtracheal insufflation. In this study, we examine tidal ...
Ahmad M - - 2006
We report a case of upper airway obstruction following high-pressure water jet injury to the pharynx incurred from a car wash jet. Injuries from high-pressure water jets are relatively rare and, to the best of our knowledge, airway obstruction as a result has not been reported. Since this unusual injury ...
Windisch Wolfram - - 2006
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Endotracheal tube resistance is known to be flow-dependent and this understanding has improved the application of invasive ventilation. However, similar physiological studies on the interface between patients and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) have not been performed. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the resistance of ...
van Zundert André - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The authors compared three disposable extraglottic airway devices in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults: the LMA-Unique (LMA-U; The Laryngeal Mask Company, San Diego, CA), the Soft Seal laryngeal mask (SS-LM; Portex Ltd., Hythe, United Kingdom), and the Cobra perilaryngeal airway (Cobra-PLA; Engineered Medical Systems, Inc. Indianapolis, IN). METHODS: Three hundred ...
Norton J Russell - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Upper airway obstruction (UAO) during sedation can often cause clinically significant adverse events. Direct comparison of different drugs' propensities for UAO may improve selection of appropriate sedating agents. The authors used the application of negative airway pressure to determine the pressure that causes UAO in healthy subjects sedated with ...
Ogawa Aiko - - 2006
A 52-year-old obese woman was admitted to our institution for evaluation of dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with an apnea hypopnea index of 99.8. Treatment with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) resulted in correction of daytime hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and near-normalization of pulmonary ...
Gruis Kirsten L - - 2006
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) treatment of advanced respiratory insufficiency prolongs survival in ALS. To investigate the critical question of whether earlier initiation of NIV might provide additional benefit, a randomized trial with an appropriate placebo is needed. This study evaluated sub-therapeutic (sham) continuous positive airway pressure as a potential ...
Ofoegbu Bibian N - - 2006
We report the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for neonatal back transfer of 51 babies. nCPAP may be used to provide safe respiratory support during back transportation of infants. Babies transferred on nCPAP were significantly smaller and of younger postmenstrual age than historical comparators who had to ...
Park Marcelo - - 2006
Current literature was searched by using the MEDLINE database to find consistent evidence regarding the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. 18 studies demonstrating that noninvasive ventilation applied by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP) is safe, and that ...
Liner Lisa H - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current management of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children with sleep-disordered breathing. RECENT FINDINGS: Although most children with sleep-disordered breathing respond to surgical treatment, the use of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ...
Brown Robert H - - 2007
Airways distend with each inspiration, while a sigh or deep inspiration (DI) leads to a significant or a maximum distension of the airways. Distension of the airways is thought to play an important role in maintaining airway patency. Limited distension of the airways with lung inflation may be a major ...
Makino Shinya - - 2006
A 55-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension (274/140 mmHg). Endocrinological examination revealed that her plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) was elevated with high levels of urinary NE, normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), suggesting the presence of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor MIBG scintigraphy detected any ...
Verin Eric - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Mandibular advancement (MA) can be an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This study was designed to describe its effects on upper airway mechanics. METHODS: Six awake healthy subjects (four men, 31+/-8 years, body mass index (BMI) 25+/-2kg/m2) were studied ...
Fregosi R F - - 2006
There is evidence that narrowing or collapse of the pharynx can contribute to obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults and children. However, studies in children have focused on those with relatively severe SDB who generally were recruited from sleep clinics. It is unclear whether children with mild SDB who primarily ...
Donadio Vincenzo - - 2006
Studies comparing the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus surgery in correcting cardiovascular abnormalities in OSAS are lacking. We describe an OSAS patient with hypertension who responded favorably to CPAP treatment, whereas subsequent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was less successful. While CPAP markedly lowered daytime muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) ...
Saslow J G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the work of breathing (WOB) in premature neonates supported with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). STUDY DESIGN: Eighteen preterm neonates <2.0 kg on HFNC or NCPAP support were studied in a random order. A ventilator was used to deliver 6 cm ...
Kitahara Yoshihiro - - 2006
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a good indicator of arterial stiffness and an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Recent studies have revealed that PWV increases in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and it also correlates with its severity. However, the therapeutic effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ...
Ikeda Hidetoshi - - 2006
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the change of body and head position affects upper airway patency during midazolam sedation. DESIGN: Clinical study using 30 healthy subjects. SETTING: Research unit for sleep study. INTERVENTIONS: We used a pressure-flow relationship to evaluate critical closing pressure (Pcrit) and upper airway resistance ...
Ulrich-Pur Herbert - - 2006
BACKGROUND: High pressures exerted by balloons and cuffs of conventional endotracheal tubes, the Combitube (Tyco Healthcare Nellcor Mallinckrodt, Pleasanton, CA), the EasyTube (Teleflex Ruesch, Kernen, Germany), the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA North America, San Diego, CA), the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (Fastrach; LMA North America), the ProSeal (LMA North America), ...
Zonato Adriane Iurck - - 2006
The objective of this study was to observe the change in CPAP pressure after nasal and/or tonsil surgery in a retrospective study involving 17 patients unable to tolerate CPAP titration. All patients had two polysomnography studies for titration: one before and another subsequent to upper airway surgical treatment. The results ...
Hutter Deborah A DA Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, - - 2006
Diastolic heart failure with hypoxemia is a dangerous condition in pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Continuous positive airway pressure may help to decrease afterload and reduce venous return and ventricular filling, but its use in diastolic dysfunction has not yet been established. The authors report a case ...
Lomask Morton - - 2006
Unrestrained plethysmography (UP) has been widely used to measure airway reactivity in conscious mice. It is non-invasive, easy to use, suitable for longitudinal studies, and allows a large throughput of animals for screening purposes. A non-dimensional parameter based on a characteristic change in the expiratory waveshape of the UP box ...
Bayle Frédérique - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess a sigmoidal equation for describing airway closure. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight piglets mechanically ventilated on zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP). INTERVENTIONS: Control and lung saline lavage. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Lungs were inflated up to transpulmonary pressure of 30 cmH(2)O at constant flow (0.12l s(-1)) ...
Norman Daniel - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with recurrent episodes of nocturnal hypoxia and increased risk for development of systemic hypertension. Prior studies have been limited, however, in their ability to show reduction in blood pressure after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the effect of supplemental oxygen alone on ...
Goldmann K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In light of the increased use of the LMA-ProSeal (P-LMA) it seems desirable to consider the P-LMA for prolonged surgical cases or post-operative ventilation. Long-term use could carry the risk of serious complications. An experimental pig model could be used to gain basic knowledge about long-term use before conducting ...
Dahaba A A - - 2006
Supraglottic airway devices such as the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) and Laryngeal Tube-Suction Airway (LTS) that provoke the least stress responses could be beneficial in many situations, especially in patients with cardiovascular disease. We compared the haemodynamic and catecholamine stress response of the LTS and PLMA in a randomised ...
Hanning S J - - 2006
We tested the oropharyngeal leak pressure with the reusable laryngeal mask airway and the single-use Soft Seal laryngeal mask airway. These two types of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) have a similar design but the reusable LMA cuff is made from silicone whereas the Soft Seal LMA cuff is polyvinylchloride. Thirty-five ...
Sucena M - - 2006
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the best treatment for sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS). In the 1990s, many authors reported on daily compliance, but all of the studies utilised relatively short periods of follow-up that did not exceed a few years. The mean annual rate of CPAP use in patients ...
Nolan G M - - 2006
Auto-adjustable continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) devices are an emerging treatment alternative to fixed-pressure continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. They have been engineered to automatically adjust the pressure to the optimal level on a continuous basis. However, not all APAP technologies use the same ...
Chen Kuo-Tai - - 2006
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is gaining wide application as an alternative method of maintaining the airway in situations including general anaesthesia, for difficult airways and pre-hospital resuscitation. During resuscitation, drug administration via an LMA is sometimes warranted when vascular accesses cannot be established immediately. Therefore, we conducted a study ...
DiMarco Anthony F - - 2006
Patients with spinal cord injury have an increased risk of developing respiratory tract infections as the result of expiratory muscle paralysis and consequent inability to cough. We have developed a method by which the expiratory muscles can be activated via lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord stimulation to produce ...
Lattimore J L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and potentially reversible cause of systemic hypertension. The mechanisms whereby OSA leads to hypertension and the effects of treatment on arterial function, however, are not well established. Microvascular arterial endothelial and smooth muscle function was assessed in subjects with OSA before and ...
Reo Mitani / Masahiko ...
A 36-year-old women (height 157cm, weight 114kg, body mass index 46.2kg/㎡) with intolerable sleepiness and cyanosis was diagnosed with respiratory failure caused by Pickwickian syndrome. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular systolic function and moderate pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was estimated at 50mmHg with doppler echocardiography. Oxygen inhalation and ...
McNicholas Walter T - - 2006
OSA syndrome is characterized by recurring episodes of upper airway (UA) obstruction during sleep. The UA is subjected to collapse when the negative airway pressure generated by inspiratory activity of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles exceeds the force produced by the UA dilating muscles. Factors that reduce UA calibre lead ...
Kushida Clete A - - 2006
Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used to treat patients with sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Currently, PAP devices come in three forms: (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), (2) bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP), and (3) automatic self-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP). After a ...
Litman Ronald S - - 2006
We sought to establish the feasibility of measuring upper airway narrowing in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized children using dynamic application of negative airway pressure. A secondary aim was to compare differences in upper airway collapsibility after the administration of sevoflurane or halothane. Subjects were randomized to either drug for inhaled anesthetic ...
Tsai Tung-Ying - - 2006
A 35-day-old male infant was scheduled for bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy. No history of recent upper airway infection or other reactive respiratory disease was noted before anesthesia. Breath holding was noted immediately after laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. Removal of the LMA and positive pressure ventilation via face mask did not ...
Turan A - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We compared the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the laryngeal tube (LT) with the newly introduced perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA, PLA) with regard to haemodynamic responses induced by airway insertion, clinical performance and occurrence of postoperative sore throat after short surgical procedures. METHODS: After premedication, 90 ASA I-II ...
Warren James - - 2006
In pregnant patients with myasthenia gravis and respiratory compromise, neuraxial anesthesia for lower abdominal surgery can risk further respiratory depression. We report the use of epidural anesthesia for dilation and curettage and tubal ligation in a 26-yr-old woman with a 12-wk intrauterine pregnancy with severe myasthenia gravis and respiratory insufficiency ...
Arias Miguel A - - 2006
AIMS: We tested the hypothesis that: (i) obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) by itself originates pulmonary hypertension (PH); and (ii) the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce pulmonary pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized and cross-over trial, 23 middle-aged OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index, 44.1 +/- 29.3 h(-1)) and ...
Bayat Sam - - 2006
We studied the kinetics of proximal and distal bronchial response to histamine aerosol in healthy anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits up to 60 min after histamine administration using a novel xenon-enhanced synchrotron radiation computed tomography imaging technique. Individual proximal airway constriction was assessed by measuring the luminal cross-sectional area. Distal ...
Robinson G V - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several randomised controlled trials have shown that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA reduces blood pressure (BP). This randomised, sham-placebo controlled crossover trial assesses whether CPAP produces a similar clinically significant fall in BP in hypertensive ...
Miller Donald M - - 2006
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of the ProSeal LMA and SLIPA supralaryngeal airways (SLA) with the standard tracheal tube (TT) in 150 consecutive day-case laparoscopic gynecological surgery procedures requiring general anesthesia. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were randomized into three groups. An identical general anesthesia technique was used in ...
Gaitini Luis - - 2006
The Laryngeal Mask (LMA) Unique and the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) are single-use supraglottic devices. There are no published studies comparing these devices during spontaneous ventilation. We compared the LMA Unique and the Cobra PLA with respect to 1) ventilatory variables during spontaneous ventilation, 2) time to achieve an effective ...
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