Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1958
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Noda Akiko - - 2007
Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of OSAS severity and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on daytime baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were investigated in OSAS patients. Fifty-one consecutive males with OSAS and 29 ...
Bucca Caterina B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Upper airway edema might contribute to pharyngeal collapsibility and account for the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate if intensive unloading with diuretics improves sleep-disordered breathing and increases pharyngeal caliber in patients with severe OSA ...
Doyle D John - - 2007
We report a 22-year-old, 980-lb (445 kg) man with a body mass index of 163 kg/m(2), who needed intubation for tracheotomy surgery, as he was profoundly hypercarbic and reliant on a tight-fitting continuous positive airway pressure mask. Attempts at oral and nasal fiberoptic intubation during topical anesthesia were unsuccessful because ...
Sehlin Maria - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit we have observed that patients have different adherence to 2 commonly used positive-expiratory-pressure (PEP) therapy devices: the PEP bottle and the PEP mask. The reason for this difference is not clear. METHODS: In a randomized prospective study, we made continuous recordings of airway pressure ...
Fitz-Clarke John R - - 2007
A computational model of the human respiratory tract was developed to study airway and alveolar compression and re-expansion during deep breath-hold dives. The model incorporates the chest wall, supraglottic airway, trachea, branched airway tree, and elastic alveoli assigned time-dependent surfactant properties. Total lung collapse with degassing of all alveoli is ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Significant overlap exists between the risk factors for pre-eclampsia and sleep-disordered breathing. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been proposed as therapy for pre-eclampsia. This prospective, longitudinal study was designed to characterize sleep-related breathing patterns in pregnant women ...
James A L - - 2007
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by airflow obstruction, airway remodelling (measurable structural change) and inflammation. The present review will examine the relationship between airway remodelling in these two conditions with respect to symptoms, abnormal lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and decline in lung function. The potential for ...
Teixeira Antonio - - 2007
Assessing diaphragm function is clinically and physiologically pertinent. It can rely on the measurement of pressure responses to phrenic stimulation. Combining mouth pressure (Pm) with cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) is painless and easy to perform, but Pm-CMS poorly reflects esophageal pressure (Pes-CMS) because of poor pressure transmission across the airway. ...
Tuggey Justin M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth ...
DiMarco Anthony F - - 2007
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) results in the generation of large positive airway pressures. The potential effects of diaphragm co-activation during SCS were investigated in 10 anesthetized dogs. Diaphragm compound action potentials (CMAPs) were present during SCS at the T10 and T12 levels. In group 1, airway (Paw) and ...
Oliven A - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the mechanical effect of genioglossus stimulation on flow mechanics and pharyngeal cross-sectional area in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, and to identify variables that determine the magnitude of the respiratory effect of tongue protrusion. The pressure/flow and pressure/cross-sectional area relationships of ...
Drager Luciano F - - 2007
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is a key mechanism for these cardiovascular events. Recent cross-sectional studies showed the presence of early signs of atherosclerosis in patients with OSA who were free of comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact ...
Bazzano Lydia A - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very common risk factor for hypertension, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been widely used to treat OSA. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effects of CPAP on blood pressure, reported as either a primary or secondary end ...
Phillips Craig L - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is commonly associated with cardiovascular disease and sympathetic activation. However, it is unclear whether this association is independent of obesity and to what extent treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alleviates the vascular inflammation that underpins cardiovascular disease. We therefore evaluated whether short-term withdrawal ...
Hertegonne Katrien B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Auto-adjustable continuous positive airway pressure devices are widely used in titration procedures to determine therapeutic pressure levels in obstructive sleep apnea patients. However, differences in operational characteristics may influence the effect on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). OBJECTIVES: We compared the titration performance of two devices based on detection of ...
Noorddin Y - - 2007
The use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an alternative to the endotracheal tube (ETT) is becoming more popular in the practice of anesthesia. It is undeniable that this device has numerous advantages over endotracheal tube, however it does not provide an airtight seal between the airway and atmospheric gases. ...
El Solh Ali A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mathematical formulas have been less than adequate in assessing the optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) using demographic and anthropometric information to predict optimal CPAP level based ...
Noble Peter B - - 2007
In vivo, breathing movements, including tidal and deep inspirations (DIs), exert a number of beneficial effects on respiratory system responsiveness in healthy humans that are diminished or lost in asthma, possibly as a result of reduced distension (strain) of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We used bronchial segments from pigs to ...
Fulkerson Pamela J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the ease of placement and ventilatory parameters of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with an endotracheal tube (ETT) in anesthetized swine during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, experimental trial. ANIMALS: Nine young domestic swine, weighing between 40 and 49 kg (mean 45.1 kg), being used ...
Mort Thomas C - - 2007
Emergency airway management outside the elective operating room presents considerable risks to the patient and significant challenges to the practitioner. Complications and adverse consequences are commonplace, yet they have not received their justified discussion or scrutiny in the literature. This review will discuss potentially life-threatening complications partitioned into 2 broad ...
Patruno Vincenzo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases has been reported. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line therapy for OSA, able not only to reduce daytime sleepiness but also to improve cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. Autoadjusting CPAP (APAP), an ...
Chang Herng-Yu Sucie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To prevent reflex-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma, local anesthetics are commonly administered by aerosol or IV as adjunct medication. Lidocaine attenuates responsiveness to a neurally active stimulus that increases tone, but there is scant information about the effect of lidocaine on baseline airway tone. Therefore we examined the ...
Smith Lindsay A - - 2007
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to CHF progression. We aimed to determine whether treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would improve subjective and objective measures of heart failure severity in patients with CHF and ...
Haentjens Patrick - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might lower blood pressure, but evidence from clinical studies is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. This study aimed to assess whether CPAP reduces ambulatory blood pressure in ...
Shiota Satomi - - 2007
Fluid accumulation in the neck during recumbency might narrow the upper airway (UA) and thereby contribute to its collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is hypothesised that acute fluid shifts from the legs to the upper body in healthy subjects would increase neck circumference and reduce the ...
Bhimaraj Arvind - - 2007
We report a patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, with postoperative complications following tracheostomy. His stormy postoperative course is presented with emphasis on glycemic control and hypertension. We present a cautionary tale of a significant reduction in medications to control blood pressure and hyperglycemia following ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2007
RATIONALE: The technique used to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the newborn may influence lung function and breathing efficiency. OBJECTIVES: To compare differences in gas exchange physiology and lung injury resulting from treatment of respiratory distress with either bubble or constant pressure CPAP and to determine if the ...
Jo Javier A - - 2007
Using the Volterra-Wiener approach, we employed a minimal model to quantitatively characterize the linear and nonlinear effects of respiration (RCC) and arterial blood pressure (ABR) on heart rate variability (HRV) in normal controls and subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Respiration, R-R interval (RRI), blood pressure (BP) and ...
Skomro Robert P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Standard practice in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) management requires that a positive diagnostic, overnight polysomnography (PSG) test be obtained before initiating treatment. However, long waiting times due to lack of access to PSG testing facilities may delay the initiation of definitive treatment for OSA. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the response ...
Butcher Scott J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) in mucolysis and mucous clearance is thought to be dependant on oscillatory flow rate (Fosc). Therefore, increasing Fosc during HFCWO may have a clinical benefit. OBJECTIVES: To examine effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on Fosc at two oscillation frequencies ...
Pearson Wendy - - 2007
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), known previously as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a debilitating respiratory condition that significantly contributes to lost training days and illness in racehorses. Herbs are becoming increasingly popular for the prophylaxis or treatment of the clinical signs of RAO despite a paucity of research on ...
Nakata Seiichi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simple tonsillectomy on nasal resistance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Conventional tonsillectomy was performed in 20 patients who were refractory to treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. The subjects consisted of 17 men and ...
Kapur Sandeep - - 2007
It is routine practice to auscultate the chest for equal bilateral breath sounds after tracheal intubation to verify that the tracheal tube tip is properly positioned. Signs of bronchial intubation also include desaturation, an increase or decrease in end-tidal carbon dioxide, and an increase in peak airway pressures. We report ...
Culebras Antonio - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder and the major sleep-related risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. There is a dose-response relationship between the severity of OSA and the odds ratio for development of systemic hypertension. Observational studies have shown that patients with clinically significant OSA have increased incidence of ...
Moreau-Bussière François - - 2007
Although endoscopic studies in adult humans have suggested that laryngeal closure can limit alveolar ventilation during nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV), there are no available data regarding glottal muscle activity during nIPPV. In addition, laryngeal behavior during nIPPV has not been investigated in neonates. The aim of the present ...
Downie Sue R - - 2007
Airway hyperresponsiveness is the ability of airways to narrow excessively in response to inhaled stimuli and is a key feature of asthma. Airway inflammation and ventilation heterogeneity have been separately shown to be associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. A study was undertaken to establish whether ventilation heterogeneity is associated with airway ...
Martínez-García M A - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to analyse the role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with difficult-to-control hypertension (DC-HT) and sleep apnoea. An Autoset (ResMed, Sydney, Australia) study was performed in 60 patients diagnosed with DC-HT based on two 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitorisation (ABPM) ...
Nolan Geraldine M - - 2007
To determine if auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) would be better tolerated on the basis of delivering a lower mean pressure in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Patients spent 8 weeks on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 8 weeks on APAP in a randomized ...
Olguner Cimen - - 2007
Apneic oxygenation is an apnea testing method in the diagnosis of brain death. In this method, oxygen (O2) is delivered into the trachea via an O2 catheter (O2C). However, barotrauma may develop during O2 insufflation into the trachea. Oxygen catheter diameters, O2 catheter tip position in the trachea, and O2 ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2007
To investigate the mechanisms via which lung volume related caudal tracheal traction decreases upper airway collapsibility. Acute physiological study. 20 male, supine, anesthetised, tracheostomised, spontaneously breathing, NZ white rabbits fitted with a sealed face mask. N/A. Upper airway extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP) was measured in the lateral (ETPlat) and anterior ...
Gries Cynthia J - - 2007
We present a case of a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed dramatic mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, without pneumothorax, following a difficult intubation. Misdiagnosis of tracheal rupture as barotrauma from alveolar overdistention initially delayed intervention and caused persistence of subcutaneous emphysema. Despite efforts to minimize tidal volume ...
Devouassoux Gilles - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the ...
Coughlin S R - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with increased blood pressure and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in modifying these outcomes. A randomised placebo-controlled blinded crossover trial comparing cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes after ...
Brighenti Chiara - - 2007
A comparison between air and heliox (80% helium-20% oxygen) ventilation was performed using a mathematical, non-linear dynamic, morphometric model of the respiratory system. Different obstructive conditions, all causing expiratory flow limitation (EFL), were simulated during mechanical ventilation to evaluate and interpret the effects of heliox on tidal EFL and dynamic ...
Lallo Alexandre - - 2007
PURPOSE: The PAxpress (PAx) is a relatively new pharyngeal airway device that is easily inserted and effective in routine airway management. A prospective, randomized study was undertaken to compare the PAx with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) during anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: One hundred adult patients scheduled ...
Kim Hyo Yeol - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level and upper airway variables in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients suffering from OSAS were enrolled in this study. They were asked to answer ...
Fietze Ingo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to initiate positive-pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea is still debated. Current options are autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) or manual titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Procedures differ by parameters and by algorithms used for adapting pressure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy ...
Pelosi Paolo - - 2007
Tidal airway closure occurs when the closing volume exceeds the end-expiratory lung volume, and it is commonly observed in general anaesthesia, particularly in obese patients. Animal studies suggest that tidal airway closure causes injury to peripheral airways, characterized histologically by rupture of alveolar-airway attachments, denuded epithelium, disruption of airway smooth ...
Galvin Eilish M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of noninvasive, supraglottic airway devices are currently available. In this randomized single-blind study, we compared the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) to the [Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)-Classic] during gynecological laparoscopy. METHODS: Forty patients received either an LMA-Classic or a CobraPLA. Insertion, ventilation and removal characteristics were noted, ...
Jain Manu - - 2007
Distal airways are less than 2 mm in diameter, comprising a relatively large cross-sectional area that allows for slower, laminar airflow. The airways include both membranous bronchioles and gas exchange ducts, and have been referred to in the past as the 'quiet zone', in part because these structures were felt ...
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