Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1918
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Kairaitis Kristina - - 2007
To investigate the mechanisms via which lung volume related caudal tracheal traction decreases upper airway collapsibility. Acute physiological study. 20 male, supine, anesthetised, tracheostomised, spontaneously breathing, NZ white rabbits fitted with a sealed face mask. N/A. Upper airway extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP) was measured in the lateral (ETPlat) and anterior ...
Gries Cynthia J - - 2007
We present a case of a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed dramatic mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, without pneumothorax, following a difficult intubation. Misdiagnosis of tracheal rupture as barotrauma from alveolar overdistention initially delayed intervention and caused persistence of subcutaneous emphysema. Despite efforts to minimize tidal volume ...
Devouassoux Gilles - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the ...
Coughlin S R - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with increased blood pressure and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in modifying these outcomes. A randomised placebo-controlled blinded crossover trial comparing cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes after ...
Brighenti Chiara - - 2007
A comparison between air and heliox (80% helium-20% oxygen) ventilation was performed using a mathematical, non-linear dynamic, morphometric model of the respiratory system. Different obstructive conditions, all causing expiratory flow limitation (EFL), were simulated during mechanical ventilation to evaluate and interpret the effects of heliox on tidal EFL and dynamic ...
Lallo Alexandre - - 2007
PURPOSE: The PAxpress (PAx) is a relatively new pharyngeal airway device that is easily inserted and effective in routine airway management. A prospective, randomized study was undertaken to compare the PAx with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) during anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: One hundred adult patients scheduled ...
Kim Hyo Yeol - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level and upper airway variables in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients suffering from OSAS were enrolled in this study. They were asked to answer ...
Fietze Ingo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to initiate positive-pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea is still debated. Current options are autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) or manual titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Procedures differ by parameters and by algorithms used for adapting pressure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy ...
Pelosi Paolo - - 2007
Tidal airway closure occurs when the closing volume exceeds the end-expiratory lung volume, and it is commonly observed in general anaesthesia, particularly in obese patients. Animal studies suggest that tidal airway closure causes injury to peripheral airways, characterized histologically by rupture of alveolar-airway attachments, denuded epithelium, disruption of airway smooth ...
Galvin Eilish M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of noninvasive, supraglottic airway devices are currently available. In this randomized single-blind study, we compared the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) to the [Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)-Classic] during gynecological laparoscopy. METHODS: Forty patients received either an LMA-Classic or a CobraPLA. Insertion, ventilation and removal characteristics were noted, ...
Jain Manu - - 2007
Distal airways are less than 2 mm in diameter, comprising a relatively large cross-sectional area that allows for slower, laminar airflow. The airways include both membranous bronchioles and gas exchange ducts, and have been referred to in the past as the 'quiet zone', in part because these structures were felt ...
Galetke Wolfgang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Long-term compliance is suboptimal in the treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). OBJECTIVES: We compared the efficacy of and the adherence to automatic continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) and constant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) based on a night-by-night analysis. METHODS: We performed a randomized, single-blind crossover ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a newly recognized risk factor for the development of systemic hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure. Mechanisms responsible for these links include OSA-related hypoxemia and arousal from sleep-induced increased sympathetic activity, large negative intrathoracic pressure-induced increased left ventricular transmural pressure gradient and impaired ...
Genzwuerker H V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: While reports of the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Classic in great patient numbers are available, data on the use of the laryngeal tube (LT) in this age group is limited. The two devices are compared in a prospective randomized trial to evaluate success rates and quality of airway ...
Drigo R - - 2006
AIMS: 1) to evaluate automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a partially attended setting; 2) to verify whether APAP performance depends on the apnea-hypopnea and periodic limb movement indexes (PLMI). METHODS: 65 CPAP naïve subjects with a sleep disorder of breathing and daytime sleepiness underwent a standard polysomnography (first ...
Hargens Trent A - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive partial and total collapse of the upper airway that induces stressful arousals throughout sleep to reestablish breathing. Although estimates vary, prevalence has been reported as high as 20% in the adult population. OSA is common in several chronic diseases, the most common ...
Brouns Mark - - 2007
Patients referred for treatment of tracheal stenosis typically are asymptomatic until critical narrowing of the airway occurs, which then requires immediate intervention. To understand how tracheal stenosis affects local pressure drops and explore how a dramatic increase in pressure drop could possibly be detected at an early stage, a computational ...
Micaglio M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) has been demonstrated to be effective for airway management during neonatal resuscitation. However, high airway pressures, when required, cannot be achieved with this device. A neonatal prototype of the LMA-ProSeal (PLMA), which might improve the oropharyngeal leak pressure, has recently been produced. The ...
Yu Chung-Chieh - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level reduced excessive daytime sleepiness and improved healthy status compared with subtherapeutic CPAP pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndromes. To date there have been no studies comparing the differences between the automatic CPAP titrating pressure levels (ACPAPL) and the predicting CPAP ...
Thomson Merran A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Using the 125-day baboon model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with prenatal steroid and exogenous surfactant, we hypothesized that a delay of extubation from low tidal volume positive pressure ventilation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure at 5 days (delayed nasal continuous positive airway pressure group) would not induce more ...
Dieperink Willem - - 2007
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is standard treatment for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a patient who had 21 episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to very poor patient compliance. This 64-year old man had end-stage congestive heart failure based on systolic left ventricular dysfunction following ...
Lafond C - - 2007
The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the airway responsiveness of asthmatic subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has scarcely been studied. A prospective study was performed comparing the changes in airway responsiveness and quality of life in stable asthmatic OSA patients, before and 6 weeks after ...
Babbs Charles F - - 2006
An intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR) is a device that can be added to the external end of a tracheal tube to create controlled negative airway pressure between positive pressure ventilations. The resulting downward bias of the airway pressure baseline promotes increased venous return and enhanced circulation during CPR and also ...
Placidi Giulia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The periodic administration of positive airway pressure combined with directed cough could aid mucus clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and severe airway obstruction. OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term effect of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) physiotherapy via mask (mask PEP), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and noninvasive positive-pressure ...
Nilius Georg - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare polysomnographic data and compliance in sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure-relief CPAP (PRCPAP) [C-flex; Respironics; Murrysville, PA] as first treatment in the sleep laboratory and subsequently at home. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, crossover design was used in the sleep laboratory, and a ...
Loeliger Michelle M Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, 3010, Victoria, Australia. - - 2006
The survival of prematurely born infants has greatly increased in recent decades because of advances in neonatal intensive care, which have included the advent of ventilatory therapies. However, there is limited knowledge as to the impact of these therapies on the developing brain. The purpose of this work was to ...
Patil Susheel P - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by pharyngeal occlusion due to alterations in upper airway mechanical properties and/or disturbances in neuromuscular control. The objective of the study was to determine the relative contribution of mechanical loads and dynamic neuromuscular responses to pharyngeal collapse during sleep. Sixteen obstructive sleep apnea patients and ...
Hui David S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers are concerned about the risk of acquiring contagious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza after recent outbreaks. We studied exhaled air and particle dispersion through an oronasal mask attached to a human-patient simulator (HPS) during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV). METHODS: Airflow was marked ...
McClean Dougal - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardiac pressure monitors require assurance of calibration. This study evaluated if airway pressure responses during Valsalva maneuver (VM) can be used for calibrating intracardiac pressure transducers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-eight heart failure patients performed VMs while cardiac and airway pressures were recorded. Patients were designated as Lower (L) ...
Hori Yohji - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dynamic narrowing of the retropalatal pharynx by the Bernouilli effect producing maneuver (BEPM) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) with computer-assisted analysis of nasopharyngoscopic images. METHODS: Endoscopic images of the retropalatal pharynx were obtained and their area was measured by NIH imaging. Because changes ...
Zaramella Patrizia - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral ...
Hua Yi-Ming - - 2006
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has a key role in pulmonary function, and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can increase exhaled NO (FE(NO)) in anesthetized animals and isolated lungs. The influence of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which is similar to PEEP, on the FE(NO) level has not been ...
Kirkness Jason P - - 2006
To examine the dynamic modulation of upper airway (UA) function during sleep, we devised a novel approach to measuring the critical pressure (Pcrit) within a single breath in tracheostomized sleep apnea patients. We hypothesized that the UA continuously modulates airflow dynamics during transtracheal insufflation. In this study, we examine tidal ...
Ahmad M - - 2006
We report a case of upper airway obstruction following high-pressure water jet injury to the pharynx incurred from a car wash jet. Injuries from high-pressure water jets are relatively rare and, to the best of our knowledge, airway obstruction as a result has not been reported. Since this unusual injury ...
Windisch Wolfram - - 2006
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Endotracheal tube resistance is known to be flow-dependent and this understanding has improved the application of invasive ventilation. However, similar physiological studies on the interface between patients and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) have not been performed. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the resistance of ...
van Zundert André - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The authors compared three disposable extraglottic airway devices in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults: the LMA-Unique (LMA-U; The Laryngeal Mask Company, San Diego, CA), the Soft Seal laryngeal mask (SS-LM; Portex Ltd., Hythe, United Kingdom), and the Cobra perilaryngeal airway (Cobra-PLA; Engineered Medical Systems, Inc. Indianapolis, IN). METHODS: Three hundred ...
Norton J Russell - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Upper airway obstruction (UAO) during sedation can often cause clinically significant adverse events. Direct comparison of different drugs' propensities for UAO may improve selection of appropriate sedating agents. The authors used the application of negative airway pressure to determine the pressure that causes UAO in healthy subjects sedated with ...
Ogawa Aiko - - 2006
A 52-year-old obese woman was admitted to our institution for evaluation of dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with an apnea hypopnea index of 99.8. Treatment with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) resulted in correction of daytime hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and near-normalization of pulmonary ...
Gruis Kirsten L - - 2006
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) treatment of advanced respiratory insufficiency prolongs survival in ALS. To investigate the critical question of whether earlier initiation of NIV might provide additional benefit, a randomized trial with an appropriate placebo is needed. This study evaluated sub-therapeutic (sham) continuous positive airway pressure as a potential ...
Ofoegbu Bibian N - - 2006
We report the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for neonatal back transfer of 51 babies. nCPAP may be used to provide safe respiratory support during back transportation of infants. Babies transferred on nCPAP were significantly smaller and of younger postmenstrual age than historical comparators who had to ...
Park Marcelo - - 2006
Current literature was searched by using the MEDLINE database to find consistent evidence regarding the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. 18 studies demonstrating that noninvasive ventilation applied by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP) is safe, and that ...
Liner Lisa H - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current management of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children with sleep-disordered breathing. RECENT FINDINGS: Although most children with sleep-disordered breathing respond to surgical treatment, the use of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ...
Brown Robert H - - 2007
Airways distend with each inspiration, while a sigh or deep inspiration (DI) leads to a significant or a maximum distension of the airways. Distension of the airways is thought to play an important role in maintaining airway patency. Limited distension of the airways with lung inflation may be a major ...
Makino Shinya - - 2006
A 55-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension (274/140 mmHg). Endocrinological examination revealed that her plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) was elevated with high levels of urinary NE, normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), suggesting the presence of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor MIBG scintigraphy detected any ...
Verin Eric - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Mandibular advancement (MA) can be an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This study was designed to describe its effects on upper airway mechanics. METHODS: Six awake healthy subjects (four men, 31+/-8 years, body mass index (BMI) 25+/-2kg/m2) were studied ...
Fregosi R F - - 2006
There is evidence that narrowing or collapse of the pharynx can contribute to obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults and children. However, studies in children have focused on those with relatively severe SDB who generally were recruited from sleep clinics. It is unclear whether children with mild SDB who primarily ...
Donadio Vincenzo - - 2006
Studies comparing the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus surgery in correcting cardiovascular abnormalities in OSAS are lacking. We describe an OSAS patient with hypertension who responded favorably to CPAP treatment, whereas subsequent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was less successful. While CPAP markedly lowered daytime muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) ...
Saslow J G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the work of breathing (WOB) in premature neonates supported with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). STUDY DESIGN: Eighteen preterm neonates <2.0 kg on HFNC or NCPAP support were studied in a random order. A ventilator was used to deliver 6 cm ...
Kitahara Yoshihiro - - 2006
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a good indicator of arterial stiffness and an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Recent studies have revealed that PWV increases in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and it also correlates with its severity. However, the therapeutic effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ...
Ikeda Hidetoshi - - 2006
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the change of body and head position affects upper airway patency during midazolam sedation. DESIGN: Clinical study using 30 healthy subjects. SETTING: Research unit for sleep study. INTERVENTIONS: We used a pressure-flow relationship to evaluate critical closing pressure (Pcrit) and upper airway resistance ...
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