Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1981
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Buczkowski P W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that when high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is applied above an airway stenosis, higher distal airway pressures are produced compared with when the same ventilation is delivered below the stenosis (BSV). This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this finding. METHODS: HFJV was applied to ...
Hertegonne Katrien B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The best method for titration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome has not yet been established. The 90th or 95th percentiles of the pressure titrated over time by automatic CPAP (A-CPAP) have been recommended as reference for prescribing therapeutic fixed CPAP (F-CPAP). ...
Arzt Michael - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA)-Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) by stabilizing ventilation, but frequently central apneas and hypopneas persist. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that flow-targeted dynamic bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) support ...
Doherty Liam S - - 2008
The genioglossus reflex response to sudden onset pulses of negative airway pressure (NAP) in humans is reported to occur more commonly at end rather than onset of expiration when delivered via a mouthpiece. We examined whether this response was modulated by the route of stimulus delivery throughout the respiratory cycle. ...
Groves Nicole - - 2007
The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an alternative to intubation in respiratory failure is associated with better outcomes in certain conditions. NIV is often poorly tolerated by patients hence precipitating the need for invasive ventilation. High flow nasal (HFN) oxygen delivery is a potential alternative to NIV as it ...
Lang Ivan M IM Medical College of Wisconsin Dysphagia Institute, Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. - - 2008
The effects of esophageal acidification on airway function are unclear. Some have found that the esophageal acidification causes a small increase in airway resistance, but this change is too small to cause significant symptoms. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of esophageal acidification on multiple measures ...
Uong Elizabeth C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Although many children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have complete resolution of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome after adenotonsillectomy, some patients have persistent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome requiring positive airway pressure treatment. Little is known about positive airway pressure adherence among school-aged children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively ...
Argent A C - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that tests of pulmonary function applicable to sick infants and small children with acute severe viral croup would provide clear, objective evidence of responsiveness to therapy with nebulized epinephrine. STUDY DESIGN: Oesophageal pressure changes and airflows at the mouth were measured in 17 patients with acute severe ...
Myers Timothy R - - 2007
Airway clearance techniques, historically referred to as chest physical therapy, have traditionally consisted of a variety of breathing maneuvers or exercises and manual percussion and postural drainage. The methods and types of airway clearance techniques and devices have rapidly increased in an effort to find a more efficacious strategy that ...
Passariello Maurizio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The CobraPLA(TM) is a new supraglottic airway device designed for the use in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. In adults it has been found as effective as the LMA, but with better sealing qualities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate fit and sealing characteristics of ...
Ferrari Giovanni G High Dependency Unit, Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Piazza Donatore del Sangue 3 10154 Torino, Italy. - - 2007
The addition of both noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) or noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (n-IPPV) to medical treatment has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Previous studies indicated a potential risk of new-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with the ...
Owen L S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Less invasive techniques of respiratory support are increasingly popular. OBJECTIVE: To determine how widespread the use of neonatal nasal intermittent positive airway pressure (NIPPV) has become and describe the range of practice used in NIPPV in England. METHODS: 95 English Neonatal intensive care units were asked to provide information ...
Younes Magdy - - 2007
The response to chemical stimuli (chemical responsiveness) and the increases in respiratory drive required for arousal (arousal threshold) and for opening the airway without arousal (effective recruitment threshold) are important determinants of ventilatory instability and, hence, severity of obstructive apnea. We measured these variables in 21 obstructive apnea patients (apnea-hypopnea ...
Zhang Xi-long - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggested that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might be independently associated with hypoadiponectinemia, which was linked to some complications of OSAS, such as hypertension, diabetes, etc. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on changes of both serum adiponectin ...
Visser W Anton - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection. METHODS: Twenty patients with an epidural catheter at the C6-7 or C7-T1 interspace received an epidural dose ...
Trevisanuto Daniele - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may have a role in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure. We evaluated the feasibility of administering NO therapy by a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP). METHODS: While maintaining a constant total flow of 8, 10, and 12 l.min(-1), ...
Kahn Doron J - - 2007
Nasal continuous-positive-airway-pressure (NCPAP) is popular for infant respiratory support. We compared delivered to intended intra-prong, proximal-airway, and distal-airway pressures using ventilator (V-NCPAP) and bubble (B-NCPAP) devices. Measurements were repeated at five flows (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 L/min) and three NCPAP (4, 6, and 8 cm H2O) under no, ...
Chatburn Robert L - - 2007
High-frequency airway clearance assist devices generate either positive or negative transrespiratory pressure excursions to produce high-frequency, small-volume oscillations in the airways. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation creates a positive transrespiratory pressure by injecting short, rapid inspiratory flow pulses into the airway opening and relies on chest wall elastic recoil for passive exhalation. ...
Bagnoli Paola - - 2007
Negative pressure generated during the expiratory phase of total liquid ventilation (TLV) may induce airway collapse. Evaluation of the effect of repeated airway collapse is crucial to optimize this technique. A total of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Ventilation was performed for 6 hours ...
Donadio Vincenzo - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among sympathetic hyperactivity, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and hypertension in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Ten newly diagnosed OSAS patients with untreated EDS and daytime hypertension underwent polysomnography (PSG) and daytime measurements of plasma noradrenaline (NA), ambulatory blood pressure (BP), ...
Moritz Fabienne - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema may develop respiratory failure. Noninvasive respiratory support should be initiated rapidly to avoid tracheal intubation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by the Boussignac CPAP device and bilevel positive airway pressure ...
Al Suleimani Yousuf M - - 2008
Different drugs from various pharmacological classes were compared for their ability to protect against the nasal effects of acute allergen challenge in a guinea pig model. In the model, sneezing and nose rubbing were recorded after an initial allergen challenge in guinea pigs previously sensitized to egg albumin. Four days ...
te Pas Arjan B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Initial ventilation strategy may play an important role in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm infants. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure is an accepted approach, but randomized clinical trials are lacking. Our aim was to determine whether early nasal continuous positive airway pressure, preceded by a ...
Noda Akiko - - 2007
Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of OSAS severity and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on daytime baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were investigated in OSAS patients. Fifty-one consecutive males with OSAS and 29 ...
Bucca Caterina B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Upper airway edema might contribute to pharyngeal collapsibility and account for the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate if intensive unloading with diuretics improves sleep-disordered breathing and increases pharyngeal caliber in patients with severe OSA ...
Doyle D John - - 2007
We report a 22-year-old, 980-lb (445 kg) man with a body mass index of 163 kg/m(2), who needed intubation for tracheotomy surgery, as he was profoundly hypercarbic and reliant on a tight-fitting continuous positive airway pressure mask. Attempts at oral and nasal fiberoptic intubation during topical anesthesia were unsuccessful because ...
Sehlin Maria - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit we have observed that patients have different adherence to 2 commonly used positive-expiratory-pressure (PEP) therapy devices: the PEP bottle and the PEP mask. The reason for this difference is not clear. METHODS: In a randomized prospective study, we made continuous recordings of airway pressure ...
Fitz-Clarke John R - - 2007
A computational model of the human respiratory tract was developed to study airway and alveolar compression and re-expansion during deep breath-hold dives. The model incorporates the chest wall, supraglottic airway, trachea, branched airway tree, and elastic alveoli assigned time-dependent surfactant properties. Total lung collapse with degassing of all alveoli is ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Significant overlap exists between the risk factors for pre-eclampsia and sleep-disordered breathing. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been proposed as therapy for pre-eclampsia. This prospective, longitudinal study was designed to characterize sleep-related breathing patterns in pregnant women ...
James A L - - 2007
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by airflow obstruction, airway remodelling (measurable structural change) and inflammation. The present review will examine the relationship between airway remodelling in these two conditions with respect to symptoms, abnormal lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and decline in lung function. The potential for ...
Teixeira Antonio - - 2007
Assessing diaphragm function is clinically and physiologically pertinent. It can rely on the measurement of pressure responses to phrenic stimulation. Combining mouth pressure (Pm) with cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) is painless and easy to perform, but Pm-CMS poorly reflects esophageal pressure (Pes-CMS) because of poor pressure transmission across the airway. ...
Tuggey Justin M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth ...
DiMarco Anthony F - - 2007
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) results in the generation of large positive airway pressures. The potential effects of diaphragm co-activation during SCS were investigated in 10 anesthetized dogs. Diaphragm compound action potentials (CMAPs) were present during SCS at the T10 and T12 levels. In group 1, airway (Paw) and ...
Oliven A - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the mechanical effect of genioglossus stimulation on flow mechanics and pharyngeal cross-sectional area in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, and to identify variables that determine the magnitude of the respiratory effect of tongue protrusion. The pressure/flow and pressure/cross-sectional area relationships of ...
Drager Luciano F - - 2007
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is a key mechanism for these cardiovascular events. Recent cross-sectional studies showed the presence of early signs of atherosclerosis in patients with OSA who were free of comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact ...
Bazzano Lydia A - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very common risk factor for hypertension, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been widely used to treat OSA. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effects of CPAP on blood pressure, reported as either a primary or secondary end ...
Phillips Craig L - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is commonly associated with cardiovascular disease and sympathetic activation. However, it is unclear whether this association is independent of obesity and to what extent treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alleviates the vascular inflammation that underpins cardiovascular disease. We therefore evaluated whether short-term withdrawal ...
Hertegonne Katrien B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Auto-adjustable continuous positive airway pressure devices are widely used in titration procedures to determine therapeutic pressure levels in obstructive sleep apnea patients. However, differences in operational characteristics may influence the effect on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). OBJECTIVES: We compared the titration performance of two devices based on detection of ...
Noorddin Y - - 2007
The use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an alternative to the endotracheal tube (ETT) is becoming more popular in the practice of anesthesia. It is undeniable that this device has numerous advantages over endotracheal tube, however it does not provide an airtight seal between the airway and atmospheric gases. ...
El Solh Ali A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mathematical formulas have been less than adequate in assessing the optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) using demographic and anthropometric information to predict optimal CPAP level based ...
Noble Peter B - - 2007
In vivo, breathing movements, including tidal and deep inspirations (DIs), exert a number of beneficial effects on respiratory system responsiveness in healthy humans that are diminished or lost in asthma, possibly as a result of reduced distension (strain) of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We used bronchial segments from pigs to ...
Fulkerson Pamela J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the ease of placement and ventilatory parameters of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with an endotracheal tube (ETT) in anesthetized swine during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, experimental trial. ANIMALS: Nine young domestic swine, weighing between 40 and 49 kg (mean 45.1 kg), being used ...
Mort Thomas C - - 2007
Emergency airway management outside the elective operating room presents considerable risks to the patient and significant challenges to the practitioner. Complications and adverse consequences are commonplace, yet they have not received their justified discussion or scrutiny in the literature. This review will discuss potentially life-threatening complications partitioned into 2 broad ...
Patruno Vincenzo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases has been reported. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line therapy for OSA, able not only to reduce daytime sleepiness but also to improve cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. Autoadjusting CPAP (APAP), an ...
Chang Herng-Yu Sucie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To prevent reflex-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma, local anesthetics are commonly administered by aerosol or IV as adjunct medication. Lidocaine attenuates responsiveness to a neurally active stimulus that increases tone, but there is scant information about the effect of lidocaine on baseline airway tone. Therefore we examined the ...
Smith Lindsay A - - 2007
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to CHF progression. We aimed to determine whether treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would improve subjective and objective measures of heart failure severity in patients with CHF and ...
Haentjens Patrick - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might lower blood pressure, but evidence from clinical studies is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. This study aimed to assess whether CPAP reduces ambulatory blood pressure in ...
Shiota Satomi - - 2007
Fluid accumulation in the neck during recumbency might narrow the upper airway (UA) and thereby contribute to its collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is hypothesised that acute fluid shifts from the legs to the upper body in healthy subjects would increase neck circumference and reduce the ...
Bhimaraj Arvind - - 2007
We report a patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, with postoperative complications following tracheostomy. His stormy postoperative course is presented with emphasis on glycemic control and hypertension. We present a cautionary tale of a significant reduction in medications to control blood pressure and hyperglycemia following ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2007
RATIONALE: The technique used to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the newborn may influence lung function and breathing efficiency. OBJECTIVES: To compare differences in gas exchange physiology and lung injury resulting from treatment of respiratory distress with either bubble or constant pressure CPAP and to determine if the ...
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