Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1895
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Bazzano Lydia A - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very common risk factor for hypertension, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been widely used to treat OSA. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effects of CPAP on blood pressure, reported as either a primary or secondary end ...
Phillips Craig L - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is commonly associated with cardiovascular disease and sympathetic activation. However, it is unclear whether this association is independent of obesity and to what extent treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alleviates the vascular inflammation that underpins cardiovascular disease. We therefore evaluated whether short-term withdrawal ...
Hertegonne Katrien B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Auto-adjustable continuous positive airway pressure devices are widely used in titration procedures to determine therapeutic pressure levels in obstructive sleep apnea patients. However, differences in operational characteristics may influence the effect on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). OBJECTIVES: We compared the titration performance of two devices based on detection of ...
Noorddin Y - - 2007
The use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an alternative to the endotracheal tube (ETT) is becoming more popular in the practice of anesthesia. It is undeniable that this device has numerous advantages over endotracheal tube, however it does not provide an airtight seal between the airway and atmospheric gases. ...
El Solh Ali A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mathematical formulas have been less than adequate in assessing the optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) using demographic and anthropometric information to predict optimal CPAP level based ...
Noble Peter B - - 2007
In vivo, breathing movements, including tidal and deep inspirations (DIs), exert a number of beneficial effects on respiratory system responsiveness in healthy humans that are diminished or lost in asthma, possibly as a result of reduced distension (strain) of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We used bronchial segments from pigs to ...
Fulkerson Pamela J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the ease of placement and ventilatory parameters of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with an endotracheal tube (ETT) in anesthetized swine during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, experimental trial. ANIMALS: Nine young domestic swine, weighing between 40 and 49 kg (mean 45.1 kg), being used ...
Mort Thomas C - - 2007
Emergency airway management outside the elective operating room presents considerable risks to the patient and significant challenges to the practitioner. Complications and adverse consequences are commonplace, yet they have not received their justified discussion or scrutiny in the literature. This review will discuss potentially life-threatening complications partitioned into 2 broad ...
Patruno Vincenzo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases has been reported. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line therapy for OSA, able not only to reduce daytime sleepiness but also to improve cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. Autoadjusting CPAP (APAP), an ...
Chang Herng-Yu Sucie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To prevent reflex-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma, local anesthetics are commonly administered by aerosol or IV as adjunct medication. Lidocaine attenuates responsiveness to a neurally active stimulus that increases tone, but there is scant information about the effect of lidocaine on baseline airway tone. Therefore we examined the ...
Smith Lindsay A - - 2007
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to CHF progression. We aimed to determine whether treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would improve subjective and objective measures of heart failure severity in patients with CHF and ...
Haentjens Patrick - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might lower blood pressure, but evidence from clinical studies is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. This study aimed to assess whether CPAP reduces ambulatory blood pressure in ...
Shiota Satomi - - 2007
Fluid accumulation in the neck during recumbency might narrow the upper airway (UA) and thereby contribute to its collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is hypothesised that acute fluid shifts from the legs to the upper body in healthy subjects would increase neck circumference and reduce the ...
Bhimaraj Arvind - - 2007
We report a patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, with postoperative complications following tracheostomy. His stormy postoperative course is presented with emphasis on glycemic control and hypertension. We present a cautionary tale of a significant reduction in medications to control blood pressure and hyperglycemia following ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2007
RATIONALE: The technique used to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the newborn may influence lung function and breathing efficiency. OBJECTIVES: To compare differences in gas exchange physiology and lung injury resulting from treatment of respiratory distress with either bubble or constant pressure CPAP and to determine if the ...
Jo Javier A - - 2007
Using the Volterra-Wiener approach, we employed a minimal model to quantitatively characterize the linear and nonlinear effects of respiration (RCC) and arterial blood pressure (ABR) on heart rate variability (HRV) in normal controls and subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Respiration, R-R interval (RRI), blood pressure (BP) and ...
Skomro Robert P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Standard practice in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) management requires that a positive diagnostic, overnight polysomnography (PSG) test be obtained before initiating treatment. However, long waiting times due to lack of access to PSG testing facilities may delay the initiation of definitive treatment for OSA. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the response ...
Butcher Scott J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) in mucolysis and mucous clearance is thought to be dependant on oscillatory flow rate (Fosc). Therefore, increasing Fosc during HFCWO may have a clinical benefit. OBJECTIVES: To examine effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on Fosc at two oscillation frequencies ...
Pearson Wendy - - 2007
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), known previously as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a debilitating respiratory condition that significantly contributes to lost training days and illness in racehorses. Herbs are becoming increasingly popular for the prophylaxis or treatment of the clinical signs of RAO despite a paucity of research on ...
Nakata Seiichi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simple tonsillectomy on nasal resistance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Conventional tonsillectomy was performed in 20 patients who were refractory to treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. The subjects consisted of 17 men and ...
Kapur Sandeep - - 2007
It is routine practice to auscultate the chest for equal bilateral breath sounds after tracheal intubation to verify that the tracheal tube tip is properly positioned. Signs of bronchial intubation also include desaturation, an increase or decrease in end-tidal carbon dioxide, and an increase in peak airway pressures. We report ...
Culebras Antonio - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder and the major sleep-related risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. There is a dose-response relationship between the severity of OSA and the odds ratio for development of systemic hypertension. Observational studies have shown that patients with clinically significant OSA have increased incidence of ...
Moreau-Bussière François - - 2007
Although endoscopic studies in adult humans have suggested that laryngeal closure can limit alveolar ventilation during nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV), there are no available data regarding glottal muscle activity during nIPPV. In addition, laryngeal behavior during nIPPV has not been investigated in neonates. The aim of the present ...
Downie Sue R - - 2007
Airway hyperresponsiveness is the ability of airways to narrow excessively in response to inhaled stimuli and is a key feature of asthma. Airway inflammation and ventilation heterogeneity have been separately shown to be associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. A study was undertaken to establish whether ventilation heterogeneity is associated with airway ...
Martínez-García M A - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to analyse the role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with difficult-to-control hypertension (DC-HT) and sleep apnoea. An Autoset (ResMed, Sydney, Australia) study was performed in 60 patients diagnosed with DC-HT based on two 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitorisation (ABPM) ...
Nolan Geraldine M - - 2007
To determine if auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) would be better tolerated on the basis of delivering a lower mean pressure in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Patients spent 8 weeks on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 8 weeks on APAP in a randomized ...
Olguner Cimen - - 2007
Apneic oxygenation is an apnea testing method in the diagnosis of brain death. In this method, oxygen (O2) is delivered into the trachea via an O2 catheter (O2C). However, barotrauma may develop during O2 insufflation into the trachea. Oxygen catheter diameters, O2 catheter tip position in the trachea, and O2 ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2007
To investigate the mechanisms via which lung volume related caudal tracheal traction decreases upper airway collapsibility. Acute physiological study. 20 male, supine, anesthetised, tracheostomised, spontaneously breathing, NZ white rabbits fitted with a sealed face mask. N/A. Upper airway extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP) was measured in the lateral (ETPlat) and anterior ...
Gries Cynthia J - - 2007
We present a case of a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed dramatic mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, without pneumothorax, following a difficult intubation. Misdiagnosis of tracheal rupture as barotrauma from alveolar overdistention initially delayed intervention and caused persistence of subcutaneous emphysema. Despite efforts to minimize tidal volume ...
Devouassoux Gilles - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the ...
Coughlin S R - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with increased blood pressure and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in modifying these outcomes. A randomised placebo-controlled blinded crossover trial comparing cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes after ...
Brighenti Chiara - - 2007
A comparison between air and heliox (80% helium-20% oxygen) ventilation was performed using a mathematical, non-linear dynamic, morphometric model of the respiratory system. Different obstructive conditions, all causing expiratory flow limitation (EFL), were simulated during mechanical ventilation to evaluate and interpret the effects of heliox on tidal EFL and dynamic ...
Lallo Alexandre - - 2007
PURPOSE: The PAxpress (PAx) is a relatively new pharyngeal airway device that is easily inserted and effective in routine airway management. A prospective, randomized study was undertaken to compare the PAx with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) during anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: One hundred adult patients scheduled ...
Kim Hyo Yeol - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level and upper airway variables in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients suffering from OSAS were enrolled in this study. They were asked to answer ...
Fietze Ingo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to initiate positive-pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea is still debated. Current options are autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) or manual titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Procedures differ by parameters and by algorithms used for adapting pressure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy ...
Pelosi Paolo - - 2007
Tidal airway closure occurs when the closing volume exceeds the end-expiratory lung volume, and it is commonly observed in general anaesthesia, particularly in obese patients. Animal studies suggest that tidal airway closure causes injury to peripheral airways, characterized histologically by rupture of alveolar-airway attachments, denuded epithelium, disruption of airway smooth ...
Galvin Eilish M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of noninvasive, supraglottic airway devices are currently available. In this randomized single-blind study, we compared the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) to the [Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)-Classic] during gynecological laparoscopy. METHODS: Forty patients received either an LMA-Classic or a CobraPLA. Insertion, ventilation and removal characteristics were noted, ...
Jain Manu - - 2007
Distal airways are less than 2 mm in diameter, comprising a relatively large cross-sectional area that allows for slower, laminar airflow. The airways include both membranous bronchioles and gas exchange ducts, and have been referred to in the past as the 'quiet zone', in part because these structures were felt ...
Galetke Wolfgang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Long-term compliance is suboptimal in the treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). OBJECTIVES: We compared the efficacy of and the adherence to automatic continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) and constant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) based on a night-by-night analysis. METHODS: We performed a randomized, single-blind crossover ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a newly recognized risk factor for the development of systemic hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure. Mechanisms responsible for these links include OSA-related hypoxemia and arousal from sleep-induced increased sympathetic activity, large negative intrathoracic pressure-induced increased left ventricular transmural pressure gradient and impaired ...
Genzwuerker H V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: While reports of the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Classic in great patient numbers are available, data on the use of the laryngeal tube (LT) in this age group is limited. The two devices are compared in a prospective randomized trial to evaluate success rates and quality of airway ...
Drigo R - - 2006
AIMS: 1) to evaluate automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a partially attended setting; 2) to verify whether APAP performance depends on the apnea-hypopnea and periodic limb movement indexes (PLMI). METHODS: 65 CPAP naïve subjects with a sleep disorder of breathing and daytime sleepiness underwent a standard polysomnography (first ...
Hargens Trent A - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive partial and total collapse of the upper airway that induces stressful arousals throughout sleep to reestablish breathing. Although estimates vary, prevalence has been reported as high as 20% in the adult population. OSA is common in several chronic diseases, the most common ...
Brouns Mark - - 2007
Patients referred for treatment of tracheal stenosis typically are asymptomatic until critical narrowing of the airway occurs, which then requires immediate intervention. To understand how tracheal stenosis affects local pressure drops and explore how a dramatic increase in pressure drop could possibly be detected at an early stage, a computational ...
Micaglio M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) has been demonstrated to be effective for airway management during neonatal resuscitation. However, high airway pressures, when required, cannot be achieved with this device. A neonatal prototype of the LMA-ProSeal (PLMA), which might improve the oropharyngeal leak pressure, has recently been produced. The ...
Yu Chung-Chieh - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level reduced excessive daytime sleepiness and improved healthy status compared with subtherapeutic CPAP pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndromes. To date there have been no studies comparing the differences between the automatic CPAP titrating pressure levels (ACPAPL) and the predicting CPAP ...
Thomson Merran A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Using the 125-day baboon model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with prenatal steroid and exogenous surfactant, we hypothesized that a delay of extubation from low tidal volume positive pressure ventilation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure at 5 days (delayed nasal continuous positive airway pressure group) would not induce more ...
Dieperink Willem - - 2007
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is standard treatment for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a patient who had 21 episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to very poor patient compliance. This 64-year old man had end-stage congestive heart failure based on systolic left ventricular dysfunction following ...
Lafond C - - 2007
The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the airway responsiveness of asthmatic subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has scarcely been studied. A prospective study was performed comparing the changes in airway responsiveness and quality of life in stable asthmatic OSA patients, before and 6 weeks after ...
Babbs Charles F - - 2006
An intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR) is a device that can be added to the external end of a tracheal tube to create controlled negative airway pressure between positive pressure ventilations. The resulting downward bias of the airway pressure baseline promotes increased venous return and enhanced circulation during CPR and also ...
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