Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1919
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Su Mao-Chang - - 2008
We previously showed that rostral fluid displacement by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) narrows the upper airway (UA) and increases UA resistance, but effects on UA collapsibility remained unknown. To test if LBPP increases UA collapsibility, 13 healthy men were randomized into a control or LBPP arm then crossed over ...
Lee Dongyoub - - 2008
Analyses of human airway architecture based on calculations of airflow resistance or energy dissipation suggest that the branching pattern is not optimized for minimizing energy loss by flow dissipation during respiration. Airway flow dissipates only a few percent of the total body work during normal breathing, so branching patterns deviate ...
Bostrom Brian L - - 2008
Marine mammals have very compliant alveoli and stiff upper airways; an adaptation that allows air to move from the alveoli into the upper airways, during breath-hold diving. Alveolar collapse is thought occur between 30 and 100 m and studies that have attempted to estimate gas exchange at depth have used ...
Colnaghi M - - 2008
The aim of the study was to measure the difference between the set continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) value and the pharyngeal pressure reading during CPAP in premature infants with mild respiratory distress syndrome, using two different devices: hood CPAP and the conventional nasal system. The preliminary results suggest that ...
Marrone Oreste - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels obtained by various methods for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) differ. This study aimed to explore the relationships among pressures titrated by an automatic CPAP (APAP) device and those calculated using different predictive ...
Amirav Israel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC ...
Ferrier K A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to study the effect of 6 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in community heart failure (HF) patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). METHODS: Clinically stable outpatients with HF and OSA (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%, apnoea/hypopnoea index >15/h, n = ...
Larcombe Alexander N - - 2008
Basal airway smooth muscle (ASM) tone has not been demonstrated in mice in vivo. To determine whether basal ASM tone is present in mouse airways we measured respiratory system impedance (Zrs) before and after either atropine or bilateral vagotomy. Zrs was measured using forced oscillations delivered via a wave-tube during ...
Heinzer R C RC Sleep Medicine Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2008
A low arousal threshold is believed to predispose to breathing instability during sleep. The present authors hypothesised that trazodone, a nonmyorelaxant sleep-promoting agent, would increase the effort-related arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. In total, nine OSA patients, mean+/-sd age 49+/-9 yrs, apnoea/hypopnoea index 52+/-32 events.h(-1), were studied ...
Jain Manu - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral airways are less than 2 mm in diameter and comprise a relatively large cross-sectional area, which allows for slower, laminar airflow. They include both membranous bronchioles and gas exchange ducts, and have been referred to in the past as the 'quiet zone', partly because these structures ...
Bercker Sven - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Supraglottic airway devices are increasingly important in clinical anesthesia and prehospital emergency medicine, but there are only few data to assess the risk for aspiration. We designed this study to compare the seal of seven supraglottic airway devices in a cadaver model of elevated esophageal pressure. METHODS: The classic ...
Verbanck Sylvia - - 2008
While airway constriction has been shown to affect exhaled nitric oxide (NO), the mechanisms and location of constricted airways most likely to affect exhaled NO remain obscure. We studied the effects of histamine-induced airway constriction and ventilation heterogeneity on exhaled NO at 50 ml/s (Fe(NO,50)) and combined this with model ...
Rusterholtz Thierry - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and proportional assist ventilation (PAV) as modes of noninvasive ventilatory support in patients with severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective multicenter randomized study in the medical ICUs of three teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Thirty-six adult patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema ...
Maeder Micha T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and heart failure (HF). Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO(2)), heart rate recovery, and N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) are strong prognostic predictors in HF. The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on these parameters in OSA patients are not well defined. ...
Sériès Frédéric - - 2008
BACKGROUND: CPAP titration may be completed by automatic apparatus. However, differences in pressure behaviour could interfere with the reliability of pressure recommendations. Our objective was to compare pressure behaviour and effective pressure recommendations between three Automatic CPAP machines (Autoset Spirit, Remstar Auto, GK 420). METHODS: Sixteen untreated obstructive sleep apnea ...
Morgenthaler Timothy I - - 2008
These practice parameters are an update of the previously published recommendations regarding the use of autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at an effective setting verified by attended polysomnography is a standard treatment ...
Shariffuddin I I - - 2008
We compared the performance of the Ambu AuraOnce Laryngeal Mask with that of the LMA Classic laryngeal mask airway during controlled anaesthesia. Forty patients requiring intermittent positive pressure ventilation were studied using a randomised crossover design. The mean (SD) oropharyngeal leak pressure for the Ambu device (19 (7.5) cmH2O) was ...
van Zundert A - - 2008
We present the case of the successful use of a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in a severe obese 41-year-old women with a difficult airway, scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery (off-pump coronary artery bypass). Two intubation attempts failed and face mask ventilation became impossible with rapidly falling peripheral oxygen saturation. A ...
Kubicka Zuzanna J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to estimate the level of delivered continuous positive airway pressure by measuring oral cavity pressure with the mouth closed in infants of various weights and ages treated with heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula at flow rates of 1-5 L/minute. We hypothesized that clinically relevant levels of ...
Benjamin J Amit - - 2008
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) describes a group of disorders characterised by abnormalities in the frequency and/or depth of breathing while asleep. The most common type is the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS); it affects 2-4% of the adult population and is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Another type is central ...
Bennedich Kahn Lydia - - 2008
The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated in serum and locally in the lung in asthmatics and has been suggested to evoke airway hyperresponsiveness. The aim of this study was to explore mechanisms behind NGF-evoked changes in airway responsiveness. We studied if NGF could evoke increased airway responsiveness to ...
Steiner Stephan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be a useful adjunct in patients with congestive heart failure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between left ventricular geometry and hemodynamic response to CPAP. METHODS: Right heart catheter studies were performed in 26 patients before, during and after application of CPAP (8 cm ...
Lardner David R R - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine whether a functional difference exists between the size 2 laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Classic (CLMA) and LMA-Proseal (PLMA) in anesthetized children who have received neuromuscular blockade. Airway leak during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and adequacy of fibreoptic laryngeal view were the primary study outcomes. METHODS: A randomized, ...
Ravi Krishnan - - 2008
The essential feature of left ventricular dysfunction is an increase in left atrial pressure and pulmonary venous congestion leading to a fluid flux across the pulmonary microvasculature. Small acute increases (< 10 mmHg) in left atrial pressure enhance the extravascular fluid volume in the airways and activate the rapidly adapting ...
Constantin Jean-Michel - - 2008
Alveolar derecruitment may occur during low tidal volume ventilation and may be prevented by recruitment maneuvers (RMs). The aim of this study was to compare two RMs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Nineteen patients with ARDS and protective ventilation were included in a randomized crossover study. Both RMs ...
Ballard Robert D - - 2007
Despite widespread agreement that continuous positive airway pressure is effective therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, it is estimated that 50% of patients recommended for therapy are noncompliant 1 year later. Interventions to improve compliance in such patients have not been studied. We evaluated a 2 phase intervention program to improve ...
El-Khatib Mohamad F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We compared rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) values under various ventilatory support settings prior to extubation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the intensive care unit at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty six patients ready for extubation. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were enrolled when receiving pressure support ventilation (PSV) of 5 ...
Monclus Enric - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Our aim in this study was to analyze the adjustment of the laryngeal mask, Ambu AuraOnce, in pediatric patients during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to look for a correlation between clinical parameters such as the sealing pressure and the ease of introduction with radiological parameters. METHODS: One-hundred and ...
Choi W J - - 2007
Myringotomy with ventilation tube insertion in children involves turning the head from neutral to allow surgical access to the ear. In adults, rotation of the head from the mid-line generally increases the oropharyngeal leak pressure when a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is used to manage the airway. There are ...
Garcia-Fernandez Javier - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia workstations with pressure support ventilation (PSV) are available, but there are few studies published on how to program flow-triggered PSV using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) under general anesthesia in pediatric patients. METHODS: We studied 60 ASA I and II patients, from 2 mo to 14 yr, scheduled ...
Dopp John M - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a recognized cause of secondary hypertension. OSA episodes produce surges in systolic and diastolic pressure that keep mean blood pressure levels elevated at night. In many patients, blood pressure remains elevated during the daytime, when breathing is normal. Contributors to this diurnal pattern of hypertension ...
Nam S B - - 2007
We performed a randomised, crossover study in 38 anaesthetised and paralysed patients to compare the performance of the CobraPLA and the LMA Classic during controlled ventilation. The median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressure was 23.0 (20-24 [12-30]) cmH(2)O for the CobraPLA and 15.0 (12-19 [8-30]) cmH(2)O for the LMA Classic ...
Kaw Roop - - 2008
Bariatric surgery has serious associated medical comorbidity and procedure-related risks and is, thus, considered an intermediate-to-high-risk non-cardiac surgery. Altered respiratory mechanics, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and less often, pulmonary hypertension and postoperative pulmonary embolism are the major contributors to poor pulmonary outcomes in obese patients. Attention to posture and positioning ...
Huh Dongeun - - 2007
We describe a microfabricated airway system integrated with computerized air-liquid two-phase microfluidics that enables on-chip engineering of human airway epithelia and precise reproduction of physiologic or pathologic liquid plug flows found in the respiratory system. Using this device, we demonstrate cellular-level lung injury under flow conditions that cause symptoms characteristic ...
Cavaliere F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We measured noise intensity and perceived noisiness during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) performed with two interfaces (face-mask, helmet) and four delivery systems. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers received CPAP in random order with: two systems provided with a flow generator using the Venturi effect and a mechanical expiratory valve ...
Wilkinson D J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure pharyngeal pressures in preterm infants receiving high-flow nasal cannulae. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 18 infants were studied (median gestational age 34 weeks, weight 1.619 kg). A catheter-tip pressure transducer was introduced into the nasopharynx. Flow was sequentially increased to a ...
Genzwuerker H V - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Laryngeal Tube Suction (LTS) has recently undergone considerable changes in design. The new LTS II was compared with the LMA-ProSeal to determine device performance during general anaesthesia and controlled ventilation. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, 100 elective surgical patients were randomized to be ventilated with ...
Lim Y S - - 2007
A patient presented to the ear, nose and throat department with inspiratory stridor, dysphagia and a sore throat. Clinical and radiological examination was normal. During induction of anaesthesia for a planned microlaryngoscopy, the patient developed complete upper airway obstruction that was overcome by applying positive pressure via a facepiece until ...
Lemaître F - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short repeated apneas on breathing pattern and circulatory response in trained (underwater hockey players: UHP) and untrained (controls: CTL) subjects. The subjects performed five apneas (A1-A5) while cycling with the face immersed in thermoneutral water. Respiratory parameters were recorded ...
Buczkowski P W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that when high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is applied above an airway stenosis, higher distal airway pressures are produced compared with when the same ventilation is delivered below the stenosis (BSV). This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this finding. METHODS: HFJV was applied to ...
Hertegonne Katrien B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The best method for titration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome has not yet been established. The 90th or 95th percentiles of the pressure titrated over time by automatic CPAP (A-CPAP) have been recommended as reference for prescribing therapeutic fixed CPAP (F-CPAP). ...
Arzt Michael - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA)-Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) by stabilizing ventilation, but frequently central apneas and hypopneas persist. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that flow-targeted dynamic bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) support ...
Doherty Liam S - - 2008
The genioglossus reflex response to sudden onset pulses of negative airway pressure (NAP) in humans is reported to occur more commonly at end rather than onset of expiration when delivered via a mouthpiece. We examined whether this response was modulated by the route of stimulus delivery throughout the respiratory cycle. ...
Groves Nicole - - 2007
The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an alternative to intubation in respiratory failure is associated with better outcomes in certain conditions. NIV is often poorly tolerated by patients hence precipitating the need for invasive ventilation. High flow nasal (HFN) oxygen delivery is a potential alternative to NIV as it ...
Lang Ivan M IM Medical College of Wisconsin Dysphagia Institute, Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. - - 2008
The effects of esophageal acidification on airway function are unclear. Some have found that the esophageal acidification causes a small increase in airway resistance, but this change is too small to cause significant symptoms. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of esophageal acidification on multiple measures ...
Uong Elizabeth C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Although many children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have complete resolution of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome after adenotonsillectomy, some patients have persistent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome requiring positive airway pressure treatment. Little is known about positive airway pressure adherence among school-aged children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively ...
Argent A C - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that tests of pulmonary function applicable to sick infants and small children with acute severe viral croup would provide clear, objective evidence of responsiveness to therapy with nebulized epinephrine. STUDY DESIGN: Oesophageal pressure changes and airflows at the mouth were measured in 17 patients with acute severe ...
Myers Timothy R - - 2007
Airway clearance techniques, historically referred to as chest physical therapy, have traditionally consisted of a variety of breathing maneuvers or exercises and manual percussion and postural drainage. The methods and types of airway clearance techniques and devices have rapidly increased in an effort to find a more efficacious strategy that ...
Passariello Maurizio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The CobraPLA(TM) is a new supraglottic airway device designed for the use in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. In adults it has been found as effective as the LMA, but with better sealing qualities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate fit and sealing characteristics of ...
Ferrari Giovanni G High Dependency Unit, Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Piazza Donatore del Sangue 3 10154 Torino, Italy. - - 2007
The addition of both noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) or noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (n-IPPV) to medical treatment has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Previous studies indicated a potential risk of new-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with the ...
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