Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1959
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Carr E R M - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the possible pressure produced by a haematoma in the neck would be sufficient to directly compress the trachea to the point of airway obstruction. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study. METHODS: Varying pressures were applied over the second and third cartilaginous rings of 10 pig tracheas in ...
Johnson Chris B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may contribute to the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). Nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can alleviate OSA and may have a role in the treatment of CHF patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute and chronic effects of CPAP therapy on left ventricular ...
Xue F S - - 2008
This prospective self-controlled study was designed to evaluate the influences of head flexion on airway seal, quality of ventilation, and orogastric tube placement through the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) in 80 anaesthetised, paralysed adult patients. After the ProSeal LMA was inserted and the cuff pressure was set at ...
Lampland Andrea L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To conduct an in vitro evaluation of a humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system at different flows, cannula sizes, and air leaks and also an in vivo analysis of mean end-expiratory esophageal pressure (EEEP) from nasal continuous positive airway pressure at 6 cm H(2)O (NCPAP+6) versus HFNC. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Torre-Bouscoulet Luis - - 2008
To describe our clinical experience with autoadjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) trials carried out on patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Consecutive CPAP-naive adults underwent a non-attended home APAP trial (ResMed, Autoset, Spirit). Diagnoses of OSA were established by simplified polygraphy. Data from 208 men and 71 women. The ...
Roy Bianca - - 2008
The present study stems from our recent demonstration (Moreau-Bussiere F, Samson N, St-Hilaire M, Reix P, Lafond JR, Nsegbe E, Praud JP. J Appl Physiol 102: 2149-2157, 2007) that a progressive increase in nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) leads to active glottal closure in nonsedated, newborn lambs. The aim ...
Jardine Luke - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a widely accepted method of respiratory support used in the care of preterm infants. It remains unknown as to what is the best strategy for the withdrawal of CPAP once it has been commenced. The aim of the present survey was to establish ...
McLornan Paul M - - 2008
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Airway obstruction is prevented by delivering air at a constant pressure via a nasal mask worn during sleep. Small nares may cause difficulty in wearing even the smallest standard nasal mask, with wear resulting in ...
Kohler Malcolm - - 2008
RATIONALE: Moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, increased arterial stiffness, and hypertension. It is not known whether minimally symptomatic OSA is also associated with impaired vascular function. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether minimally symptomatic OSA is associated with impaired vascular function. METHODS: In 64 patients (7 females) ...
Kohler M - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with hypertension, stroke and myocardial ischaemia in epidemiological and observational studies. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSAS, but the impact of this intervention on established risk factors for cardiovascular disease remains incompletely understood. A total of ...
Galetke Wolfgang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) requires pressure titration usually performed during attended in-hospital polysomnography. This manual titration procedure is not well standardized. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether a new automatic titration device is as effective as standard manual ...
Bellani G - - 2008
Non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a useful tool for managing patients with acute respiratory failure. The head helmet is a relatively novel interface that is as effective as the traditionally employed face-mask in delivering CPAP and can possibly be characterized as better for the patient's tolerance and, consequently, ...
Naiboglu Baris - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure in children with upper airway obstruction caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy according to their disease severity assessed with symptom scoring and to demonstrate the profit for echocardiographic monitorization of the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy regardless of their clinical status. ...
Samson Nathalie - - 2008
The present study investigated the mechanism by which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) suppresses nonnutritive swallowing (NNS) during quiet sleep (QS) in newborn lambs. Eighteen full-term lambs were chronically instrumented and evenly distributed into three separate groups to determine the extent to which modulation of NNS may be attributed to ...
Tsioufis Costas C First Cardiology Clinic, University of Athens, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece. - - 2008
Microalbuminuria reflects a state of widespread vascular dysfunction, whereas obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) further promotes atherosclerotic damage in hypertension. Cross-sectional. In an outpatient hypertensive unit, 62 untreated hypertensive patients (aged 48 +/- 7 years; office blood pressure [BP], 151 +/- 8/97 +/- 7 mm Hg) with OSA and 70 hypertensive ...
Kikuchi Tatsuaki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube Suction II (LTSII; VBM, Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany) is a recent revision of the Laryngeal Tube Suction. This study compared insertion and ventilation profiles of the LTSII and the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA; Laryngeal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, United Kingdom) in anesthetized and paralyzed patients. METHODS: One ...
Dohi Tomotaka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). However, some patients do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), so other therapeutic modalities should be considered, such as bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP), which also assists respiration ...
Sahin-Yilmaz Asli - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment causes nasal symptoms that are believed to result from the drying effects of the air on the nasal mucosa, and these symptoms affect compliance with therapy. We hypothesized that the increased air pressure on the nasal mucosa caused by positive pressure from ...
Okcay Aynur - - 2008
There has long been a recognized link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the cardiovascular system, no aspect of which has been more studied than blood pressure. Research in OSA has not only demonstrated dysregulation of homeostatic cardiovascular mechanisms but also has furthered our understanding of blood pressure regulatory control. ...
Verghese C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: LMA-Supreme (SLMA) is a new, single-use, latex-free, laryngeal mask airway with gastric access. The anatomically shaped airway tube permits easy insertion without placing fingers in the patient's mouth. The cuff is designed to provide higher seal pressures than the LMA-Classic or Unique. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study of ...
Dolan Diana C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices with the option of flexible pressure delivery (e.g., C-Flex) are thought to provide an improved degree of comfort and result in better therapeutic adherence while maintaining standard CPAP efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare adherence and subjective measures of comfort ...
Carneiro Gláucia - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to ...
Huncke Tessa - - 2008
We describe the anesthetic management of a morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent awake craniotomy. The patient's personal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine was used to support ventilation intraoperatively. Dexmedetomidine was used as the primary sedative. During cortical mapping, the CPAP was discontinued. The patient was ...
Rakesh Vineet - - 2008
Computational model for airflow through the upper airway of a horse was developed. Previous flow models for human airway do not hold true for horses due to significant differences in anatomy and the high Reynolds number of flow in the equine airway. Moreover, models that simulate the entire respiratory cycle ...
Ruttanaumpawan Pimon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with either heart failure or obstructive sleep apnea have a reduced baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate, a sign of poor prognosis. We previously demonstrated that nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure to heart failure patients with obstructive sleep apnea increased baroreflex sensitivity acutely, but it is not ...
Kurt Muhammed - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Due to an increasing incidence of respiratory failure after cardiac surgery we wanted to study whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) may improve pulmonary oxygen transfer and may avoid reintubation after coronary operations. Additionally, we compared this protocol to non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). METHODS: For a period ...
Khan Akram - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and increased left atrial volume (LAV) both independently increase cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may decrease LAV. We retrospectively identified 47 OSA patients receiving CPAP who had echocardiograms done before and after polysomnography. Compliance was defined as ...
Ozsancak Aylin - - 2008
Nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NNV), the provision of ventilatory assistance via a noninvasive interface mainly during sleep, has assumed an important role in the management of chronic hypoventilatory syndromes. This review focuses on recent developments related to the use of NNV to treat various forms of chronic respiratory failure or insufficiency. ...
Kaya G - - 2008
We compared the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the laryngeal tube (LT) with the perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA, PLA) in anaesthetised, paralysed children having brief surgical procedures. After obtaining informed consent, 90 paediatric ASA Status 1 and 2 patients awaiting short surgical procedures were randomised to have their airways managed with ...
Puri G D - - 2008
The newly developed supralaryngeal airway Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) has been compared successfully to the LMA, but the haemodynamic response to its insertion has not been evaluated in a randomised study. We compared haemodynamic and Bispectral index (BIS) responses to insertion of the SLIPA with classic LMA ...
Rakesh V V Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2008
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models provide the means to evaluate airflow in the upper airways without requiring in vivo experiments. The physiological conditions of a Thoroughbred racehorse's upper airway during exercise could be simulated. Computed tomography scanned images of a 3-year-old intact male Thoroughbred racehorse cadaver were used to simulate ...
Martinón-Torres Federico - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of administering either heliox or air oxygen in combination with nasal continuous positive airway pressure in infants with refractory bronchiolitis. PATIENT AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, interventional, single-center, crossover study in a teaching hospital including infants 1 month ...
Kaur Charanjit - - 2008
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), especially bubbling CPAP, is known to reduce the need for more invasive ventilation. We here describe a circuit that can deliver bubbling CPAP in resource poor settings. We describe how the oxygen concentration can be altered from 98% to 21% oxygen using this system. ...
Mihaescu Mihai - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We performed flow computations on an accurate upper airway model in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea and computed the velocity, static pressure, and wall shear stress distribution in the model. METHODS: Cartesian coordinates for airway boundaries were determined from cross-sectional magnetic resonance images, and a 3-dimensional computational model ...
Gaitini Luis - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Mask Airway-Unique (LMAU) and CobraPLA (Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway) are supraglottic airway devices. There are no published studies comparing these devices in children breathing with pressure controlled ventilation (PCV). METHODS: Eighty pediatric patients, scheduled for elective general surgery of short duration, were randomly assigned to have either a ...
Bolton R - - 2008
A number of emergency departments have introduced non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients presenting with acute respiratory failure. It is thought that early non-invasive respiratory support will avoid the need for invasive ventilation in many cases. This literature review studied current knowledge of ...
de Klerk Alan - - 2008
Humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) therapy for neonates has become increasingly popular in recent years. It is frequently used in circumstances when continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) might otherwise have been used. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy, and safety of HHFNC in newborns. This evidence ...
Bandla Preetam - - 2008
The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to ...
Maniscalco Mauro - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of estimating arterial CO(2) pressure (PaCO(2)) using a recently introduced transcutaneous CO(2) pressure (PtcCO(2)) monitor in severe obese patients. DESIGN: Observational and interventional study. SETTING: District hospital with respiratory ward and bariatric surgery unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PtcCO(2) was measured in 35 obese patients with ...
Su Mao-Chang - - 2008
We previously showed that rostral fluid displacement by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) narrows the upper airway (UA) and increases UA resistance, but effects on UA collapsibility remained unknown. To test if LBPP increases UA collapsibility, 13 healthy men were randomized into a control or LBPP arm then crossed over ...
Lee Dongyoub - - 2008
Analyses of human airway architecture based on calculations of airflow resistance or energy dissipation suggest that the branching pattern is not optimized for minimizing energy loss by flow dissipation during respiration. Airway flow dissipates only a few percent of the total body work during normal breathing, so branching patterns deviate ...
Bostrom Brian L - - 2008
Marine mammals have very compliant alveoli and stiff upper airways; an adaptation that allows air to move from the alveoli into the upper airways, during breath-hold diving. Alveolar collapse is thought occur between 30 and 100 m and studies that have attempted to estimate gas exchange at depth have used ...
Colnaghi M - - 2008
The aim of the study was to measure the difference between the set continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) value and the pharyngeal pressure reading during CPAP in premature infants with mild respiratory distress syndrome, using two different devices: hood CPAP and the conventional nasal system. The preliminary results suggest that ...
Marrone Oreste - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels obtained by various methods for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) differ. This study aimed to explore the relationships among pressures titrated by an automatic CPAP (APAP) device and those calculated using different predictive ...
Amirav Israel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC ...
Ferrier K A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to study the effect of 6 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in community heart failure (HF) patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). METHODS: Clinically stable outpatients with HF and OSA (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%, apnoea/hypopnoea index >15/h, n = ...
Larcombe Alexander N - - 2008
Basal airway smooth muscle (ASM) tone has not been demonstrated in mice in vivo. To determine whether basal ASM tone is present in mouse airways we measured respiratory system impedance (Zrs) before and after either atropine or bilateral vagotomy. Zrs was measured using forced oscillations delivered via a wave-tube during ...
Heinzer R C RC Sleep Medicine Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2008
A low arousal threshold is believed to predispose to breathing instability during sleep. The present authors hypothesised that trazodone, a nonmyorelaxant sleep-promoting agent, would increase the effort-related arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. In total, nine OSA patients, mean+/-sd age 49+/-9 yrs, apnoea/hypopnoea index 52+/-32 events.h(-1), were studied ...
Jain Manu - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral airways are less than 2 mm in diameter and comprise a relatively large cross-sectional area, which allows for slower, laminar airflow. They include both membranous bronchioles and gas exchange ducts, and have been referred to in the past as the 'quiet zone', partly because these structures ...
Bercker Sven - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Supraglottic airway devices are increasingly important in clinical anesthesia and prehospital emergency medicine, but there are only few data to assess the risk for aspiration. We designed this study to compare the seal of seven supraglottic airway devices in a cadaver model of elevated esophageal pressure. METHODS: The classic ...
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