Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1895
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Constantin Jean-Michel - - 2008
Alveolar derecruitment may occur during low tidal volume ventilation and may be prevented by recruitment maneuvers (RMs). The aim of this study was to compare two RMs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Nineteen patients with ARDS and protective ventilation were included in a randomized crossover study. Both RMs ...
Ballard Robert D - - 2007
Despite widespread agreement that continuous positive airway pressure is effective therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, it is estimated that 50% of patients recommended for therapy are noncompliant 1 year later. Interventions to improve compliance in such patients have not been studied. We evaluated a 2 phase intervention program to improve ...
El-Khatib Mohamad F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We compared rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) values under various ventilatory support settings prior to extubation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the intensive care unit at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty six patients ready for extubation. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were enrolled when receiving pressure support ventilation (PSV) of 5 ...
Monclus Enric - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Our aim in this study was to analyze the adjustment of the laryngeal mask, Ambu AuraOnce, in pediatric patients during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to look for a correlation between clinical parameters such as the sealing pressure and the ease of introduction with radiological parameters. METHODS: One-hundred and ...
Choi W J - - 2007
Myringotomy with ventilation tube insertion in children involves turning the head from neutral to allow surgical access to the ear. In adults, rotation of the head from the mid-line generally increases the oropharyngeal leak pressure when a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is used to manage the airway. There are ...
Garcia-Fernandez Javier - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia workstations with pressure support ventilation (PSV) are available, but there are few studies published on how to program flow-triggered PSV using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) under general anesthesia in pediatric patients. METHODS: We studied 60 ASA I and II patients, from 2 mo to 14 yr, scheduled ...
Dopp John M - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a recognized cause of secondary hypertension. OSA episodes produce surges in systolic and diastolic pressure that keep mean blood pressure levels elevated at night. In many patients, blood pressure remains elevated during the daytime, when breathing is normal. Contributors to this diurnal pattern of hypertension ...
Nam S B - - 2007
We performed a randomised, crossover study in 38 anaesthetised and paralysed patients to compare the performance of the CobraPLA and the LMA Classic during controlled ventilation. The median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressure was 23.0 (20-24 [12-30]) cmH(2)O for the CobraPLA and 15.0 (12-19 [8-30]) cmH(2)O for the LMA Classic ...
Kaw Roop - - 2008
Bariatric surgery has serious associated medical comorbidity and procedure-related risks and is, thus, considered an intermediate-to-high-risk non-cardiac surgery. Altered respiratory mechanics, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and less often, pulmonary hypertension and postoperative pulmonary embolism are the major contributors to poor pulmonary outcomes in obese patients. Attention to posture and positioning ...
Huh Dongeun - - 2007
We describe a microfabricated airway system integrated with computerized air-liquid two-phase microfluidics that enables on-chip engineering of human airway epithelia and precise reproduction of physiologic or pathologic liquid plug flows found in the respiratory system. Using this device, we demonstrate cellular-level lung injury under flow conditions that cause symptoms characteristic ...
Cavaliere F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We measured noise intensity and perceived noisiness during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) performed with two interfaces (face-mask, helmet) and four delivery systems. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers received CPAP in random order with: two systems provided with a flow generator using the Venturi effect and a mechanical expiratory valve ...
Wilkinson D J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure pharyngeal pressures in preterm infants receiving high-flow nasal cannulae. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 18 infants were studied (median gestational age 34 weeks, weight 1.619 kg). A catheter-tip pressure transducer was introduced into the nasopharynx. Flow was sequentially increased to a ...
Genzwuerker H V - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Laryngeal Tube Suction (LTS) has recently undergone considerable changes in design. The new LTS II was compared with the LMA-ProSeal to determine device performance during general anaesthesia and controlled ventilation. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, 100 elective surgical patients were randomized to be ventilated with ...
Lim Y S - - 2007
A patient presented to the ear, nose and throat department with inspiratory stridor, dysphagia and a sore throat. Clinical and radiological examination was normal. During induction of anaesthesia for a planned microlaryngoscopy, the patient developed complete upper airway obstruction that was overcome by applying positive pressure via a facepiece until ...
Lemaître F - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short repeated apneas on breathing pattern and circulatory response in trained (underwater hockey players: UHP) and untrained (controls: CTL) subjects. The subjects performed five apneas (A1-A5) while cycling with the face immersed in thermoneutral water. Respiratory parameters were recorded ...
Buczkowski P W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that when high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is applied above an airway stenosis, higher distal airway pressures are produced compared with when the same ventilation is delivered below the stenosis (BSV). This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this finding. METHODS: HFJV was applied to ...
Hertegonne Katrien B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The best method for titration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome has not yet been established. The 90th or 95th percentiles of the pressure titrated over time by automatic CPAP (A-CPAP) have been recommended as reference for prescribing therapeutic fixed CPAP (F-CPAP). ...
Arzt Michael - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA)-Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) by stabilizing ventilation, but frequently central apneas and hypopneas persist. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that flow-targeted dynamic bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) support ...
Doherty Liam S - - 2008
The genioglossus reflex response to sudden onset pulses of negative airway pressure (NAP) in humans is reported to occur more commonly at end rather than onset of expiration when delivered via a mouthpiece. We examined whether this response was modulated by the route of stimulus delivery throughout the respiratory cycle. ...
Groves Nicole - - 2007
The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an alternative to intubation in respiratory failure is associated with better outcomes in certain conditions. NIV is often poorly tolerated by patients hence precipitating the need for invasive ventilation. High flow nasal (HFN) oxygen delivery is a potential alternative to NIV as it ...
Lang Ivan M IM Medical College of Wisconsin Dysphagia Institute, Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. - - 2008
The effects of esophageal acidification on airway function are unclear. Some have found that the esophageal acidification causes a small increase in airway resistance, but this change is too small to cause significant symptoms. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of esophageal acidification on multiple measures ...
Uong Elizabeth C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Although many children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have complete resolution of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome after adenotonsillectomy, some patients have persistent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome requiring positive airway pressure treatment. Little is known about positive airway pressure adherence among school-aged children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively ...
Argent A C - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that tests of pulmonary function applicable to sick infants and small children with acute severe viral croup would provide clear, objective evidence of responsiveness to therapy with nebulized epinephrine. STUDY DESIGN: Oesophageal pressure changes and airflows at the mouth were measured in 17 patients with acute severe ...
Myers Timothy R - - 2007
Airway clearance techniques, historically referred to as chest physical therapy, have traditionally consisted of a variety of breathing maneuvers or exercises and manual percussion and postural drainage. The methods and types of airway clearance techniques and devices have rapidly increased in an effort to find a more efficacious strategy that ...
Ferrari Giovanni - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The addition of both noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) or noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (n-IPPV) to medical treatment has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Previous studies indicated a potential risk of new-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with ...
Passariello Maurizio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The CobraPLA(TM) is a new supraglottic airway device designed for the use in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. In adults it has been found as effective as the LMA, but with better sealing qualities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate fit and sealing characteristics of ...
Owen L S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Less invasive techniques of respiratory support are increasingly popular. OBJECTIVE: To determine how widespread the use of neonatal nasal intermittent positive airway pressure (NIPPV) has become and describe the range of practice used in NIPPV in England. METHODS: 95 English Neonatal intensive care units were asked to provide information ...
Younes Magdy - - 2007
The response to chemical stimuli (chemical responsiveness) and the increases in respiratory drive required for arousal (arousal threshold) and for opening the airway without arousal (effective recruitment threshold) are important determinants of ventilatory instability and, hence, severity of obstructive apnea. We measured these variables in 21 obstructive apnea patients (apnea-hypopnea ...
Zhang Xi-long - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggested that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might be independently associated with hypoadiponectinemia, which was linked to some complications of OSAS, such as hypertension, diabetes, etc. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on changes of both serum adiponectin ...
Visser W Anton - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection. METHODS: Twenty patients with an epidural catheter at the C6-7 or C7-T1 interspace received an epidural dose ...
Trevisanuto Daniele - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may have a role in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure. We evaluated the feasibility of administering NO therapy by a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP). METHODS: While maintaining a constant total flow of 8, 10, and 12 l.min(-1), ...
Kahn Doron J - - 2007
Nasal continuous-positive-airway-pressure (NCPAP) is popular for infant respiratory support. We compared delivered to intended intra-prong, proximal-airway, and distal-airway pressures using ventilator (V-NCPAP) and bubble (B-NCPAP) devices. Measurements were repeated at five flows (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 L/min) and three NCPAP (4, 6, and 8 cm H2O) under no, ...
Chatburn Robert L - - 2007
High-frequency airway clearance assist devices generate either positive or negative transrespiratory pressure excursions to produce high-frequency, small-volume oscillations in the airways. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation creates a positive transrespiratory pressure by injecting short, rapid inspiratory flow pulses into the airway opening and relies on chest wall elastic recoil for passive exhalation. ...
Bagnoli Paola - - 2007
Negative pressure generated during the expiratory phase of total liquid ventilation (TLV) may induce airway collapse. Evaluation of the effect of repeated airway collapse is crucial to optimize this technique. A total of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Ventilation was performed for 6 hours ...
Donadio Vincenzo - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among sympathetic hyperactivity, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and hypertension in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Ten newly diagnosed OSAS patients with untreated EDS and daytime hypertension underwent polysomnography (PSG) and daytime measurements of plasma noradrenaline (NA), ambulatory blood pressure (BP), ...
Moritz Fabienne - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema may develop respiratory failure. Noninvasive respiratory support should be initiated rapidly to avoid tracheal intubation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by the Boussignac CPAP device and bilevel positive airway pressure ...
Al Suleimani Yousuf M - - 2008
Different drugs from various pharmacological classes were compared for their ability to protect against the nasal effects of acute allergen challenge in a guinea pig model. In the model, sneezing and nose rubbing were recorded after an initial allergen challenge in guinea pigs previously sensitized to egg albumin. Four days ...
te Pas Arjan B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Initial ventilation strategy may play an important role in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm infants. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure is an accepted approach, but randomized clinical trials are lacking. Our aim was to determine whether early nasal continuous positive airway pressure, preceded by a ...
Noda Akiko - - 2007
Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of OSAS severity and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on daytime baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were investigated in OSAS patients. Fifty-one consecutive males with OSAS and 29 ...
Bucca Caterina B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Upper airway edema might contribute to pharyngeal collapsibility and account for the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate if intensive unloading with diuretics improves sleep-disordered breathing and increases pharyngeal caliber in patients with severe OSA ...
Doyle D John - - 2007
We report a 22-year-old, 980-lb (445 kg) man with a body mass index of 163 kg/m(2), who needed intubation for tracheotomy surgery, as he was profoundly hypercarbic and reliant on a tight-fitting continuous positive airway pressure mask. Attempts at oral and nasal fiberoptic intubation during topical anesthesia were unsuccessful because ...
Sehlin Maria - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit we have observed that patients have different adherence to 2 commonly used positive-expiratory-pressure (PEP) therapy devices: the PEP bottle and the PEP mask. The reason for this difference is not clear. METHODS: In a randomized prospective study, we made continuous recordings of airway pressure ...
Fitz-Clarke John R - - 2007
A computational model of the human respiratory tract was developed to study airway and alveolar compression and re-expansion during deep breath-hold dives. The model incorporates the chest wall, supraglottic airway, trachea, branched airway tree, and elastic alveoli assigned time-dependent surfactant properties. Total lung collapse with degassing of all alveoli is ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Significant overlap exists between the risk factors for pre-eclampsia and sleep-disordered breathing. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been proposed as therapy for pre-eclampsia. This prospective, longitudinal study was designed to characterize sleep-related breathing patterns in pregnant women ...
James A L - - 2007
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by airflow obstruction, airway remodelling (measurable structural change) and inflammation. The present review will examine the relationship between airway remodelling in these two conditions with respect to symptoms, abnormal lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and decline in lung function. The potential for ...
Teixeira Antonio - - 2007
Assessing diaphragm function is clinically and physiologically pertinent. It can rely on the measurement of pressure responses to phrenic stimulation. Combining mouth pressure (Pm) with cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) is painless and easy to perform, but Pm-CMS poorly reflects esophageal pressure (Pes-CMS) because of poor pressure transmission across the airway. ...
Tuggey Justin M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth ...
DiMarco Anthony F - - 2007
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) results in the generation of large positive airway pressures. The potential effects of diaphragm co-activation during SCS were investigated in 10 anesthetized dogs. Diaphragm compound action potentials (CMAPs) were present during SCS at the T10 and T12 levels. In group 1, airway (Paw) and ...
Oliven A - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the mechanical effect of genioglossus stimulation on flow mechanics and pharyngeal cross-sectional area in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, and to identify variables that determine the magnitude of the respiratory effect of tongue protrusion. The pressure/flow and pressure/cross-sectional area relationships of ...
Drager Luciano F - - 2007
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is a key mechanism for these cardiovascular events. Recent cross-sectional studies showed the presence of early signs of atherosclerosis in patients with OSA who were free of comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact ...
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