Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1923
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Kahn Doron J - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The goal were to characterize the flow dependence of bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery in a cohort of preterm infants and to compare the actual (delivered) intraprong continuous positive airway pressure with the intended (set) nasal continuous positive airway pressure for both ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway ...
Szmuk Peter - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) provides better sealing pressure than the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique (LMAU) during positive-pressure ventilation in adults. We compared the performance of the CobraPLA and LMAU in infants and children. METHODS: Two-hundred pediatric patients were randomly assigned to a CobraPLA or an Laryngeal Mask Airway ...
Rakesh V - - 2008
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The necessary degree of arytenoid cartilage abduction (ACA) to restore airway patency at maximal exercise has not been determined. OBJECTIVES: Use computational fluid dynamics modelling to measure the effects of different degrees of ACA on upper airway characteristics of horses during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: Maximal ACA by ...
Wiese C H R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In 2005 the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) published a revised version of the guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS). One of the aims was to reduce the time without chest compression in the first period of cardiac arrest (no-flow-time; NFT). We evaluated in a manikin study the influence on ...
Kodama Toyoki - - 2009
Cigarette smoking causes inflammatory responses in the airways. However, not all smokers exhibit the development of airflow limitation. This study was designed to determine the implications of small airways inflammation in the development of airflow limitation in smokers by our newly explored method. Twenty-eight smokers (15 smokers without airflow limitation ...
Smyth C - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Following a suggestion by ward patients that Rapid Rhino nasal packs may deflate over time, allowing recurrence of epistaxis, we aimed to demonstrate deflation of 7.5 cm Rapid Rhino packs when used in vivo for post-operative nasal packing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The volume of air insufflated and retrieved from ...
Urbano Fred - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of stroke independent of known vascular and metabolic risk factors. Although patients with OSA have higher prevalence of hypertension and evidence of hypercoagulability, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. Obstructive apnea events are associated with surges in blood pressure, hypercapnia, and ...
Watson Nathaniel F - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Aerophagia is a complication of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), whereupon air is forced into the stomach and bowel. Associated discomfort can result in CPAP discontinuation. We hypothesize that aerophagia is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) via mechanisms involving GERD related ...
Ticehurst K - - 2008
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been is used widely in humans to manage obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, but it has not been widely used in animals. A brachycephalic cat, with previously undiagnosed laryngeal paralysis, that developed acute upper respiratory tract obstruction on recovery from anaesthesia, is presented. The condition ...
Nazzaro P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), frequently associated with hypertension, represents a harmful and independent risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to ascertain whether the occurrence of OSAS could worsen microcirculatory impairment in very mild hypertensives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ...
Walsh Jennifer H - - 2008
To determine the effect of head posture on upper airway collapsibility and site of collapse of the passive human upper airway. Pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit) and site of airway collapse were assessed during head flexion, extension and rotation in individuals undergoing propofol anesthesia. Operating theatre of major teaching hospital. ...
Lam J C M - - 2008
Pharyngeal patency is influenced by the surface tension (gamma) of the upper airway lining liquid (UAL), of which saliva is a major component. We investigated the influences of saliva production on gamma of the UAL, and upper airway re-opening and closing pressures. In 10 supine, male, anaesthetized, tracheostomised, mechanically ventilated ...
Scala Raffaele - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acceptance, effectiveness in preventing upper airways obstruction, and haemodynamic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in acute stroke. METHODS: Twelve patients (4 M, and 8 F; mean (SD), 75.2 (5.5) years) within 48 h of acute stroke onset underwent: (1) sleep studies (1st night: auto-CPAP ...
Slats Annelies M - - 2008
Deep inspiration temporarily reduces induced airways obstruction in healthy subjects. This bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is impaired in asthma. Passive machine-assisted lung inflation may augment bronchodilation compared with an active deep inspiration in patients with asthma by either opening closed airways or by reducing fluid flux across the airway ...
Fauroux B - - 2009
Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure is proposed as a noninvasive test of inspiratory muscle strength. During this manoeuvre, the nasal pressure is supposed to reflect oesophageal pressure. The aim of the present study was to compare the nasal pressure with the oesophageal pressure during a maximal sniff in children with neuromuscular ...
Carr E R M - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the possible pressure produced by a haematoma in the neck would be sufficient to directly compress the trachea to the point of airway obstruction. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study. METHODS: Varying pressures were applied over the second and third cartilaginous rings of 10 pig tracheas in ...
Johnson Chris B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may contribute to the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). Nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can alleviate OSA and may have a role in the treatment of CHF patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute and chronic effects of CPAP therapy on left ventricular ...
Xue F S - - 2008
This prospective self-controlled study was designed to evaluate the influences of head flexion on airway seal, quality of ventilation, and orogastric tube placement through the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) in 80 anaesthetised, paralysed adult patients. After the ProSeal LMA was inserted and the cuff pressure was set at ...
Lampland Andrea L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To conduct an in vitro evaluation of a humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system at different flows, cannula sizes, and air leaks and also an in vivo analysis of mean end-expiratory esophageal pressure (EEEP) from nasal continuous positive airway pressure at 6 cm H(2)O (NCPAP+6) versus HFNC. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Torre-Bouscoulet Luis - - 2008
To describe our clinical experience with autoadjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) trials carried out on patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Consecutive CPAP-naive adults underwent a non-attended home APAP trial (ResMed, Autoset, Spirit). Diagnoses of OSA were established by simplified polygraphy. Data from 208 men and 71 women. The ...
Roy Bianca - - 2008
The present study stems from our recent demonstration (Moreau-Bussiere F, Samson N, St-Hilaire M, Reix P, Lafond JR, Nsegbe E, Praud JP. J Appl Physiol 102: 2149-2157, 2007) that a progressive increase in nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) leads to active glottal closure in nonsedated, newborn lambs. The aim ...
Jardine Luke - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a widely accepted method of respiratory support used in the care of preterm infants. It remains unknown as to what is the best strategy for the withdrawal of CPAP once it has been commenced. The aim of the present survey was to establish ...
McLornan Paul M - - 2008
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Airway obstruction is prevented by delivering air at a constant pressure via a nasal mask worn during sleep. Small nares may cause difficulty in wearing even the smallest standard nasal mask, with wear resulting in ...
Kohler Malcolm - - 2008
RATIONALE: Moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, increased arterial stiffness, and hypertension. It is not known whether minimally symptomatic OSA is also associated with impaired vascular function. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether minimally symptomatic OSA is associated with impaired vascular function. METHODS: In 64 patients (7 females) ...
Kohler M - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with hypertension, stroke and myocardial ischaemia in epidemiological and observational studies. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSAS, but the impact of this intervention on established risk factors for cardiovascular disease remains incompletely understood. A total of ...
Galetke Wolfgang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) requires pressure titration usually performed during attended in-hospital polysomnography. This manual titration procedure is not well standardized. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether a new automatic titration device is as effective as standard manual ...
Bellani G - - 2008
Non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a useful tool for managing patients with acute respiratory failure. The head helmet is a relatively novel interface that is as effective as the traditionally employed face-mask in delivering CPAP and can possibly be characterized as better for the patient's tolerance and, consequently, ...
Naiboglu Baris - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure in children with upper airway obstruction caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy according to their disease severity assessed with symptom scoring and to demonstrate the profit for echocardiographic monitorization of the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy regardless of their clinical status. ...
Samson Nathalie - - 2008
The present study investigated the mechanism by which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) suppresses nonnutritive swallowing (NNS) during quiet sleep (QS) in newborn lambs. Eighteen full-term lambs were chronically instrumented and evenly distributed into three separate groups to determine the extent to which modulation of NNS may be attributed to ...
Tsioufis Costas - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria reflects a state of widespread vascular dysfunction, whereas obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) further promotes atherosclerotic damage in hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: In an outpatient hypertensive unit, 62 untreated hypertensive patients (aged 48 +/- 7 years; office blood pressure [BP], 151 +/- 8/97 +/- 7 mm ...
Kikuchi Tatsuaki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube Suction II (LTSII; VBM, Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany) is a recent revision of the Laryngeal Tube Suction. This study compared insertion and ventilation profiles of the LTSII and the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA; Laryngeal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, United Kingdom) in anesthetized and paralyzed patients. METHODS: One ...
Dohi Tomotaka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). However, some patients do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), so other therapeutic modalities should be considered, such as bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP), which also assists respiration ...
Sahin-Yilmaz Asli - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment causes nasal symptoms that are believed to result from the drying effects of the air on the nasal mucosa, and these symptoms affect compliance with therapy. We hypothesized that the increased air pressure on the nasal mucosa caused by positive pressure from ...
Okcay Aynur - - 2008
There has long been a recognized link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the cardiovascular system, no aspect of which has been more studied than blood pressure. Research in OSA has not only demonstrated dysregulation of homeostatic cardiovascular mechanisms but also has furthered our understanding of blood pressure regulatory control. ...
Verghese C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: LMA-Supreme (SLMA) is a new, single-use, latex-free, laryngeal mask airway with gastric access. The anatomically shaped airway tube permits easy insertion without placing fingers in the patient's mouth. The cuff is designed to provide higher seal pressures than the LMA-Classic or Unique. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study of ...
Dolan Diana C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices with the option of flexible pressure delivery (e.g., C-Flex) are thought to provide an improved degree of comfort and result in better therapeutic adherence while maintaining standard CPAP efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare adherence and subjective measures of comfort ...
Carneiro Gláucia - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to ...
Huncke Tessa - - 2008
We describe the anesthetic management of a morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent awake craniotomy. The patient's personal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine was used to support ventilation intraoperatively. Dexmedetomidine was used as the primary sedative. During cortical mapping, the CPAP was discontinued. The patient was ...
Rakesh Vineet - - 2008
Computational model for airflow through the upper airway of a horse was developed. Previous flow models for human airway do not hold true for horses due to significant differences in anatomy and the high Reynolds number of flow in the equine airway. Moreover, models that simulate the entire respiratory cycle ...
Ruttanaumpawan Pimon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with either heart failure or obstructive sleep apnea have a reduced baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate, a sign of poor prognosis. We previously demonstrated that nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure to heart failure patients with obstructive sleep apnea increased baroreflex sensitivity acutely, but it is not ...
Kurt Muhammed - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Due to an increasing incidence of respiratory failure after cardiac surgery we wanted to study whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) may improve pulmonary oxygen transfer and may avoid reintubation after coronary operations. Additionally, we compared this protocol to non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). METHODS: For a period ...
Khan Akram - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and increased left atrial volume (LAV) both independently increase cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may decrease LAV. We retrospectively identified 47 OSA patients receiving CPAP who had echocardiograms done before and after polysomnography. Compliance was defined as ...
Ozsancak Aylin - - 2008
Nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NNV), the provision of ventilatory assistance via a noninvasive interface mainly during sleep, has assumed an important role in the management of chronic hypoventilatory syndromes. This review focuses on recent developments related to the use of NNV to treat various forms of chronic respiratory failure or insufficiency. ...
Kaya G - - 2008
We compared the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the laryngeal tube (LT) with the perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA, PLA) in anaesthetised, paralysed children having brief surgical procedures. After obtaining informed consent, 90 paediatric ASA Status 1 and 2 patients awaiting short surgical procedures were randomised to have their airways managed with ...
Puri G D - - 2008
The newly developed supralaryngeal airway Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) has been compared successfully to the LMA, but the haemodynamic response to its insertion has not been evaluated in a randomised study. We compared haemodynamic and Bispectral index (BIS) responses to insertion of the SLIPA with classic LMA ...
Rakesh V V Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2008
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models provide the means to evaluate airflow in the upper airways without requiring in vivo experiments. The physiological conditions of a Thoroughbred racehorse's upper airway during exercise could be simulated. Computed tomography scanned images of a 3-year-old intact male Thoroughbred racehorse cadaver were used to simulate ...
Martinón-Torres Federico - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of administering either heliox or air oxygen in combination with nasal continuous positive airway pressure in infants with refractory bronchiolitis. PATIENT AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, interventional, single-center, crossover study in a teaching hospital including infants 1 month ...
Kaur Charanjit - - 2008
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), especially bubbling CPAP, is known to reduce the need for more invasive ventilation. We here describe a circuit that can deliver bubbling CPAP in resource poor settings. We describe how the oxygen concentration can be altered from 98% to 21% oxygen using this system. ...
Mihaescu Mihai - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We performed flow computations on an accurate upper airway model in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea and computed the velocity, static pressure, and wall shear stress distribution in the model. METHODS: Cartesian coordinates for airway boundaries were determined from cross-sectional magnetic resonance images, and a 3-dimensional computational model ...
Gaitini Luis - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Mask Airway-Unique (LMAU) and CobraPLA (Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway) are supraglottic airway devices. There are no published studies comparing these devices in children breathing with pressure controlled ventilation (PCV). METHODS: Eighty pediatric patients, scheduled for elective general surgery of short duration, were randomly assigned to have either a ...
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