Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1944
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Park Sang-Hyun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: With supraglottic airway devices, such as the laryngeal tube suction (LTS), ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA), oropharyngeal leak pressure or cuff position may vary according to changes in the position of the head and neck. We evaluated oropharyngeal leak pressure and cuff pressure of ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2009
Sleep plays a large role in patients with heart failure. In normal subjects, sleep is usually in a supine position with reduced sympathetic drive, elevated vagal tone and as such a relatively lower cardiac output and minute ventilation, allowing for recuperation. Patients with heart failure may not experience the same ...
Chermont Sérgio - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), although its effect on exercise tolerance in these patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CPAP on exercise tolerance in outpatients with CHF. METHODS: ...
Friedman Michael - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of multilevel upper airway surgery (USA) on subsequent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-two patients who underwent multilevel UAS with persistent symptoms of OSAHS represent the cohort for this study. All patients had undergone ...
Narita Masato - - 2009
Pulmonary complications after hepatectomy occur with relative frequency and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, their prevention is often difficult. We report using prophylactic bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation, initiated just after the operation, for the successful postoperative respiratory management of three patients predisposed to the development of ...
Andrews D T - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) with its high volume low-pressure cuff would provide superior airway leakage pressure compared with the Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) in spontaneously breathing adult patients. Ninety consecutive adult patients were randomly allocated to receive one of these two supralaryngeal devices. ...
Bertoletti F - - 2009
A preliminary report. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of reducing CPAP pressure levels and improving patient adherence to CPAP therapy by stiffening the soft palate tissue with a Pillar palatal implant. Many patients have difficulty complying with CPAP therapy if high levels of airway pressure ...
Strand E - - 2009
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Dynamic laryngeal collapse (DLC) associated with poll flexion is a newly diagnosed upper respiratory tract obstructive disorder that causes poor racing performance. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Norwegian Coldblooded Trotters (NCTs) affected with DLC associated with poll flexion differ from normal, elite NCTs based on simple airway ...
Wittekamp Bastiaan H J - - 2009
Laryngeal edema is a frequent complication of intubation. It often presents shortly after extubation as post-extubation stridor and results from damage to the mucosa of the larynx. Mucosal damage is caused by pressure and ischemia resulting in an inflammatory response. Laryngeal edema may compromise the airway necessitating reintubation. Several studies ...
Mamiya Hideki - - 2009
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following upper airway obstruction (UAO) has been reported in several clinical situations. The main cause of NPPE is reported to be increased negative intrathoracic pressure. We present a case of NPPE that occurred after general anesthesia for plate removal after jaw deformity surgery. After completion ...
Smith Ian - - 2009
Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the cornerstone of therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, compliance with this treatment is frequently poor, which may lead to ongoing symptoms of sleep disruption, daytime sleepiness and poor waking cognitive function. Mechanical interventions which involve changing the way that ...
Canisius Sebastian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Expiratory pressure relief continuous positive airway pressure (pressure relief CPAP, C-Flex) is known to be as effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as conventional CPAP while improving overall patients' adherence. However, the effects of C-Flex on ventilation during sleep have not been studied yet. OBJECTIVE: This ...
Navarro-Antolín Javier - - 2009
Maxi-K(+) channels play a major vasodilator role in the regulation of arterial tone. Hypoxia downregulates the expression of the maxi-K(+) channel beta1-subunit in rat and human arterial myocytes, thus facilitating vasoconstriction. We have investigated the relationships among hypoxemia, arterial pressure, and the expression of the beta1-subunit in patients with severe ...
Floras J S - - 2009
Sleep apnoea is a common and important co-morbidity in heart failure. It affects survival adversely by: (1) causing nocturnal hypoxia and oxidative stress; (2) raising nocturnal and daytime sympathetic activity and blood pressure and blunting vagal tone; and (3) increasing left ventricular transmural pressure (that is, afterload) and myocardial oxygen ...
Sankri-Tarbichi Abdul Ghani - - 2009
Ventilatory motor output is an important determinant of upper airway patency during sleep. We hypothesized that central hypocapnic hypopnea would lead to increased expiratory upper airway resistance and pharyngeal narrowing during non-REM sleep. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was used to induce hypocapnic hypopnea in 20 healthy subjects. Expiratory pressure was ...
Schmidbauer W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Supraglottic airway devices are increasingly used in anaesthesia and emergency medicine. This study was designed to investigate the oesophageal seal of the novel supralaryngeal airway device, I-Gel (I-Gel), in comparison with two of the laryngeal mask airways, Classic (cLMA) and ProSeal (pLMA), in a model of elevated oesophageal pressure. ...
Kohler Malcolm - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), possibly via intermittent hypoxia that influences blood pressure, lipid levels and insulin resistance, factors themselves known to cause NAFLD. In observational studies, OSAS has been associated with elevated levels ...
López Ana M - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical use of four disposable laryngeal masks (DLMs): the Ambu laryngeal mask [Ambu LM], Solus, Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Unique, and Soft Seal. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Operating room and recovery area of a university-affiliated ambulatory surgery unit. PATIENTS: 200 adult ASA physical status ...
Abdel-Hady Hesham - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is frequently used to support preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Little is known about the hemodynamic changes that occur, particularly during the weaning phase when lung compliance has improved and most of the airway pressure can be transmitted to the heart and major ...
Khazin Vadim - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of gastroesophageal regurgitation and respiratory mechanics during positive pressure ventilation using 5 supraglottic devices or an endotracheal tube (ETT). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Operating rooms in a university-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 180 ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 18 to 65 years ...
Kahn Doron J - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The goal were to characterize the flow dependence of bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery in a cohort of preterm infants and to compare the actual (delivered) intraprong continuous positive airway pressure with the intended (set) nasal continuous positive airway pressure for both ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway ...
Szmuk Peter - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) provides better sealing pressure than the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique (LMAU) during positive-pressure ventilation in adults. We compared the performance of the CobraPLA and LMAU in infants and children. METHODS: Two-hundred pediatric patients were randomly assigned to a CobraPLA or an Laryngeal Mask Airway ...
Rakesh V - - 2008
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The necessary degree of arytenoid cartilage abduction (ACA) to restore airway patency at maximal exercise has not been determined. OBJECTIVES: Use computational fluid dynamics modelling to measure the effects of different degrees of ACA on upper airway characteristics of horses during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: Maximal ACA by ...
Wiese C H R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In 2005 the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) published a revised version of the guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS). One of the aims was to reduce the time without chest compression in the first period of cardiac arrest (no-flow-time; NFT). We evaluated in a manikin study the influence on ...
Kodama Toyoki - - 2009
Cigarette smoking causes inflammatory responses in the airways. However, not all smokers exhibit the development of airflow limitation. This study was designed to determine the implications of small airways inflammation in the development of airflow limitation in smokers by our newly explored method. Twenty-eight smokers (15 smokers without airflow limitation ...
Smyth C - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Following a suggestion by ward patients that Rapid Rhino nasal packs may deflate over time, allowing recurrence of epistaxis, we aimed to demonstrate deflation of 7.5 cm Rapid Rhino packs when used in vivo for post-operative nasal packing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The volume of air insufflated and retrieved from ...
Urbano Fred - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of stroke independent of known vascular and metabolic risk factors. Although patients with OSA have higher prevalence of hypertension and evidence of hypercoagulability, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. Obstructive apnea events are associated with surges in blood pressure, hypercapnia, and ...
Watson Nathaniel F - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Aerophagia is a complication of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), whereupon air is forced into the stomach and bowel. Associated discomfort can result in CPAP discontinuation. We hypothesize that aerophagia is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) via mechanisms involving GERD related ...
Ticehurst K - - 2008
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been is used widely in humans to manage obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, but it has not been widely used in animals. A brachycephalic cat, with previously undiagnosed laryngeal paralysis, that developed acute upper respiratory tract obstruction on recovery from anaesthesia, is presented. The condition ...
Nazzaro P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), frequently associated with hypertension, represents a harmful and independent risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to ascertain whether the occurrence of OSAS could worsen microcirculatory impairment in very mild hypertensives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ...
Walsh Jennifer H - - 2008
To determine the effect of head posture on upper airway collapsibility and site of collapse of the passive human upper airway. Pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit) and site of airway collapse were assessed during head flexion, extension and rotation in individuals undergoing propofol anesthesia. Operating theatre of major teaching hospital. ...
Lam J C M - - 2008
Pharyngeal patency is influenced by the surface tension (gamma) of the upper airway lining liquid (UAL), of which saliva is a major component. We investigated the influences of saliva production on gamma of the UAL, and upper airway re-opening and closing pressures. In 10 supine, male, anaesthetized, tracheostomised, mechanically ventilated ...
Scala Raffaele - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acceptance, effectiveness in preventing upper airways obstruction, and haemodynamic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in acute stroke. METHODS: Twelve patients (4 M, and 8 F; mean (SD), 75.2 (5.5) years) within 48 h of acute stroke onset underwent: (1) sleep studies (1st night: auto-CPAP ...
Slats Annelies M - - 2008
Deep inspiration temporarily reduces induced airways obstruction in healthy subjects. This bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is impaired in asthma. Passive machine-assisted lung inflation may augment bronchodilation compared with an active deep inspiration in patients with asthma by either opening closed airways or by reducing fluid flux across the airway ...
Fauroux B - - 2009
Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure is proposed as a noninvasive test of inspiratory muscle strength. During this manoeuvre, the nasal pressure is supposed to reflect oesophageal pressure. The aim of the present study was to compare the nasal pressure with the oesophageal pressure during a maximal sniff in children with neuromuscular ...
Carr E R M - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the possible pressure produced by a haematoma in the neck would be sufficient to directly compress the trachea to the point of airway obstruction. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study. METHODS: Varying pressures were applied over the second and third cartilaginous rings of 10 pig tracheas in ...
Johnson Chris B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may contribute to the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). Nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can alleviate OSA and may have a role in the treatment of CHF patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute and chronic effects of CPAP therapy on left ventricular ...
Xue F S - - 2008
This prospective self-controlled study was designed to evaluate the influences of head flexion on airway seal, quality of ventilation, and orogastric tube placement through the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) in 80 anaesthetised, paralysed adult patients. After the ProSeal LMA was inserted and the cuff pressure was set at ...
Lampland Andrea L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To conduct an in vitro evaluation of a humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system at different flows, cannula sizes, and air leaks and also an in vivo analysis of mean end-expiratory esophageal pressure (EEEP) from nasal continuous positive airway pressure at 6 cm H(2)O (NCPAP+6) versus HFNC. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Torre-Bouscoulet Luis - - 2008
To describe our clinical experience with autoadjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) trials carried out on patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Consecutive CPAP-naive adults underwent a non-attended home APAP trial (ResMed, Autoset, Spirit). Diagnoses of OSA were established by simplified polygraphy. Data from 208 men and 71 women. The ...
Roy Bianca - - 2008
The present study stems from our recent demonstration (Moreau-Bussiere F, Samson N, St-Hilaire M, Reix P, Lafond JR, Nsegbe E, Praud JP. J Appl Physiol 102: 2149-2157, 2007) that a progressive increase in nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) leads to active glottal closure in nonsedated, newborn lambs. The aim ...
Jardine Luke - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a widely accepted method of respiratory support used in the care of preterm infants. It remains unknown as to what is the best strategy for the withdrawal of CPAP once it has been commenced. The aim of the present survey was to establish ...
McLornan Paul M - - 2008
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Airway obstruction is prevented by delivering air at a constant pressure via a nasal mask worn during sleep. Small nares may cause difficulty in wearing even the smallest standard nasal mask, with wear resulting in ...
Kohler Malcolm - - 2008
RATIONALE: Moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, increased arterial stiffness, and hypertension. It is not known whether minimally symptomatic OSA is also associated with impaired vascular function. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether minimally symptomatic OSA is associated with impaired vascular function. METHODS: In 64 patients (7 females) ...
Kohler M - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with hypertension, stroke and myocardial ischaemia in epidemiological and observational studies. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSAS, but the impact of this intervention on established risk factors for cardiovascular disease remains incompletely understood. A total of ...
Galetke Wolfgang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) requires pressure titration usually performed during attended in-hospital polysomnography. This manual titration procedure is not well standardized. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether a new automatic titration device is as effective as standard manual ...
Bellani G - - 2008
Non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a useful tool for managing patients with acute respiratory failure. The head helmet is a relatively novel interface that is as effective as the traditionally employed face-mask in delivering CPAP and can possibly be characterized as better for the patient's tolerance and, consequently, ...
Naiboglu Baris - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure in children with upper airway obstruction caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy according to their disease severity assessed with symptom scoring and to demonstrate the profit for echocardiographic monitorization of the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy regardless of their clinical status. ...
Samson Nathalie - - 2008
The present study investigated the mechanism by which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) suppresses nonnutritive swallowing (NNS) during quiet sleep (QS) in newborn lambs. Eighteen full-term lambs were chronically instrumented and evenly distributed into three separate groups to determine the extent to which modulation of NNS may be attributed to ...
Tsioufis Costas - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria reflects a state of widespread vascular dysfunction, whereas obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) further promotes atherosclerotic damage in hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: In an outpatient hypertensive unit, 62 untreated hypertensive patients (aged 48 +/- 7 years; office blood pressure [BP], 151 +/- 8/97 +/- 7 mm ...
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