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Results 201 - 250 of 1981
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Ihra Gerald C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) can lead to high-airway pressures under certain conditions. In this laboratory study, we evaluated the influence of the injector's position relative to a fixed airway obstruction on peak pressures in a tracheal-lung model. METHODS: We administered HFJV via a metal jet injector at varying distances ...
Ansell Thomas K - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In adults, respiratory movements, such as tidal and deep breaths, reduce airway smooth muscle force and cause bronchodilation. Evidence suggests that these beneficial effects of oscillatory strain do not occur in children, possibly because of reduced coupling of the airways to lung tissue or maturational differences in ...
Oliveira W - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been reported as a predictor of left ventricle (LV) diastolic dysfunction and left atrium (LA) remodelling. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of OSA treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) on the LA volume and function, as well ...
Edwards Bradley A - - 2009
Continous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used to treat infant respiratory distress syndrome and apnea of prematurity, but its mode of action is not fully understood. We hypothesised that CPAP increases lung volume and stabilises respiratory control by decreasing loop gain (LG). Experimentally induced periodic breathing (PB) in the lamb ...
Gray A J - - 2009
To determine whether non-invasive ventilation reduces mortality and whether there are important differences in outcome by treatment modality. Multicentre open prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients presenting with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in 26 emergency departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 years, clinical diagnosis of acute ...
Hillman David R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Upper airway collapsibility is known to increase under anesthesia. This study assessed how this increase in collapsibility evolves during slow Propofol induction and how it relates to anesthesia-induced changes in upper airway muscle activity and conscious state. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers were studied. Anesthesia was induced with Propofol in ...
do Nascimento Renata Medeiros - - 2009
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with prongs is the ventilatory support most used in newborns. Nasal injuries are complications that may arise due to the prolonged use of this device. This study aimed to determine the frequency of nasal injuries in newborns through the use of continuous positive airway pressure ...
Murri Mora - - 2009
Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation, which seems to promote oxidative stress. SAHS patients experience increases in hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia, and the oxidative state has been related to the genesis of these disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in ...
Craig Sonya - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and may precipitate cardiac dysrhythmias. Uncontrolled reports suggest that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may reduce dysrhythmia frequency and resting heart rate. We undertook a randomised controlled trial of therapeutic CPAP and compared with a subtherapeutic control which included an exploration ...
Sai Sunil Kishore M M Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, - - 2009
To determine whether early nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), in comparison to early continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), can reduce the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm neonates with suspected respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In this stratified open-label randomized controlled trial, neonates (28-34 weeks gestation) with respiratory ...
Das Aneesa M - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common form of sleep-disordered breathing that occurs due to recurrent collapse of the upper airway with inspiration. Large epidemiologic studies have established that OSA is a risk factor for developing hypertension. The pathophysiologic mechanism of this relationship is due to the distinctive pattern of ...
Herbstreit Frank - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Residual neuromuscular blockade increases the risk to develop postoperative complications. The authors hypothesized that minimal neuromuscular blockade (train-of-four [TOF] ratio 0.5-1) increases upper airway collapsibility and impairs upper airway dilator muscle compensatory responses to negative pharyngeal pressure challenges. METHODS: Epiglottic and nasal mask pressures, genioglossus electromyogram, respiratory timing, and ...
Agarwal R - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to decrease endotracheal intubation and mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPE). The Three Interventions in Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema showed no advantage of NIV over standard medical therapy. This meta-analysis is an update on the ...
Garcia Guilherme J M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in nasal filtration is significant due to interindividual differences in nasal anatomy and breathing rate. Two important consequences arise from this variation among humans. First, devices for nasal drug delivery may furnish quite different doses in the nasal passages of different individuals, leading to different responses to ...
Singh Ishwar - - 2009
Sixty ASA grade I & II adult patients of either sex were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I (n=30) for I-gel and Group P (n=30) for LMA - ProSeal. We assessed the airway sealing pressure, ease of insertion, success rate of insertion, ease of gastric tube placement, airway trauma ...
Micaglio M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: When compared with the Classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA), the recently introduced ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) has modified features to produce higher airway seal pressures and enable ventilation in circumstances where the cLMA might fail. The first neonatal size 1 PLMA recently became available. This study was designed ...
Hosten T - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The LMA-Supreme() (S-LMA()) is a new supraglottic airway device that presents combined features of flexibility, curved structure and single use and a different cuff structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the oropharyngeal leak pressures (OLP) of LMA-Proseal() (P-LMA()) and S-LMA(). METHODS: Sixty adult patients ...
Herff Holger - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The Smart Bag MO(R) is an adult flow-limited bag-valve device designed to reduce the risk of stomach inflation in an unprotected airway. Its properties in severe airway obstruction are as yet unknown. METHODS: In a bench model, we evaluated respiratory mechanics and delivered tidal volumes although ventilating at airway ...
Wallace C J - - 2009
Hyperinflation of the laryngeal mask airway cuff may exert high pressure on pharyngeal and laryngeal structures. In vitro data show that high intra cuff pressures may occur when inflated to only 30% of the manufacturer's recommended maximum inflation volume. We prospectively assessed the pressure volume curves of paediatric sized laryngeal ...
Rieder Marcelo de Mello Mde - - 2009
To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. Two intensive care units. We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for ...
Hui David S DS David S. Hui, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China. - - 2009
As part of our influenza pandemic preparedness, we studied the exhaled air dispersion distances and directions through two different face masks (Respironics; Murrysville, PA) attached to a human-patient simulator (HPS) during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in an isolation room with pressure of -5 Pa. The HPS was positioned at 45 ...
DiMarco Anthony F AF Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. - - 2009
Evaluation of the capacity of lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to activate the expiratory muscles and generate large airway pressures and high peak airflows characteristic of cough, in subjects with tetraplegia. Clinical trial. Inpatient hospital setting for electrode insertion; outpatient setting for measurement of respiratory pressures; home setting for ...
Dernaika Tarek A - - 2009
To examine the long-term effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension. Study subjects were 98 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypertension who had 3 or more documented daytime BP measurements taken within 3 months ...
Ferland A - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of 1 yr of sibutramine-induced weight loss versus continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sleep-disordered breathing, cardiac autonomic function and systemic blood pressure in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Subjects with a body mass index of > ...
Neligan Patrick J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients are at elevated risk of perioperative pulmonary complications, including airway obstruction and atelectasis. Continuous positive airway pressure may improve postoperative lung mechanics and reduce postoperative complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. METHODS: Forty morbidly obese patients with known obstructive sleep apnea undergoing laproscopic bariatric surgery with ...
Hoshino Yuko Y Nagasaki University of Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Division of Clinical Physiology, Nagasaki, - - 2009
Upper airway obstruction during sleep can trigger compensatory neuromuscular responses and/or prolong inspiration in order to maintain adequate minute ventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of these compensatory responses during upper airway obstruction during propofol anesthesia. We assessed respiratory timing and upper airway responses to ...
El Solh Ali - - 2009
PURPOSE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the standard therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In the absence of standard protocol, CPAP titration may be unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to CPAP titration would achieve ...
Lee Heow Pueh - - 2009
Nasal obstruction (NO) is a very common symptom, but its effect on nasal physiology has not been fully understood. We performed this study to determine the effect of severity of NO due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy on airflow pattern using the computational fluid dynamics simulations. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model ...
Trindade Lívia Maria Vitório LM Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, - - 2009
Treatment of pulmonary contusion when adequately established is very simple in most cases. Pathophysiological changes occur as a result of the effects produced by loss of chest wall integrity, accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, obstruction of the airways and lung dysfunction. The alveolar recruitment maneuver is the reopening ...
Oliven Ron - - 2009
Both mandibular advancement (MA) and stimulation of the genioglossus (GG) have been shown to improve upper airway patency, but neither one achieves the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. In the present study we assessed the combined effect of MA and GG stimulation on the relaxed pharynx in ...
Glidewell Robert N - - 2009
A 41-year-old white woman on long-acting opioid therapy was diagnosed with moderate obstructive sleep apnea. On initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), she manifested severe central apnea that was unresponsive to supplemental oxygen and interfered with CPAP titration. Acetazolamide, 250 mg, nightly at bedtime was initiated, and CPAP titration ...
Holanda Marcelo Alcantara - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been associated with short-term adverse effects related to the use of masks. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, type and intensity of adverse effects, as well as the comfort, of total face masks (TFMs), facial masks (FMs) and nasal ...
Timmermann Arnd - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In March 2007, a new disposable laryngeal mask airway (LMA) became available. The LMA Supreme (The Laryngeal Mask Company Limited, St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands) aims to combine the LMA Fastrach feature of easy insertion with the gastric access and high oropharyngeal leak pressures of the LMA ProSeal. METHODS: ...
Bellani Giacomo - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe and test a modified Boussignac system for non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure, aimed at reducing the decrease in inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO(2)) with higher inspiratory peak flow rates. METHODS: We modified a Boussignac circuit by inserting a T-piece between the Boussignac ...
Luo Y M YM Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, 151 Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, - - 2009
Pressure release continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an evolution of CPAP that has been reported to improve patient comfort. We hypothesised the pressure release would lead to unloading of the inspiratory muscles and therefore conducted a prospective double-blind cross-over physiological study of autotitrating CPAP (APAP) against autotitrating pressure relief ...
Baguet J-P - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), due to the collapse of the upper airways, is a common but still underestimated condition. The 'dose-response' type relationship between OSAS and hypertension (HT) has now been clearly proven. There are multiple mechanisms explaining this relationship, the main one being an increase in sympathetic activity ...
Manilal-Reddy P I - - 2009
A continuous oscillatory positive airway pressure with pressure oscillations incidental to the mean airway pressure (bubble CPAP) is defined as a modified form of traditional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivery where pressure oscillations in addition to CPAP are administered to neonates with lung diseases. The mechanical effect of the ...
Park Sang-Hyun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: With supraglottic airway devices, such as the laryngeal tube suction (LTS), ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA), oropharyngeal leak pressure or cuff position may vary according to changes in the position of the head and neck. We evaluated oropharyngeal leak pressure and cuff pressure of ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2009
Sleep plays a large role in patients with heart failure. In normal subjects, sleep is usually in a supine position with reduced sympathetic drive, elevated vagal tone and as such a relatively lower cardiac output and minute ventilation, allowing for recuperation. Patients with heart failure may not experience the same ...
Chermont Sérgio - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), although its effect on exercise tolerance in these patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CPAP on exercise tolerance in outpatients with CHF. METHODS: ...
Friedman Michael - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of multilevel upper airway surgery (USA) on subsequent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-two patients who underwent multilevel UAS with persistent symptoms of OSAHS represent the cohort for this study. All patients had undergone ...
Narita Masato - - 2009
Pulmonary complications after hepatectomy occur with relative frequency and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, their prevention is often difficult. We report using prophylactic bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation, initiated just after the operation, for the successful postoperative respiratory management of three patients predisposed to the development of ...
Andrews D T - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) with its high volume low-pressure cuff would provide superior airway leakage pressure compared with the Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) in spontaneously breathing adult patients. Ninety consecutive adult patients were randomly allocated to receive one of these two supralaryngeal devices. ...
Bertoletti F - - 2009
A preliminary report. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of reducing CPAP pressure levels and improving patient adherence to CPAP therapy by stiffening the soft palate tissue with a Pillar palatal implant. Many patients have difficulty complying with CPAP therapy if high levels of airway pressure ...
Strand E - - 2009
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Dynamic laryngeal collapse (DLC) associated with poll flexion is a newly diagnosed upper respiratory tract obstructive disorder that causes poor racing performance. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Norwegian Coldblooded Trotters (NCTs) affected with DLC associated with poll flexion differ from normal, elite NCTs based on simple airway ...
Wittekamp Bastiaan H J - - 2009
Laryngeal edema is a frequent complication of intubation. It often presents shortly after extubation as post-extubation stridor and results from damage to the mucosa of the larynx. Mucosal damage is caused by pressure and ischemia resulting in an inflammatory response. Laryngeal edema may compromise the airway necessitating reintubation. Several studies ...
Mamiya Hideki - - 2009
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following upper airway obstruction (UAO) has been reported in several clinical situations. The main cause of NPPE is reported to be increased negative intrathoracic pressure. We present a case of NPPE that occurred after general anesthesia for plate removal after jaw deformity surgery. After completion ...
Smith Ian - - 2009
Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the cornerstone of therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, compliance with this treatment is frequently poor, which may lead to ongoing symptoms of sleep disruption, daytime sleepiness and poor waking cognitive function. Mechanical interventions which involve changing the way that ...
Canisius Sebastian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Expiratory pressure relief continuous positive airway pressure (pressure relief CPAP, C-Flex) is known to be as effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as conventional CPAP while improving overall patients' adherence. However, the effects of C-Flex on ventilation during sleep have not been studied yet. OBJECTIVE: This ...
Navarro-Antolín Javier - - 2009
Maxi-K(+) channels play a major vasodilator role in the regulation of arterial tone. Hypoxia downregulates the expression of the maxi-K(+) channel beta1-subunit in rat and human arterial myocytes, thus facilitating vasoconstriction. We have investigated the relationships among hypoxemia, arterial pressure, and the expression of the beta1-subunit in patients with severe ...
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