Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1893
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Kikuchi Tatsuaki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube Suction II (LTSII; VBM, Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany) is a recent revision of the Laryngeal Tube Suction. This study compared insertion and ventilation profiles of the LTSII and the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA; Laryngeal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, United Kingdom) in anesthetized and paralyzed patients. METHODS: One ...
Dohi Tomotaka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). However, some patients do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), so other therapeutic modalities should be considered, such as bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP), which also assists respiration ...
Sahin-Yilmaz Asli - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment causes nasal symptoms that are believed to result from the drying effects of the air on the nasal mucosa, and these symptoms affect compliance with therapy. We hypothesized that the increased air pressure on the nasal mucosa caused by positive pressure from ...
Okcay Aynur - - 2008
There has long been a recognized link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the cardiovascular system, no aspect of which has been more studied than blood pressure. Research in OSA has not only demonstrated dysregulation of homeostatic cardiovascular mechanisms but also has furthered our understanding of blood pressure regulatory control. ...
Verghese C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: LMA-Supreme (SLMA) is a new, single-use, latex-free, laryngeal mask airway with gastric access. The anatomically shaped airway tube permits easy insertion without placing fingers in the patient's mouth. The cuff is designed to provide higher seal pressures than the LMA-Classic or Unique. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study of ...
Dolan Diana C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices with the option of flexible pressure delivery (e.g., C-Flex) are thought to provide an improved degree of comfort and result in better therapeutic adherence while maintaining standard CPAP efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare adherence and subjective measures of comfort ...
Carneiro Gláucia - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to ...
Huncke Tessa - - 2008
We describe the anesthetic management of a morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent awake craniotomy. The patient's personal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine was used to support ventilation intraoperatively. Dexmedetomidine was used as the primary sedative. During cortical mapping, the CPAP was discontinued. The patient was ...
Rakesh Vineet - - 2008
Computational model for airflow through the upper airway of a horse was developed. Previous flow models for human airway do not hold true for horses due to significant differences in anatomy and the high Reynolds number of flow in the equine airway. Moreover, models that simulate the entire respiratory cycle ...
Ruttanaumpawan Pimon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with either heart failure or obstructive sleep apnea have a reduced baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate, a sign of poor prognosis. We previously demonstrated that nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure to heart failure patients with obstructive sleep apnea increased baroreflex sensitivity acutely, but it is not ...
Kurt Muhammed - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Due to an increasing incidence of respiratory failure after cardiac surgery we wanted to study whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) may improve pulmonary oxygen transfer and may avoid reintubation after coronary operations. Additionally, we compared this protocol to non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). METHODS: For a period ...
Rakesh V - - 2008
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models provide the means to evaluate airflow in the upper airways without requiring in vivo experiments. HYPOTHESIS: The physiological conditions of a Thoroughbred racehorse's upper airway during exercise could be simulated. Methods: Computed tomography scanned images of a 3-year-old intact male Thoroughbred ...
Khan Akram - - 2008
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and increased left atrial volume (LAV) both independently increase cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may decrease LAV. We retrospectively identified 47 OSA patients receiving CPAP who had echocardiograms done before and after polysomnography. Compliance was defined as ...
Ozsancak Aylin - - 2008
Nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NNV), the provision of ventilatory assistance via a noninvasive interface mainly during sleep, has assumed an important role in the management of chronic hypoventilatory syndromes. This review focuses on recent developments related to the use of NNV to treat various forms of chronic respiratory failure or insufficiency. ...
Kaya G - - 2008
We compared the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the laryngeal tube (LT) with the perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA, PLA) in anaesthetised, paralysed children having brief surgical procedures. After obtaining informed consent, 90 paediatric ASA Status 1 and 2 patients awaiting short surgical procedures were randomised to have their airways managed with ...
Puri G D - - 2008
The newly developed supralaryngeal airway Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) has been compared successfully to the LMA, but the haemodynamic response to its insertion has not been evaluated in a randomised study. We compared haemodynamic and Bispectral index (BIS) responses to insertion of the SLIPA with classic LMA ...
Martinón-Torres Federico - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of administering either heliox or air oxygen in combination with nasal continuous positive airway pressure in infants with refractory bronchiolitis. PATIENT AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, interventional, single-center, crossover study in a teaching hospital including infants 1 month ...
Kaur Charanjit - - 2008
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), especially bubbling CPAP, is known to reduce the need for more invasive ventilation. We here describe a circuit that can deliver bubbling CPAP in resource poor settings. We describe how the oxygen concentration can be altered from 98% to 21% oxygen using this system. ...
Mihaescu Mihai - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We performed flow computations on an accurate upper airway model in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea and computed the velocity, static pressure, and wall shear stress distribution in the model. METHODS: Cartesian coordinates for airway boundaries were determined from cross-sectional magnetic resonance images, and a 3-dimensional computational model ...
Gaitini Luis - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Mask Airway-Unique (LMAU) and CobraPLA (Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway) are supraglottic airway devices. There are no published studies comparing these devices in children breathing with pressure controlled ventilation (PCV). METHODS: Eighty pediatric patients, scheduled for elective general surgery of short duration, were randomly assigned to have either a ...
Bolton R - - 2008
A number of emergency departments have introduced non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients presenting with acute respiratory failure. It is thought that early non-invasive respiratory support will avoid the need for invasive ventilation in many cases. This literature review studied current knowledge of ...
de Klerk Alan - - 2008
Humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) therapy for neonates has become increasingly popular in recent years. It is frequently used in circumstances when continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) might otherwise have been used. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy, and safety of HHFNC in newborns. This evidence ...
Bandla Preetam - - 2008
The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to ...
Maniscalco Mauro - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of estimating arterial CO(2) pressure (PaCO(2)) using a recently introduced transcutaneous CO(2) pressure (PtcCO(2)) monitor in severe obese patients. DESIGN: Observational and interventional study. SETTING: District hospital with respiratory ward and bariatric surgery unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PtcCO(2) was measured in 35 obese patients with ...
Su Mao-Chang - - 2008
We previously showed that rostral fluid displacement by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) narrows the upper airway (UA) and increases UA resistance, but effects on UA collapsibility remained unknown. To test if LBPP increases UA collapsibility, 13 healthy men were randomized into a control or LBPP arm then crossed over ...
Lee Dongyoub - - 2008
Analyses of human airway architecture based on calculations of airflow resistance or energy dissipation suggest that the branching pattern is not optimized for minimizing energy loss by flow dissipation during respiration. Airway flow dissipates only a few percent of the total body work during normal breathing, so branching patterns deviate ...
Bostrom Brian L - - 2008
Marine mammals have very compliant alveoli and stiff upper airways; an adaptation that allows air to move from the alveoli into the upper airways, during breath-hold diving. Alveolar collapse is thought occur between 30 and 100 m and studies that have attempted to estimate gas exchange at depth have used ...
Colnaghi M - - 2008
The aim of the study was to measure the difference between the set continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) value and the pharyngeal pressure reading during CPAP in premature infants with mild respiratory distress syndrome, using two different devices: hood CPAP and the conventional nasal system. The preliminary results suggest that ...
Marrone Oreste - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels obtained by various methods for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) differ. This study aimed to explore the relationships among pressures titrated by an automatic CPAP (APAP) device and those calculated using different predictive ...
Amirav Israel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC ...
Ferrier K A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to study the effect of 6 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in community heart failure (HF) patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). METHODS: Clinically stable outpatients with HF and OSA (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%, apnoea/hypopnoea index >15/h, n = ...
Larcombe Alexander N - - 2008
Basal airway smooth muscle (ASM) tone has not been demonstrated in mice in vivo. To determine whether basal ASM tone is present in mouse airways we measured respiratory system impedance (Zrs) before and after either atropine or bilateral vagotomy. Zrs was measured using forced oscillations delivered via a wave-tube during ...
Heinzer R C - - 2008
A low arousal threshold is believed to predispose to breathing instability during sleep. The present authors hypothesised that trazodone, a nonmyorelaxant sleep-promoting agent, would increase the effort-related arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. In total, nine OSA patients, mean+/-sd age 49+/-9 yrs, apnoea/hypopnoea index 52+/-32 events.h(-1), were studied ...
Jain Manu - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral airways are less than 2 mm in diameter and comprise a relatively large cross-sectional area, which allows for slower, laminar airflow. They include both membranous bronchioles and gas exchange ducts, and have been referred to in the past as the 'quiet zone', partly because these structures ...
Bercker Sven - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Supraglottic airway devices are increasingly important in clinical anesthesia and prehospital emergency medicine, but there are only few data to assess the risk for aspiration. We designed this study to compare the seal of seven supraglottic airway devices in a cadaver model of elevated esophageal pressure. METHODS: The classic ...
Verbanck Sylvia - - 2008
While airway constriction has been shown to affect exhaled nitric oxide (NO), the mechanisms and location of constricted airways most likely to affect exhaled NO remain obscure. We studied the effects of histamine-induced airway constriction and ventilation heterogeneity on exhaled NO at 50 ml/s (Fe(NO,50)) and combined this with model ...
Rusterholtz Thierry - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and proportional assist ventilation (PAV) as modes of noninvasive ventilatory support in patients with severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective multicenter randomized study in the medical ICUs of three teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Thirty-six adult patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema ...
Maeder Micha T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and heart failure (HF). Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO(2)), heart rate recovery, and N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) are strong prognostic predictors in HF. The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on these parameters in OSA patients are not well defined. ...
Sériès Frédéric - - 2008
BACKGROUND: CPAP titration may be completed by automatic apparatus. However, differences in pressure behaviour could interfere with the reliability of pressure recommendations. Our objective was to compare pressure behaviour and effective pressure recommendations between three Automatic CPAP machines (Autoset Spirit, Remstar Auto, GK 420). METHODS: Sixteen untreated obstructive sleep apnea ...
Morgenthaler Timothy I - - 2008
These practice parameters are an update of the previously published recommendations regarding the use of autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at an effective setting verified by attended polysomnography is a standard treatment ...
Shariffuddin I I - - 2008
We compared the performance of the Ambu AuraOnce Laryngeal Mask with that of the LMA Classic laryngeal mask airway during controlled anaesthesia. Forty patients requiring intermittent positive pressure ventilation were studied using a randomised crossover design. The mean (SD) oropharyngeal leak pressure for the Ambu device (19 (7.5) cmH2O) was ...
van Zundert A - - 2008
We present the case of the successful use of a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in a severe obese 41-year-old women with a difficult airway, scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery (off-pump coronary artery bypass). Two intubation attempts failed and face mask ventilation became impossible with rapidly falling peripheral oxygen saturation. A ...
Kubicka Zuzanna J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to estimate the level of delivered continuous positive airway pressure by measuring oral cavity pressure with the mouth closed in infants of various weights and ages treated with heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula at flow rates of 1-5 L/minute. We hypothesized that clinically relevant levels of ...
Benjamin J Amit - - 2008
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) describes a group of disorders characterised by abnormalities in the frequency and/or depth of breathing while asleep. The most common type is the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS); it affects 2-4% of the adult population and is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Another type is central ...
Bennedich Kahn Lydia - - 2008
The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated in serum and locally in the lung in asthmatics and has been suggested to evoke airway hyperresponsiveness. The aim of this study was to explore mechanisms behind NGF-evoked changes in airway responsiveness. We studied if NGF could evoke increased airway responsiveness to ...
Steiner Stephan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be a useful adjunct in patients with congestive heart failure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between left ventricular geometry and hemodynamic response to CPAP. METHODS: Right heart catheter studies were performed in 26 patients before, during and after application of CPAP (8 cm ...
Lardner David R R - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine whether a functional difference exists between the size 2 laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Classic (CLMA) and LMA-Proseal (PLMA) in anesthetized children who have received neuromuscular blockade. Airway leak during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and adequacy of fibreoptic laryngeal view were the primary study outcomes. METHODS: A randomized, ...
Ravi Krishnan - - 2008
The essential feature of left ventricular dysfunction is an increase in left atrial pressure and pulmonary venous congestion leading to a fluid flux across the pulmonary microvasculature. Small acute increases (< 10 mmHg) in left atrial pressure enhance the extravascular fluid volume in the airways and activate the rapidly adapting ...
Constantin Jean-Michel - - 2008
Alveolar derecruitment may occur during low tidal volume ventilation and may be prevented by recruitment maneuvers (RMs). The aim of this study was to compare two RMs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Nineteen patients with ARDS and protective ventilation were included in a randomized crossover study. Both RMs ...
Ballard Robert D - - 2007
Despite widespread agreement that continuous positive airway pressure is effective therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, it is estimated that 50% of patients recommended for therapy are noncompliant 1 year later. Interventions to improve compliance in such patients have not been studied. We evaluated a 2 phase intervention program to improve ...
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