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Das Aneesa M - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common form of sleep-disordered breathing that occurs due to recurrent collapse of the upper airway with inspiration. Large epidemiologic studies have established that OSA is a risk factor for developing hypertension. The pathophysiologic mechanism of this relationship is due to the distinctive pattern of ...
Herbstreit Frank - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Residual neuromuscular blockade increases the risk to develop postoperative complications. The authors hypothesized that minimal neuromuscular blockade (train-of-four [TOF] ratio 0.5-1) increases upper airway collapsibility and impairs upper airway dilator muscle compensatory responses to negative pharyngeal pressure challenges. METHODS: Epiglottic and nasal mask pressures, genioglossus electromyogram, respiratory timing, and ...
Agarwal R - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to decrease endotracheal intubation and mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPE). The Three Interventions in Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema showed no advantage of NIV over standard medical therapy. This meta-analysis is an update on the ...
Garcia Guilherme J M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in nasal filtration is significant due to interindividual differences in nasal anatomy and breathing rate. Two important consequences arise from this variation among humans. First, devices for nasal drug delivery may furnish quite different doses in the nasal passages of different individuals, leading to different responses to ...
Singh Ishwar - - 2009
Sixty ASA grade I & II adult patients of either sex were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I (n=30) for I-gel and Group P (n=30) for LMA - ProSeal. We assessed the airway sealing pressure, ease of insertion, success rate of insertion, ease of gastric tube placement, airway trauma ...
Micaglio M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: When compared with the Classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA), the recently introduced ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) has modified features to produce higher airway seal pressures and enable ventilation in circumstances where the cLMA might fail. The first neonatal size 1 PLMA recently became available. This study was designed ...
Hosten T - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The LMA-Supreme() (S-LMA()) is a new supraglottic airway device that presents combined features of flexibility, curved structure and single use and a different cuff structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the oropharyngeal leak pressures (OLP) of LMA-Proseal() (P-LMA()) and S-LMA(). METHODS: Sixty adult patients ...
Herff Holger - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The Smart Bag MO(R) is an adult flow-limited bag-valve device designed to reduce the risk of stomach inflation in an unprotected airway. Its properties in severe airway obstruction are as yet unknown. METHODS: In a bench model, we evaluated respiratory mechanics and delivered tidal volumes although ventilating at airway ...
Wallace C J - - 2009
Hyperinflation of the laryngeal mask airway cuff may exert high pressure on pharyngeal and laryngeal structures. In vitro data show that high intra cuff pressures may occur when inflated to only 30% of the manufacturer's recommended maximum inflation volume. We prospectively assessed the pressure volume curves of paediatric sized laryngeal ...
Rieder Marcelo de Mello Mde - - 2009
To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. Two intensive care units. We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for ...
Hui David S DS David S. Hui, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China. - - 2009
As part of our influenza pandemic preparedness, we studied the exhaled air dispersion distances and directions through two different face masks (Respironics; Murrysville, PA) attached to a human-patient simulator (HPS) during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in an isolation room with pressure of -5 Pa. The HPS was positioned at 45 ...
DiMarco Anthony F AF Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. - - 2009
Evaluation of the capacity of lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to activate the expiratory muscles and generate large airway pressures and high peak airflows characteristic of cough, in subjects with tetraplegia. Clinical trial. Inpatient hospital setting for electrode insertion; outpatient setting for measurement of respiratory pressures; home setting for ...
Dernaika Tarek A - - 2009
To examine the long-term effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension. Study subjects were 98 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypertension who had 3 or more documented daytime BP measurements taken within 3 months ...
Ferland A - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of 1 yr of sibutramine-induced weight loss versus continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sleep-disordered breathing, cardiac autonomic function and systemic blood pressure in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Subjects with a body mass index of > ...
Neligan Patrick J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients are at elevated risk of perioperative pulmonary complications, including airway obstruction and atelectasis. Continuous positive airway pressure may improve postoperative lung mechanics and reduce postoperative complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. METHODS: Forty morbidly obese patients with known obstructive sleep apnea undergoing laproscopic bariatric surgery with ...
Hoshino Yuko Y Nagasaki University of Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Division of Clinical Physiology, Nagasaki, - - 2009
Upper airway obstruction during sleep can trigger compensatory neuromuscular responses and/or prolong inspiration in order to maintain adequate minute ventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of these compensatory responses during upper airway obstruction during propofol anesthesia. We assessed respiratory timing and upper airway responses to ...
El Solh Ali - - 2009
PURPOSE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the standard therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In the absence of standard protocol, CPAP titration may be unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to CPAP titration would achieve ...
Lee Heow Pueh - - 2009
Nasal obstruction (NO) is a very common symptom, but its effect on nasal physiology has not been fully understood. We performed this study to determine the effect of severity of NO due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy on airflow pattern using the computational fluid dynamics simulations. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model ...
Oliven Ron - - 2009
Both mandibular advancement (MA) and stimulation of the genioglossus (GG) have been shown to improve upper airway patency, but neither one achieves the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. In the present study we assessed the combined effect of MA and GG stimulation on the relaxed pharynx in ...
Glidewell Robert N - - 2009
A 41-year-old white woman on long-acting opioid therapy was diagnosed with moderate obstructive sleep apnea. On initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), she manifested severe central apnea that was unresponsive to supplemental oxygen and interfered with CPAP titration. Acetazolamide, 250 mg, nightly at bedtime was initiated, and CPAP titration ...
Holanda Marcelo Alcantara - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been associated with short-term adverse effects related to the use of masks. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, type and intensity of adverse effects, as well as the comfort, of total face masks (TFMs), facial masks (FMs) and nasal ...
Timmermann Arnd - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In March 2007, a new disposable laryngeal mask airway (LMA) became available. The LMA Supreme (The Laryngeal Mask Company Limited, St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands) aims to combine the LMA Fastrach feature of easy insertion with the gastric access and high oropharyngeal leak pressures of the LMA ProSeal. METHODS: ...
Bellani Giacomo - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe and test a modified Boussignac system for non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure, aimed at reducing the decrease in inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO(2)) with higher inspiratory peak flow rates. METHODS: We modified a Boussignac circuit by inserting a T-piece between the Boussignac ...
Luo Y M YM Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, 151 Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, - - 2009
Pressure release continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an evolution of CPAP that has been reported to improve patient comfort. We hypothesised the pressure release would lead to unloading of the inspiratory muscles and therefore conducted a prospective double-blind cross-over physiological study of autotitrating CPAP (APAP) against autotitrating pressure relief ...
Baguet J-P - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), due to the collapse of the upper airways, is a common but still underestimated condition. The 'dose-response' type relationship between OSAS and hypertension (HT) has now been clearly proven. There are multiple mechanisms explaining this relationship, the main one being an increase in sympathetic activity ...
Manilal-Reddy P I - - 2009
A continuous oscillatory positive airway pressure with pressure oscillations incidental to the mean airway pressure (bubble CPAP) is defined as a modified form of traditional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivery where pressure oscillations in addition to CPAP are administered to neonates with lung diseases. The mechanical effect of the ...
Park Sang-Hyun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: With supraglottic airway devices, such as the laryngeal tube suction (LTS), ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA), oropharyngeal leak pressure or cuff position may vary according to changes in the position of the head and neck. We evaluated oropharyngeal leak pressure and cuff pressure of ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2009
Sleep plays a large role in patients with heart failure. In normal subjects, sleep is usually in a supine position with reduced sympathetic drive, elevated vagal tone and as such a relatively lower cardiac output and minute ventilation, allowing for recuperation. Patients with heart failure may not experience the same ...
Chermont Sérgio - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), although its effect on exercise tolerance in these patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CPAP on exercise tolerance in outpatients with CHF. METHODS: ...
Friedman Michael - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of multilevel upper airway surgery (USA) on subsequent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-two patients who underwent multilevel UAS with persistent symptoms of OSAHS represent the cohort for this study. All patients had undergone ...
Narita Masato - - 2009
Pulmonary complications after hepatectomy occur with relative frequency and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, their prevention is often difficult. We report using prophylactic bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation, initiated just after the operation, for the successful postoperative respiratory management of three patients predisposed to the development of ...
Andrews D T - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) with its high volume low-pressure cuff would provide superior airway leakage pressure compared with the Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) in spontaneously breathing adult patients. Ninety consecutive adult patients were randomly allocated to receive one of these two supralaryngeal devices. ...
Bertoletti F - - 2009
A preliminary report. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of reducing CPAP pressure levels and improving patient adherence to CPAP therapy by stiffening the soft palate tissue with a Pillar palatal implant. Many patients have difficulty complying with CPAP therapy if high levels of airway pressure ...
Strand E - - 2009
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Dynamic laryngeal collapse (DLC) associated with poll flexion is a newly diagnosed upper respiratory tract obstructive disorder that causes poor racing performance. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Norwegian Coldblooded Trotters (NCTs) affected with DLC associated with poll flexion differ from normal, elite NCTs based on simple airway ...
Wittekamp Bastiaan H J - - 2009
Laryngeal edema is a frequent complication of intubation. It often presents shortly after extubation as post-extubation stridor and results from damage to the mucosa of the larynx. Mucosal damage is caused by pressure and ischemia resulting in an inflammatory response. Laryngeal edema may compromise the airway necessitating reintubation. Several studies ...
Mamiya Hideki - - 2009
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following upper airway obstruction (UAO) has been reported in several clinical situations. The main cause of NPPE is reported to be increased negative intrathoracic pressure. We present a case of NPPE that occurred after general anesthesia for plate removal after jaw deformity surgery. After completion ...
Smith Ian - - 2009
Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the cornerstone of therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, compliance with this treatment is frequently poor, which may lead to ongoing symptoms of sleep disruption, daytime sleepiness and poor waking cognitive function. Mechanical interventions which involve changing the way that ...
Canisius Sebastian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Expiratory pressure relief continuous positive airway pressure (pressure relief CPAP, C-Flex) is known to be as effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as conventional CPAP while improving overall patients' adherence. However, the effects of C-Flex on ventilation during sleep have not been studied yet. OBJECTIVE: This ...
Navarro-Antolín Javier - - 2009
Maxi-K(+) channels play a major vasodilator role in the regulation of arterial tone. Hypoxia downregulates the expression of the maxi-K(+) channel beta1-subunit in rat and human arterial myocytes, thus facilitating vasoconstriction. We have investigated the relationships among hypoxemia, arterial pressure, and the expression of the beta1-subunit in patients with severe ...
Floras J S - - 2009
Sleep apnoea is a common and important co-morbidity in heart failure. It affects survival adversely by: (1) causing nocturnal hypoxia and oxidative stress; (2) raising nocturnal and daytime sympathetic activity and blood pressure and blunting vagal tone; and (3) increasing left ventricular transmural pressure (that is, afterload) and myocardial oxygen ...
Sankri-Tarbichi Abdul Ghani - - 2009
Ventilatory motor output is an important determinant of upper airway patency during sleep. We hypothesized that central hypocapnic hypopnea would lead to increased expiratory upper airway resistance and pharyngeal narrowing during non-REM sleep. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was used to induce hypocapnic hypopnea in 20 healthy subjects. Expiratory pressure was ...
Schmidbauer W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Supraglottic airway devices are increasingly used in anaesthesia and emergency medicine. This study was designed to investigate the oesophageal seal of the novel supralaryngeal airway device, I-Gel (I-Gel), in comparison with two of the laryngeal mask airways, Classic (cLMA) and ProSeal (pLMA), in a model of elevated oesophageal pressure. ...
Kohler Malcolm - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), possibly via intermittent hypoxia that influences blood pressure, lipid levels and insulin resistance, factors themselves known to cause NAFLD. In observational studies, OSAS has been associated with elevated levels ...
López Ana M - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical use of four disposable laryngeal masks (DLMs): the Ambu laryngeal mask [Ambu LM], Solus, Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Unique, and Soft Seal. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Operating room and recovery area of a university-affiliated ambulatory surgery unit. PATIENTS: 200 adult ASA physical status ...
Abdel-Hady Hesham - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is frequently used to support preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Little is known about the hemodynamic changes that occur, particularly during the weaning phase when lung compliance has improved and most of the airway pressure can be transmitted to the heart and major ...
Khazin Vadim - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of gastroesophageal regurgitation and respiratory mechanics during positive pressure ventilation using 5 supraglottic devices or an endotracheal tube (ETT). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Operating rooms in a university-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 180 ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 18 to 65 years ...
Kahn Doron J - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The goal were to characterize the flow dependence of bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery in a cohort of preterm infants and to compare the actual (delivered) intraprong continuous positive airway pressure with the intended (set) nasal continuous positive airway pressure for both ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway ...
Szmuk Peter - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) provides better sealing pressure than the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique (LMAU) during positive-pressure ventilation in adults. We compared the performance of the CobraPLA and LMAU in infants and children. METHODS: Two-hundred pediatric patients were randomly assigned to a CobraPLA or an Laryngeal Mask Airway ...
Rakesh V - - 2008
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The necessary degree of arytenoid cartilage abduction (ACA) to restore airway patency at maximal exercise has not been determined. OBJECTIVES: Use computational fluid dynamics modelling to measure the effects of different degrees of ACA on upper airway characteristics of horses during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: Maximal ACA by ...
Wiese C H R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In 2005 the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) published a revised version of the guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS). One of the aims was to reduce the time without chest compression in the first period of cardiac arrest (no-flow-time; NFT). We evaluated in a manikin study the influence on ...
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