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Calhoun David A - - 2010
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension commonly coexist. Observational studies indicate that untreated OSA is associated with an increased risk of prevalent hypertension, whereas prospective studies of normotensive cohorts suggest that OSA may increase the risk of incident hypertension. Randomized evaluations of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicate an overall ...
Diblasi Robert M - - 2010
Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (B-CPAP) applies small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in airway pressure (DeltaPaw) that may improve gas exchange in infants with respiratory disease. We developed a device, high-amplitude B-CPAP (HAB-CPAP), which provides greater DeltaPaw than B-CPAP provides. We studied the effects of different operational parameters on DeltaPaw and volumes ...
Cook Shannon E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Neonates with respiratory distress syndrome are often treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Nasal CPAP methods include electronic feedback control, underwater seal, flow opposition, and flow opposition with fluidic flow reversal on expiration. Few studies have compared those modes, and the results have been contradictory. METHODS: We ...
Inouye Sakae - - 2010
To assess the degree to which face masks reduce the strength of cough-wind, we measured the wind pressure in front of the mouth with and without the wearing of masks. We found that any conventional masks made from paper, cotton gauze, or non-woven fabrics reduced the wind pressure to less ...
Tsioufis Costas - - 2010
Hypertension is highly prevalent and usually uncontrolled among patients with obstructive sleep apnea despite multiple interventions, namely lifestyle modifications, use of antihypertensive drugs and continuous positive airway pressure application. Main prognosticators of the blood pressure (BP) reduction with continuous positive airway pressure therapy are high levels of BP, severity of ...
Puangsuvan Neesann - - 2010
Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy may be performed in infants and children for various diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In infants and children, general anesthesia may be used to facilitate the procedure. When general anesthesia is used, a laryngeal mask may be used to control the airway. However, as the passage of the ...
Nachiappan Arun C - - 2010
A patient receiving bilevel positive airway pressure therapy underwent radiofrequency ablation of a pulmonary metastasis from a primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the scapula. The patient's postablation course was complicated by a bronchopleural fistula, which was exacerbated by the detrimental effects of positive airway pressure on necrotic lung tissue after ...
Patz David S - - 2010
This study was performed to determine whether the obstructive sleep apnea patient who requires a certain CPAP pressure at one altitude requires the same or a different CPAP pressure at a different altitude. 7 mountain residents with OSA, comfortably using CPAP and planning to travel to lower altitude. Participants used ...
Schiza Sophia E - - 2011
There have been reports that optimal CPAP pressure can be predicted from a previously derived formula, with the Hoffstein formula being the most accurate and accepted in the literature so far. However, the validation of this predictive model has not been applied in different clinical settings. Our aim was to ...
Courtney S E - - 2011
During bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure (B-NCPAP), gas flows through the expiratory limb of CPAP tubing submerged underwater to a depth in centimeters considered equal to the desired end expiratory pressure. Ventilator-derived NCPAP (V-NCPAP) controls the delivered pressure at the expiratory orifice. Limited data exist comparing the two forms ...
Eckert Danny J DJ Sleep Disorders Program, Div. of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2010
On the basis of recent reports, the genioglossus (GG) negative-pressure reflex consists initially of excitation followed by a secondary state-dependent suppression phase. The mechanistic origin and functional role of GG suppression is unknown but has been hypothesized to arise from transient inhibition of respiratory active neurons as a protective reflex ...
Sanuki Takuro - - 2010
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure, and cuff position of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients who were scheduled for elective oral surgery were recruited into this study. A single, experienced LMA ...
Kelly Vanessa J - - 2010
In order to understand the pathophysiology of diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is essential to measure the mechanical properties of the airways. Currently, there are no methods to measure and quantify in vivo airway compliance in humans. In order to develop a method, we generated ...
Netzer Nikolaus C - - 2011
The aim of the study was to investigate the need for pressure change in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) several weeks after therapy initiation. We prospectively studied 905 consecutive patients (740 men and 165 women) with SDB and therapeutic intervention with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/bilevel PAP. Several weeks after ...
Gentina Thibaut - - 2011
Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) is the accepted therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but compliance is variable. We hypothesised that an auto bi-level device with pressure relief during exhalation (auto bi-level) would treat OSA as well as CPAP and that transitioning non-compliant CPAP patients without modifiable causes of poor ...
Orfanos John G - - 2010
Recognizing a potentially difficult airway is important in avoiding a life-threatening emergency. There are 2 separate scenarios for considering the difficult airway: difficult mask ventilation (DMV) and difficult tracheal intubation (DTI). DMV can be described as lacking the ability to maintain oxygen saturation or lacking the ability to reverse signs ...
Seet Edwin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Adverse events such as pharyngolaryngeal complications are indicators of quality patient care. Use of manometry to limit the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) intracuff pressure is not currently a routine practice. This double-blind randomized trial compared pharyngolaryngeal complications in patients managed with manometers to limit the LMA intracuff pressure (<44 ...
Rao Mohan - - 2010
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypoapnea syndrome (OSA) is a disorder that results in repetitive occlusion of the airway and hypoxemia during sleep. Epidemiologic studies have associated this disorder with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic hypertension is prevalent among patients with OSA and has been recognized as a common identifiable cause of ...
Shiina Kazuki - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Increased arterial stiffness and sympathovagal imbalance are noted in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been thought that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can have beneficial effects on the vascular function in such cases. However, it is not yet clear whether the improvement of sympathovagal balance ...
Montemurro Luigi Taranto - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Critical pressure (Pcrit) is considered a reliable parameter to evaluate the mechanical properties of the passive upper airway (UA) and is significantly increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) compared with normal subjects. The volume exhaled in the first 0.5 s after application at the mouth of 5 ...
Kuo Yi-Min - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Anaphylactic reaction induced bronchospasm as wheezing and severe elevation of airway pressure was observed in a succession of patients during general anesthesia at our institute in November 2007. The aim of this survey was to investigate the suspected causes and risk factors of these anaphylactic reactions and the degree ...
Garvey John F - - 2010
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) ...
Vennelle Marjorie - - 2010
To determine whether fixed-pressure or variable-pressure CPAP was preferred by patients and gave better outcomes in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Randomized blinded cross-over trial with 6 weeks of fixed and 6 weeks of variable-pressure CPAP. Sleep center. 200 consecutive consenting CPAP naïve patients with daytime sleepiness ...
Mehta Sangeeta - - 2010
Many parameters have been evaluated to predict successful extubation. These are all affected by extrapulmonary variables. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of endotracheal tube (ETT) size on preextubation predictors of successful extubation. Twenty-two intubated and mechanically ventilated subjects were recruited when ready for extubation. Subjects ...
Schebesta K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: To prospectively investigate the performance, sealing capacity and operating room (OR) staff exposure to waste anaesthetic gases during the use of the Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA) compared with the laryngeal mask airway classic (LMA). METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly assigned to the CobraPLA or the LMA group. Insertion time, ...
He Quan-ying - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown an independent and definite association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension. This study aimed to define the association between daytime blood pressure and severity of OSA in Chinese population in mainland of China. METHODS: Twenty university hospital sleep centers in mainland of China were ...
De Weerdt S - - 2010
Both nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy and nose blowing can generate high pressures in the nose and sinuses. Nose blowing generates higher pressures than nCPAP therapy, but the duration of nCPAP therapy is considerably longer than the duration of nose blowing. Therefore, nCPAP could cause bone deformation. The ...
Rao Mohan - - 2010
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypoapnea syndrome (OSA) is a disorder that results in repetitive occlusion of the airway and hypoxemia during sleep. Epidemiologic studies have associated this disorder with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic hypertension is prevalent among patients with OSA and has been recognized as a common identifiable cause of ...
Sofi Khalid - - 2010
This study was undertaken to find out the effect of early tracheostomy on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary mechanics and arterial blood gases were assessed before and after tracheostomy in patients with severe head injury (Glasgow coma score < 8) requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. The study included 20 mechanically ventilated ...
Morgenstern C C Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), Dept. ESAII, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Baldiri i Reixach 4, 08028, Barcelona, Spain. - - 2010
The differentiation of obstructive and central respiratory events is a major challenge in the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing. Esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement is the gold-standard method to identify these events but its invasiveness deters its usage in clinical routine. Flattening patterns appear in the airflow signal during episodes of ...
Guo Zhong-Liang ZL Department of Respiratory Medicine, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China (Guo ZL, Ren T, Liang YJ); Pediatric Department, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China (Cai YY); Pediatric ICU, Pediatrics Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China (Lu GP, Gong - - 2010
Low tidal volume mechanical ventilation is difficult to correct hypoxemia, and prolonged inhalation of pure oxygen can lead to oxygen poisoning. We suggest that continuous tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) during protective mechanical ventilation could improve cardiopulmonary function in acute lung injury. Totally 12 healthy juvenile piglets were anesthetized and mechanically ...
Eikermann M M Dept of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114-2696, USA. - - 2010
We hypothesised that pentobarbital would improve upper airway mechanics based on an increase in latency to arousal and amplitude of the phasic genioglossus electromyogram (EMG), and a decrease in the active upper airway critical closing pressure (P(crit)). 12 healthy subjects received pentobarbital (100 mg) or placebo in a double-blind, crossover ...
Barbé Ferran F Coordinating Center, Institut de Recerca Biomèdica Lleida, Lleida, Spain. - - 2010
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the current treatment for patients with symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Its use for all subjects with sleep-disordered breathing, regardless of daytime symptoms, is unclear. This multicenter controlled trial assesses the effects of 1 year of CPAP treatment on blood pressure (BP) in nonsymptomatic, ...
Ali Achmet - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an important airway device that was developed in 1983. From the first classic LMA models up to now, LMA models have been developed that are easily and quickly inserted, provide ventilation at higher airway pressures, have lower cuff pressure, a reduced ...
Koombua Kittisak - - 2009
Without proper knowledge of mechanical ventilation effects, physicians can aggravate an existing lung injury. A better understanding of the interaction between airflow and airway tissue during mechanical ventilation will be helpful to physicians so that they can provide appropriate ventilator parameters for intubated patients. In this study, a computational model ...
Owens Robert L RL Sleep Disorders Research Program, Div. of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2010
Changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) affect upper airway stability. The passive pharyngeal critical pressure (Pcrit), a measure of upper airway collapsibility, is determined using airway pressure drops. The EELV change during these drops has not been quantified and may differ between obese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and controls. ...
Agostoni Piergiuseppe - - 2010
It is unknown whether subclinical high-altitude pulmonary oedema reduces spontaneously after prolonged altitude exposure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) removes extravascular lung fluids and improves haemoglobin oxygen saturation in acute cardiogenic oedema. We evaluated the presence of pulmonary extravascular fluid increase by assessing CPAP effects on haemoglobin oxygen saturation under ...
von Goedecke A - - 2009
Despite being a standard procedure during induction of anaesthesia, facemask ventilation can be a major challenge especially for inexperienced anaesthetists. We manufactured a Jaw-Thrust-Device designed to keep the patient's jaws in an optimised position, and thus to maintain the airway in a permanently patent state. Using a cross over design, ...
Fischer Hendrik S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate tidal volume (VT) and leak measurements during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in neonates using a commercial ventilatory device equipped with a flow sensor at the Y-piece. DESIGN: Randomized cross-over trial. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit level III. PATIENTS: Thirty-two infants, median (range) birth weight 1,435 (710-2,730) ...
Uppal V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The i-gel differs from other supraglottic airway devices, in that it has a softer, non-inflatable cuff. This study was designed to compare the performance of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique (LMA-U) when used during anaesthesia in paralysed patients. METHODS: Both devices were studied in 39 anaesthetized, paralysed patients in ...
Parke R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether a level of positive airway pressure was generated in participants receiving nasal high flow (NHF) delivered by the Optiflow system (Fisher and Paykel Healthcare Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) in a cardiothoracic and vascular intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal ...
Hill Kylie - - 2010
Answers were sought to the following question: Are techniques, applied predominantly with the aim of clearing secretions from the airways, to patients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), safe and effective? A systematic review was undertaken of studies that (i) were either randomized controlled or randomized ...
Sinha Aparna - - 2009
BACKGROUND: ProSeal LMA (PLMA), one of the advanced supraglottic devices has been successfully used to provide both spontaneous and controlled ventilation in children with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). URTI does not imply restriction of disease to upper respiratory tract; it has been shown to produce pulmonary dysfunction. PEEP has ...
Bellone Andrea - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) with preserved or impaired left ventricular systolic function with regard to resolution time. METHODS: In a prospective, preliminary observational cohort study, 18 patients with preserved ...
Shimada Yuichi J - - 2009
We report a case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with recurrent ventricular tachycardia that resolved after initiating continuous positive airway pressure therapy.
Ayuse Takao T Department of Clinical Physiology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-7-1 sakamoto, Nagasaki-shi 852-8588, Japan. - - 2009
Upper airway patency may be compromised during sleep and anesthesia by either anatomical alterations (mechanical properties) or disturbances in the neural control (compensatory neuromuscular responses). The pathophysiology of upper airway obstruction during anesthesia may differ between men and women. Recently, we reported that the upper airway mechanical properties were comparable ...
Jose Riya - - 2012
Background: Hypoxemia complicating care during ventilation is a common problem. Objective: To describe an unusual cause of hypoxemia with fluctuating airway pressures in an invasively ventilated, organophosphate-poisoned patient. Case Report: A 40-year-old man being treated for organophosphate poisoning developed episodes of high airway pressure during mechanical ventilation. These episodes initially ...
Majumdar Arnab - - 2009
Airways that collapse during deflation generate a crackle sound when they reopen during subsequent reinflation. Since each crackle is associated with the reopening of a collapsed airway, the likelihood of an airway to be a crackle source is identical to its vulnerability to collapse. To investigate this vulnerability of airways ...
Cavus Erol - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: EasyTube (EZT), ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA), and Laryngeal tube S II (LTS II) have recently been introduced as supraglottic airway devices and have been proposed as emergency airway alternatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the three devices, if used by ...
Lee A K Y - - 2009
The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMAS) is a new, single-use laryngeal mask airway with gastric access. We conducted a randomised controlled study comparing the LMAS with the reusable ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) in 70 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with paralysis for gynaecological laparoscopic surgery. Our primary outcome measure was ...
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