Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1959
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Scala R - - 2003
Sleep disordered breathing is common in patients with cerebrovascular disease, and could exacerbate the cerebral damage in acute stroke. Data about the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) upon cerebral perfusion are conflicting. We investigated whether increasing levels of CPAP may affect cerebral haemodynamics, assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ...
Templier François - - 2003
Continuous positive airway pressure in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema is rarely used by prehospital emergency care units, because of the particular technical drawbacks of existing equipment. The aim of this one year prospective descriptive open study without a control group was to assess the technical feasibility of using the Boussignac ...
Keller C - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that mucosal pressures are higher for the laryngeal tube airway trade mark than the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. Fifteen fresh cadavers were studied. Microchip pressure sensors were attached to the laryngeal tube airway and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway at four similar anatomical locations (base of tongue, ...
Williams M T - - 2003
In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we compared the effects of two anaesthetic techniques on surgical conditions during day-case, gynaecological laparoscopic procedures in 40 female patients. Patients were allocated randomly to two groups, either to breathe spontaneously through a laryngeal mask airway or to receive a neuromuscular-blocking agent (NMB) and ...
Hollandt Jan H - - 2003
Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment is the most efficient therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), compliance with therapy is poor because of several side effects. Among these adverse effects some are related to the reactions of the nose to nCPAP which are briefly described. In a long-term ...
Stepnowsky Carl J CJ - - 2003
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is presently considered as the "treatment of choice" for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Though some OSA patients adhere to treatment recommendations and ultimately respond quite well to CPAP therapy, there is a substantial subgroup for which compliance is a particularly difficult issue. Despite receiving ...
Takami Yoshiyuki - - 2003
To support injured lungs, we have been applying bilevel positive airway pressure for adult patients undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Among 120 consecutive patients, 31 patients whose PaO2/FiO2 decreased to less than 180 after extubation assigned to the intermittent 15 min bilevel positive airway pressure (7.3+/-3.6 times per patient). Bilevel ...
Younes Magdy - - 2003
The contributions of pharyngeal mechanical abnormalities, flow demand, and compensatory effectiveness to obstructive sleep apnea severity were determined in 82 patients. Flow demand was estimated from mean inspiratory flow on continuous positive airway pressure. Mechanical load on upper airway muscles was estimated from minimal effective continuous positive airway pressure, flow ...
Lattimore Jo-Dee L - - 2003
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. As it is strongly associated with known cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, OSA is an independent risk factor for hypertension and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis ...
Wagner-Berger Horst G - - 2003
Reducing inspiratory flow rate and peak airway pressure may be important in order to minimise the risk of stomach inflation when ventilating an unprotected airway with positive pressure ventilation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a newly developed bag-valve-mask device (SMART BAG), O-Two Systems International, ...
Butler Kenneth H - - 2003
Rapid-sequence intubation using conventional laryngoscopic technique remains the standard of airway management in emergency medicine and continues to have a success rate of approximately 98%. Preparation and proper intubation technique must be optimized at the initial attempt using direct laryngoscopy. Failure causes multiple repeated attempts, leading to a failed airway. ...
Berg Søren - - 2003
Microvascular extravasation, lamina propria flooding and luminal entry of plasma are key features of airway inflammation. We have suggested that the extravasated plasma moves across the epithelial lining along hydrostatic pressure gradients. The present study, involving healthy subjects, tests this hypothesis by examining effects of experimentally applied negative and positive ...
Kallio Tarja - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prehospital use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system for the treatment of presumed acute severe pulmonary edema (ASPE). METHODS: The efficacy of prehospital CPAP treatment was analyzed in terms of changes in oxygen saturation, need for intubation or ventilatory support, and possible morbidity associated ...
Saldien Vera - - 2003
We report a case of acute respiratory distress after upper airway obstruction following routine palatoplasty in an otherwise healthy 6-year-old boy. We believe that extreme variation of intrathoracal pressure was the basis of the development of the acute respiratory distress. We recommend after palatoplasty a more than careful postoperative clinical ...
Fogel Robert B RB Divisions of Sleep Medicine and Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA. - - 2003
While obesity is the most common risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea, the correlation between measures of obesity and apnea severity is only moderate. We thus attempted to identify anatomic and physiologic predictors of apnea severity. We combined a careful assessment of upper airway anatomy, upper airway ...
Fortier Pierre-Hugues - - 2003
We tested the hypotheses that active upper airway closure during induced central apneas in nonsedated lambs 1). is complete and occurs at the laryngeal level and 2). is not due to stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerves (SLN). Five newborn lambs were surgically instrumented to record thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle (glottal ...
Natalini G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) may have advantages over the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in obese patients. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical setting. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (BMI >30) were randomized to receive mechanical ventilation (tidal volume 7 ml kg(-1), PEEP 10 cm H(2)O), through either ...
Woodson B Tucker - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Automatic adjusting nasal continuous positive airway pressure titration (APAP) has been introduced as an alternative method of establishing pressures for patients with sleep apnea. The performance and accuracy of APAP in nonattended home environment are controversial. This study assessed APAP polysomnographic outcomes and accuracy in a nonattended home environment. ...
Kessler Romain - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Determination of the therapeutic pressure during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is usually performed by a technician during polysomnography. In recent years, several devices for automated adjustment of the therapeutic pressure by the means of computerized algorithms were developed. The aims of the present study were to compare ...
Fauchère Jean-Claude - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: By constraining the heart, the chest wall, lungs, and pericardium limit diastolic filling and thus have a major role in determining cardiac output. Although intermittent positive pressure ventilation and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure amplifies this constraint, no clinical method exists to assess the impact that positive end-expiratory ...
Smith Philip L - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is based on raising the intramural pressure above a critical collapsing pressure of the oropharyngeal airway. It is currently unclear whether CPAP delivered orally is also capable of raising pressure in the oropharynx ...
Marrone O - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) affects blood pressure (BP) responsiveness to obstructive events occurring on the first night of CPAP withdrawal in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) after chronic treatment. Thirteen male subjects with severe OSA underwent nocturnal polysomnography with beat-by-beat ...
Mar J - - 2003
The demand for diagnostic and therapeutic services for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) showed marked growth during the 1990s. This paper analyses the long-term cost-effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment in comparison to conventional null treatment. A Markov model was used to represent the natural history of ...
Corsico Angelo - - 2003
This study investigated the relationships between pathological changes in small airways (<6 mm perimeter) and lung function in 22 nonasthmatic subjects (20 smokers) undergoing lung resection for peripheral lesions. Preoperative pulmonary function tests revealed airway obstruction [ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < ...
Loer Stephan A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbons are eliminated during partial liquid ventilation mainly by evaporation via the airways. We examined whether this is affected by the level of end-expiratory airway pressure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort animal study in the animal laboratory of a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Five foxhound dogs. INTERVENTIONS: The anesthetized dogs ...
Miller D M - - 2003
The Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) is a new inexpensive disposable supraglottic airway designed to seal without the use of an inflatable cuff. It comprises a hollow blow-moulded soft plastic airway shaped to form a seal in the pharynx. Being hollow, liquid entrapment is possible and this may ...
Verbraecken J - - 2003
We report on a patient with Marfan's syndrome, with coexistent obstructive sleep hypopnea (OSH) and restrictive lung disease, complicated by respiratory insufficiency, who was successfully treated with nasal intermittent positive airway pressure (NIPPV) and oxygen. NIPPV therapy turned out to be effective on arterial gas exchange and well tolerated. Moreover, ...
Wang X-R - - 2003
AIMS: To examine early adverse pulmonary effects of exposure to cotton dust, and to identify potential risk factors, including atopy for pulmonary responses to cotton dust. METHODS: Spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, and questionnaire; performed among 101 non-smoking newly hired textile workers at baseline (prior to starting work), and at 3, ...
Berry Richard B - - 2003
We hypothesized that the response of the genioglossus to negative pressure during wakefulness should be intact in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients despite published evidence showing impairment of the response of palatal muscles (Mortimore IL and Douglas NJ. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156: 867-873, 1997). Thus the response ...
Kirkness Jason P - - 2003
The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a disorder characterised by repetitive closure and re-opening of the upper airway during sleep. Upper airway luminal patency is influenced by a number of factors including: intraluminal air pressure, upper airway dilator muscle activity, surrounding extraluminal tissue pressure, and also surface forces which ...
Becker Heinrich F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension. Because there are no controlled studies showing a substantial effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy on hypertension in OSA, the impact of treatment on cardiovascular sequelae has been questioned ...
Wang D Y - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (B. tropicalis) was found to be the most prevalent domestic mite in Singapore. However, its pathogenicity in allergic airway diseases remains to be investigated. METHODS: Twenty adults with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) were studied. Five had a history of asthma, and all were ...
Cattapan S E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients inspiratory muscle function may be assessed by measurements of maximal inspiratory airway pressure and the response of twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi tw) to bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation. The first is limited by its total dependence on patient cooperation. Although the second approach is independent of ...
Maltby J Roger - - 2003
PURPOSE: To compare the laryngeal mask airways (LMA), LMA-Classic(TM) (LMA-C) and LMA-ProSeal(TM) (PLMA) with the endotracheal tube (ETT) with respect to pulmonary ventilation and gastric distension during gynecologic laparoscopy. METHODS: We stratified 209 women, aged > or = 18 yr, ASA physical status I-III, by body mass index as non-obese ...
Ziegler Michael G - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The failure to lower systolic blood pressure at night (called non-dipping) and sleep apnea are both associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Sleep apnea is a common cause of non-dipping blood pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep apnea increases night time blood pressure through enhanced cardiac pre-load, sleep disturbance and ...
Brimacombe J - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The LMA-ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is a new laryngeal mask airway with a modified cuff and drainage tube. We compared oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure and anatomical position (assessed fibreoptically) for the Size 5 LMA-ProSeal laryngeal mask airway and the classic laryngeal mask airway in different head-neck ...
Vérin E - - 2003
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the main treatment of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). We assessed its effects on the upper airway (UA) dynamics in response to bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (BAMPS) in 17 awake untreated OSAS patients (15 males; 52 +/- 7 years) whose effective ...
Cheah Fook-Choe - - 2003
We developed a bedside method for collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from neonates who were ventilated or receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and analyzed their EBC for hydrogen peroxide levels. A sufficient volume for analysis could be collected over 25-40 min from neonates on the ventilator and nasal ...
Young Barb - - 2003
A review of the literature on advanced airway management indicates that the intubating laryngeal-mask airway (ILMA) may be an ideal device for airway control in the rural trauma patient. The ILMA is an advanced laryngeal-mask airway designed to allow oxygenation of the unconscious patient as well as blind tracheal intubation ...
Krachman Samuel L SL Sleep Disorders Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, - - 2003
The mechanism(s) by which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remains uncertain, and may involve an increase in total oxygen body stores (dampening), changes in central and peripheral controller gain, and/or improvement in cardiac ...
Hubbard Andrea K - - 2002
The effect of exposure to irritant air pollutants on the development of allergic airway disease is poorly understood. This study examines the effects of the lower respiratory tract irritant, NO(2), on the outcome of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice were sensitized by weekly intraperitoneal (ip) ...
Wang Hong - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and some cardiovascular abnormalities in elderly snorers, as well as the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on those with SAHS. METHODS: With the use of polysomnography, 73 elderly snorers (older than 60 years) were examined and placed ...
Loke G P Y - - 2002
The aim of this crossover study was to determine the optimal size of laryngeal mask airway in children weighing 10 to 20 kg. In each of 67 apnoeic anaesthetized children, the size 2 and size 2 1/2 laryngeal mask airways were inserted consecutively by a skilled user and the cuff ...
O'Brien James - - 2002
In the last 20 years, most sleep apnea patients have been treated more or less with one individual but constant level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). New insights into CPAP- and bilevel PAP-therapy employing auto CPAP (APAP) devices might change our attitude. Readings of the pressure profiles from APAPs ...
Murray Kevin D - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Although uncommon, prolonged postoperative air leaks are a troublesome complication of lung surgery. This study was performed to determine if buttressing pulmonary staple lines would reduce air leakage at varying airway pressures, and if there was a difference between buttressing materials. METHODS: Using cadaver lungs, the development of air ...
Babik B - - 2002
The interrupter technique is commonly adopted to monitor respiratory resistance (Rrs,int) during mechanical ventilation; however, Rrs,int is often interpreted as an index of airway resistance (Raw). This study compared the values of Rrs,int provided by a Siemens 940 Lung Mechanics Monitor with total respiratory impedance (Zrs) parameters in 39 patients ...
Demin Han - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the site(s) of upper airway obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and their changes during sleep with upper airway (UA) pressure measurement; and to analyze the correspondence between the UA pressure measurement and polysomnography (PSG). METHOD: Thirty patients with OSAS underwent UA pressure measurement. ...
Chadda Karim - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered an effective nonpharmacologic method of treating patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. However, we hypothesized that bilevel noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV), which combines both inspiratory pressure support and positive expiratory pressure, would unload the respiratory muscles and improve cardiac and hemodynamic ...
Meslier Nicole N Unité de pathologie du sommeil, Service de Pneumologie, Chu Angers, France. - - 2002
To validate a new method of evaluation of respiratory efforts during polysomnographic recordings. NA PARTICIPANTS: 26 patients with sleep apnea syndrome, either during diagnostic assessment (n=16) or under nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n=10). This method consists of measuring suprastemal pressure by a pressure transducer placed over the trachea above ...
Sood Namita - - 2003
Mucociliary clearance is determined by ciliary activity and rheology of airway surface liquid. To test the hypothesis that mucociliary clearance would increase after inhalation of an osmotically active agent that would increase the volume of airway surface liquid, we measured mucociliary clearance in 16 normal subjects after inhalation of varying ...
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