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Results 651 - 700 of 1918
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Hubbard Andrea K - - 2002
The effect of exposure to irritant air pollutants on the development of allergic airway disease is poorly understood. This study examines the effects of the lower respiratory tract irritant, NO(2), on the outcome of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice were sensitized by weekly intraperitoneal (ip) ...
Wang Hong - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and some cardiovascular abnormalities in elderly snorers, as well as the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on those with SAHS. METHODS: With the use of polysomnography, 73 elderly snorers (older than 60 years) were examined and placed ...
Loke G P Y - - 2002
The aim of this crossover study was to determine the optimal size of laryngeal mask airway in children weighing 10 to 20 kg. In each of 67 apnoeic anaesthetized children, the size 2 and size 2 1/2 laryngeal mask airways were inserted consecutively by a skilled user and the cuff ...
O'Brien James - - 2002
In the last 20 years, most sleep apnea patients have been treated more or less with one individual but constant level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). New insights into CPAP- and bilevel PAP-therapy employing auto CPAP (APAP) devices might change our attitude. Readings of the pressure profiles from APAPs ...
Murray Kevin D - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Although uncommon, prolonged postoperative air leaks are a troublesome complication of lung surgery. This study was performed to determine if buttressing pulmonary staple lines would reduce air leakage at varying airway pressures, and if there was a difference between buttressing materials. METHODS: Using cadaver lungs, the development of air ...
Babik B - - 2002
The interrupter technique is commonly adopted to monitor respiratory resistance (Rrs,int) during mechanical ventilation; however, Rrs,int is often interpreted as an index of airway resistance (Raw). This study compared the values of Rrs,int provided by a Siemens 940 Lung Mechanics Monitor with total respiratory impedance (Zrs) parameters in 39 patients ...
Demin Han - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the site(s) of upper airway obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and their changes during sleep with upper airway (UA) pressure measurement; and to analyze the correspondence between the UA pressure measurement and polysomnography (PSG). METHOD: Thirty patients with OSAS underwent UA pressure measurement. ...
Chadda Karim - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered an effective nonpharmacologic method of treating patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. However, we hypothesized that bilevel noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV), which combines both inspiratory pressure support and positive expiratory pressure, would unload the respiratory muscles and improve cardiac and hemodynamic ...
Meslier Nicole N Unité de pathologie du sommeil, Service de Pneumologie, Chu Angers, France. - - 2002
To validate a new method of evaluation of respiratory efforts during polysomnographic recordings. NA PARTICIPANTS: 26 patients with sleep apnea syndrome, either during diagnostic assessment (n=16) or under nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n=10). This method consists of measuring suprastemal pressure by a pressure transducer placed over the trachea above ...
Sood Namita - - 2003
Mucociliary clearance is determined by ciliary activity and rheology of airway surface liquid. To test the hypothesis that mucociliary clearance would increase after inhalation of an osmotically active agent that would increase the volume of airway surface liquid, we measured mucociliary clearance in 16 normal subjects after inhalation of varying ...
Massie Clifford A - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use and outcomes can be improved by an autotitrating CPAP device in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) who require higher CPAP (10 cm H2O or more). In this multisite randomized single-blind cross-over study, 44 patients (mean age, 49 ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Reduction of nocturnal obstructive events during lateral position in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was previously reported. However, little information is available regarding mechanisms of the improvement and the precise pharyngeal site influenced by the lateral position. The authors tested the hypothesis that structural properties of the passive pharynx ...
O'Donnell Christopher P - - 2002
We evaluated the effects of airflow limitation and arousal on digital vascular tone in 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using the recently developed, noninvasive technique of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Subjects were maintained at a therapeutic level of continuous positive airway pressure, and nasal pressure was acutely dropped ...
Gardner S V - - 2002
This case describes the anaesthesia management of a patient with myasthenia gravis who required mastectomy with axillary lymph node clearance. After withholding medical therapy for the myasthenia preoperatively on the day of surgery, anaesthesia was maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide and a remifentanil infusion. Muscle relaxants were avoided, facilitated by ...
Eastwood Peter R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The unprotected upper airway tends to obstruct during general anesthesia, yet its mechanical properties have not been studied in detail during this condition. METHODS: To study its collapsibility, pressure-flow relationships of the upper airway were obtained at three levels of anesthesia (end-tidal isoflurane = 1.2%, 0.8%, and 0.4%) in ...
Howath A - - 2002
We determined the success rates, cardiovascular responses and airway morbidity for gum-elastic bougie-guided insertion of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. One hundred anaesthetized, non-paralyzed adults (ASA 1-2 aged 18 to 80 years) were studied. The ProSeal LMA drainage tube was primed with a well-lubricated 16 French gauge gum-elastic bougie with ...
Ocker Hartmut - - 2002
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA; Laryngeal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, UK) is an established airway device, whereas the laryngeal tube (LT) is relatively new and therefore not as well investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the LT with the LMA in routine clinical ...
Schneider Hartmut - - 2002
We hypothesized that upper airway collapsibility is modulated dynamically throughout the respiratory cycle in sleeping humans by alterations in respiratory phase and/or airflow regimen. To test this hypothesis, critical pressures were derived from upper airway pressure-flow relationships in six tracheostomized patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Pressure-flow relationships were generated by ...
Hla K Mae KM Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 2828 Marshall Court, Suite 100, Madison, WI 53705, - - 2002
To compare BP response to 3 weeks of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypertensive patients with and without sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). A controlled, interventional trial of nasal CPAP in patients with and without SDB. Twenty-four men, aged 30 to 60 years, with mild to moderate untreated hypertension recruited ...
Kelly C A - - 2002
AIMS: The study aim was to compare the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on clinical outcomes and plasma neurohormonal concentrations in patients with acute pulmonary oedema. METHODS AND RESULTS: In addition to standard therapy, 58 consecutive patients were randomized to receive 60% inhaled oxygen with or without CPAP ...
Jobe Alan H - - 2002
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is being used clinically to avoid mechanical ventilation of preterm infants as a strategy to minimize lung injury. There is little experimental information about how CPAP might minimize lung injury after preterm birth. We induced preterm labor in antenatal glucocorticoid-treated sheep carrying twins at 133 ...
Brimacombe Joseph - - 2002
We compared the laryngeal mask airway ProSeal (PLMA) and the laryngeal tube airway (LTA), two new extraglottic airway devices, with respect to: 1) insertion success rates and times, 2) efficacy of seal, 3) ventilatory variables during pressure-controlled ventilation, 4) tidal volume in different head/neck positions, and 5) airway interventional requirements. ...
Ghai B, Sharma A, ...
AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of ...
Heitman Steven J - - 2002
The reference standard for identifying apneas and hypopneas is a pneumotachograph, but using this can disrupt sleep. Nasal airflow estimation by measuring nasal pressure via nasal prongs is better tolerated by patients. However, nasal pressure has not been validated, using an event-by-event analysis, for detecting apneas/hypopneas during sleep. Eleven patients ...
Fuchs Florian S - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of microarousals (MA) associated with pressure changes during auto-CPAP therapy (APAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Patients with OSA were studied by polysomnography during APAP therapy (Somnosmart). The MA were classified on the basis of concomitant changes in APAP pressure. SETTING: Sleep laboratory ...
Bonsignore Maria R - - 2002
The role of the arterial baroreflex in the cardiovascular changes associated with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on baroreflex function during sleep are unknown. Baroreflex control of heart rate was studied in 29 normotensive patients with OSAS under ...
Kindgen-Milles D D Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Germany. - - 2002
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is considered useful for prophylaxis and treatment of respiratory complications following major thoracic surgery. It is unknown, however, which CPAP levels are required to avoid alveolar derecruitment and to consistently improve pulmonary oxygen transfer in patients following thoracotomy. We therefore studied the effects of ...
Kleinsasser Axel - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) is the "gold standard" of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly discussed as an alternative. This study investigated hemodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange applying CPAP enhanced with pressure support ventilation (CPAP(PSV)) during CPR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four pigs ...
Lapin Craig D - - 2002
Airway clearance techniques are used to aid in mucus clearance in a variety of disease states. Autogenic drainage and active-cycle-of-breathing technique are 2 such modalities that rely heavily on basic airway physiology to enhance clearance. In this review I discuss the equal pressure point, huffing, and asynchronous and collateral ventilation, ...
Andersson Jens A - - 2002
The paranasal sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity via small osties. Ostial occlusion, caused by mucosal swelling, will result in a slowly increasing negative pressure inside the sinus cavity. In parallel, the oxygen content in the sinus will decrease, resulting in the development of relative hypoxia. Hypoxia is a ...
Rieder J - - 2002
Twenty children aged 2-66 months were randomly allocated for airway management with either the laryngeal mask airway or uncuffed tracheal tube using intermittent positive pressure ventilation with a tidal volume of 8 ml.kg-1 and a respiratory rate adjusted to maintain end-expiratory carbon dioxide concentration at 5.3 kPa. Induction was with ...
Fink James B - - 2002
Positive airway pressure (PAP) has been used since the 1930s to improve oxygenation, increase lung volumes and reduce venous return. More recently, PAP has been identified as an effective method of splinting airway during expiration, improving collateral ventilation, increasing response to inhaled bronchodilators, and aiding secretion clearance in patients with ...
Vanpee Dominique - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), inspiratory pressure support (PSV), and bilevel positive airway pressure (biPAP) on ventilatory parameters and inspiratory work (WOB) in normocapnic and hypercapnic patients with stable COPD. METHODS: While administering nasal pressure support to 10 normocapnic and 10 ...
Lindwall R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO), when inhaled, has a synergistic effect with airway recruitment strategies such as positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in improving oxygenation in lung injury. METHODS: We modified a commercially available nasal CPAP (nCPAP) system to enable the concomitant delivery of inhaled NO ...
Rego Maria A. C. - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have compared the performance of nasal prongs used for applying continuous positive airway pressure. The present study compared the tolerance and efficacy with the Argyle and Hudson nasal prongs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized clinical study. SETTING: A tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: ...
Randerath W J - - 2002
Cold passover and heated humidifiers are employed for the prevention of side-effects associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. However, to date, it has not been possible to separately measure the humidity of inspired and expired air. The aim of this study was to compare the relative humidity of ...
Brugel-Ribere L - - 2002
To explore the determinants of possible collapse of the nasal valve region, a common cause of nasal obstruction, we evaluated the mechanical properties of the nasal wall. In this study, we determined the nasal cross-sectional area-to-negative pressure ratio (nasal wall compliance) in the anterior part of the nose in six ...
Lu P P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is a more effective ventilatory device than the Classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Eighty anaesthetized, paralyzed patients (ASA 1-2, aged 18-80 yr) were randomly allocated for airway management with the PLMA or LMA. Ease ...
Pepperell Justin C T - - 2002
This article is a review of the current evidence that links systemic hypertension with obstructive sleep apnoea. Whilst a causal association has been suspected for some time, the day to day variability of both blood pressure and sleep apnoea severity, and clustering of confounding cardiovascular risk factors in sleep apnoea ...
de La Chapelle Arnaud - - 2002
We report the case of a pregnant patient who developed severe pulmonary edema secondary to beta-adrenergic agonist tocolytic therapy (salbutamol) and was successfully treated with mask-delivered continuous positive airway pressure ventilation.
Tuck Stephanie A - - 2002
The static mechanical properties of the passive pharynx were investigated in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs by using an isolated upper airway preparation. During general anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, cross-sectional area (A) of the pharynx was measured while airway pressure (Paw) was held at various pressures in the absence of airflow. The ...
Tuck Stephanie A - - 2002
We described the dynamic mechanical properties of the passive pharynx in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs and the effects of caudal tracheal displacement. During general anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, airflow through the upper airway (V) and pharyngeal cross-sectional area were measured during ramp decreases in pressure downstream from the pharynx (Pdown). Measurements ...
Thorsteinsson A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cyclic opening and closing of lung units during tidal breathing may be an important cause of iatrogenic lung injury. We hypothesized that airway closure is uncommon in children with healthy lungs when inspiratory pressures are kept low, but paradoxically may occur when inspiratory pressures are increased. METHODS: Elastic equilibrium ...
Steiner L A - - 2002
Demand for magnetic resonance investigations in critically ill patients is increasing. While these patients frequently need ventilatory support, not all of them require controlled ventilation and many may be treated with continuous positive airway pressure. Controlled ventilation, with the concurrent need for sedation, may be inappropriate when airway physiology is ...
Inagawa Gaku - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It has been generally accepted that a higher airway seal pressure indicates adequate positioning of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in adult patients. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether a higher airway seal pressure correlates with an adequate positioning of the LMA in paediatric patients. METHODS: One ...
Snyder Ashley H - - 2002
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a naturally occurring constituent of airway lining fluid, enhances ciliary motility, relaxes airway smooth muscle, inhibits airway epithelial amiloride-sensitive sodium transport, and prevents pathogen replication. Remarkably, airway levels of GSNO are low in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that replacement of airway GSNO would improve gas ...
Baumert J H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In this study we investigated the effects of the physical properties of xenon on respiratory mechanisms in pigs. METHODS: With institutional approval, 10 female pigs (mean 25.2 (SD 2.5) kg) were anaesthetized with thiopental, remifentanil, and pancuronium. Gas flow and pressure were recorded continuously at the proximal end of ...
Evans N R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is a new laryngeal mask device with a modified cuff and a drainage tube. METHODS: We assessed the PLMA in 300 anaesthetized adults either paralysed or breathing spontaneously. We assessed insertion characteristics, airway seal pressures, haemodynamic response to insertion, ease of gastric tube ...
Barrabé Patrice - - 2002
Using a simplified model of the upper airways with two independent collapsible elements (nostrils and hypo-pharynx), we calculated the cross-sectional area of these two elements, taking into account pressure drops. We experimentally measured flow and pressure in the fossa and hypo-pharynx in various syndromes. This allowed us to compare the ...
Padman Raj - - 2002
The purpose of this study was objective documentation of clinical benefits of bilevel positive airway pressure in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea. We performed a retrospective chart review and data collection/analysis in a suburban tertiary care children's hospital. The study consisted of 10 pediatric patients (age range: 3 to ...
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