Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1901
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Schneider Hartmut - - 2002
We hypothesized that upper airway collapsibility is modulated dynamically throughout the respiratory cycle in sleeping humans by alterations in respiratory phase and/or airflow regimen. To test this hypothesis, critical pressures were derived from upper airway pressure-flow relationships in six tracheostomized patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Pressure-flow relationships were generated by ...
Hla K Mae KM Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 2828 Marshall Court, Suite 100, Madison, WI 53705, - - 2002
To compare BP response to 3 weeks of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypertensive patients with and without sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). A controlled, interventional trial of nasal CPAP in patients with and without SDB. Twenty-four men, aged 30 to 60 years, with mild to moderate untreated hypertension recruited ...
Kelly C A - - 2002
AIMS: The study aim was to compare the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on clinical outcomes and plasma neurohormonal concentrations in patients with acute pulmonary oedema. METHODS AND RESULTS: In addition to standard therapy, 58 consecutive patients were randomized to receive 60% inhaled oxygen with or without CPAP ...
Jobe Alan H - - 2002
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is being used clinically to avoid mechanical ventilation of preterm infants as a strategy to minimize lung injury. There is little experimental information about how CPAP might minimize lung injury after preterm birth. We induced preterm labor in antenatal glucocorticoid-treated sheep carrying twins at 133 ...
Brimacombe Joseph - - 2002
We compared the laryngeal mask airway ProSeal (PLMA) and the laryngeal tube airway (LTA), two new extraglottic airway devices, with respect to: 1) insertion success rates and times, 2) efficacy of seal, 3) ventilatory variables during pressure-controlled ventilation, 4) tidal volume in different head/neck positions, and 5) airway interventional requirements. ...
Ghai B, Sharma A, ...
AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of ...
Heitman Steven J - - 2002
The reference standard for identifying apneas and hypopneas is a pneumotachograph, but using this can disrupt sleep. Nasal airflow estimation by measuring nasal pressure via nasal prongs is better tolerated by patients. However, nasal pressure has not been validated, using an event-by-event analysis, for detecting apneas/hypopneas during sleep. Eleven patients ...
Fuchs Florian S - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of microarousals (MA) associated with pressure changes during auto-CPAP therapy (APAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Patients with OSA were studied by polysomnography during APAP therapy (Somnosmart). The MA were classified on the basis of concomitant changes in APAP pressure. SETTING: Sleep laboratory ...
Bonsignore Maria R - - 2002
The role of the arterial baroreflex in the cardiovascular changes associated with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on baroreflex function during sleep are unknown. Baroreflex control of heart rate was studied in 29 normotensive patients with OSAS under ...
Kindgen-Milles D D Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Germany. - - 2002
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is considered useful for prophylaxis and treatment of respiratory complications following major thoracic surgery. It is unknown, however, which CPAP levels are required to avoid alveolar derecruitment and to consistently improve pulmonary oxygen transfer in patients following thoracotomy. We therefore studied the effects of ...
Kleinsasser Axel - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) is the "gold standard" of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly discussed as an alternative. This study investigated hemodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange applying CPAP enhanced with pressure support ventilation (CPAP(PSV)) during CPR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four pigs ...
Lapin Craig D - - 2002
Airway clearance techniques are used to aid in mucus clearance in a variety of disease states. Autogenic drainage and active-cycle-of-breathing technique are 2 such modalities that rely heavily on basic airway physiology to enhance clearance. In this review I discuss the equal pressure point, huffing, and asynchronous and collateral ventilation, ...
Andersson Jens A - - 2002
The paranasal sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity via small osties. Ostial occlusion, caused by mucosal swelling, will result in a slowly increasing negative pressure inside the sinus cavity. In parallel, the oxygen content in the sinus will decrease, resulting in the development of relative hypoxia. Hypoxia is a ...
Rieder J - - 2002
Twenty children aged 2-66 months were randomly allocated for airway management with either the laryngeal mask airway or uncuffed tracheal tube using intermittent positive pressure ventilation with a tidal volume of 8 ml.kg-1 and a respiratory rate adjusted to maintain end-expiratory carbon dioxide concentration at 5.3 kPa. Induction was with ...
Fink James B - - 2002
Positive airway pressure (PAP) has been used since the 1930s to improve oxygenation, increase lung volumes and reduce venous return. More recently, PAP has been identified as an effective method of splinting airway during expiration, improving collateral ventilation, increasing response to inhaled bronchodilators, and aiding secretion clearance in patients with ...
Vanpee Dominique - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), inspiratory pressure support (PSV), and bilevel positive airway pressure (biPAP) on ventilatory parameters and inspiratory work (WOB) in normocapnic and hypercapnic patients with stable COPD. METHODS: While administering nasal pressure support to 10 normocapnic and 10 ...
Lindwall R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO), when inhaled, has a synergistic effect with airway recruitment strategies such as positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in improving oxygenation in lung injury. METHODS: We modified a commercially available nasal CPAP (nCPAP) system to enable the concomitant delivery of inhaled NO ...
Rego Maria A. C. - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have compared the performance of nasal prongs used for applying continuous positive airway pressure. The present study compared the tolerance and efficacy with the Argyle and Hudson nasal prongs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized clinical study. SETTING: A tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: ...
Randerath W J - - 2002
Cold passover and heated humidifiers are employed for the prevention of side-effects associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. However, to date, it has not been possible to separately measure the humidity of inspired and expired air. The aim of this study was to compare the relative humidity of ...
Brugel-Ribere L - - 2002
To explore the determinants of possible collapse of the nasal valve region, a common cause of nasal obstruction, we evaluated the mechanical properties of the nasal wall. In this study, we determined the nasal cross-sectional area-to-negative pressure ratio (nasal wall compliance) in the anterior part of the nose in six ...
Lu P P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is a more effective ventilatory device than the Classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Eighty anaesthetized, paralyzed patients (ASA 1-2, aged 18-80 yr) were randomly allocated for airway management with the PLMA or LMA. Ease ...
Pepperell Justin C T - - 2002
This article is a review of the current evidence that links systemic hypertension with obstructive sleep apnoea. Whilst a causal association has been suspected for some time, the day to day variability of both blood pressure and sleep apnoea severity, and clustering of confounding cardiovascular risk factors in sleep apnoea ...
de La Chapelle Arnaud - - 2002
We report the case of a pregnant patient who developed severe pulmonary edema secondary to beta-adrenergic agonist tocolytic therapy (salbutamol) and was successfully treated with mask-delivered continuous positive airway pressure ventilation.
Tuck Stephanie A - - 2002
The static mechanical properties of the passive pharynx were investigated in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs by using an isolated upper airway preparation. During general anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, cross-sectional area (A) of the pharynx was measured while airway pressure (Paw) was held at various pressures in the absence of airflow. The ...
Tuck Stephanie A - - 2002
We described the dynamic mechanical properties of the passive pharynx in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs and the effects of caudal tracheal displacement. During general anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, airflow through the upper airway (V) and pharyngeal cross-sectional area were measured during ramp decreases in pressure downstream from the pharynx (Pdown). Measurements ...
Thorsteinsson A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cyclic opening and closing of lung units during tidal breathing may be an important cause of iatrogenic lung injury. We hypothesized that airway closure is uncommon in children with healthy lungs when inspiratory pressures are kept low, but paradoxically may occur when inspiratory pressures are increased. METHODS: Elastic equilibrium ...
Steiner L A - - 2002
Demand for magnetic resonance investigations in critically ill patients is increasing. While these patients frequently need ventilatory support, not all of them require controlled ventilation and many may be treated with continuous positive airway pressure. Controlled ventilation, with the concurrent need for sedation, may be inappropriate when airway physiology is ...
Inagawa Gaku - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It has been generally accepted that a higher airway seal pressure indicates adequate positioning of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in adult patients. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether a higher airway seal pressure correlates with an adequate positioning of the LMA in paediatric patients. METHODS: One ...
Snyder Ashley H - - 2002
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a naturally occurring constituent of airway lining fluid, enhances ciliary motility, relaxes airway smooth muscle, inhibits airway epithelial amiloride-sensitive sodium transport, and prevents pathogen replication. Remarkably, airway levels of GSNO are low in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that replacement of airway GSNO would improve gas ...
Baumert J H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In this study we investigated the effects of the physical properties of xenon on respiratory mechanisms in pigs. METHODS: With institutional approval, 10 female pigs (mean 25.2 (SD 2.5) kg) were anaesthetized with thiopental, remifentanil, and pancuronium. Gas flow and pressure were recorded continuously at the proximal end of ...
Evans N R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is a new laryngeal mask device with a modified cuff and a drainage tube. METHODS: We assessed the PLMA in 300 anaesthetized adults either paralysed or breathing spontaneously. We assessed insertion characteristics, airway seal pressures, haemodynamic response to insertion, ease of gastric tube ...
Barrabé Patrice - - 2002
Using a simplified model of the upper airways with two independent collapsible elements (nostrils and hypo-pharynx), we calculated the cross-sectional area of these two elements, taking into account pressure drops. We experimentally measured flow and pressure in the fossa and hypo-pharynx in various syndromes. This allowed us to compare the ...
Padman Raj - - 2002
The purpose of this study was objective documentation of clinical benefits of bilevel positive airway pressure in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea. We performed a retrospective chart review and data collection/analysis in a suburban tertiary care children's hospital. The study consisted of 10 pediatric patients (age range: 3 to ...
Cook T M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal is a wire-reinforced laryngeal mask airway with an additional drain tube that leads to the distal tip of the laryngeal cuff. The design should improve the seal with the larynx. METHODS: The ProSeal and classic laryngeal mask airways were compared in 180 patients in a randomized crossover ...
Liu Y - - 2002
The inspiratory flow characteristics in a three-generation lung airway have been numerically investigated using a control volume method to solve the fully three-dimensional laminar Navier-Stokes equations. The three-generation airway is extracted from the fifth to seventh branches of the model of Weibel (Morphometry of the Human Lung, Academic Press, New ...
Stix Michael S - - 2002
Esophageal insufflation can occur simultaneously with venting from the drain tube during positive pressure ventilation with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway.
Serikov V B - - 2002
Inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract are characterized by flow of plasma filtrate across the epithelium into the airway lumen ("transudation"). Elsewhere, we have proposed that extravasation from microvessels causes edema, and this is associated with elevated subepithelial hydrostatic pressure that drives transudation. To test this hypothesis, we have ...
Littner Michael - - 2002
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used to treat patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The current standard is for an attendant technician to titrate CPAP during full polysomnography to obtain a fixed single pressure. The patient uses CPAP nightly at this fixed single pressure. Recently, devices using ...
Sanfaçon C - - 2002
Upper airway (UA) collapsibility can be characterized during sleep by looking at the changes in inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) with changing nasal pressure. IFL can be induced during wakefulness using phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) applied during exclusive nasal breathing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of ...
Sanner Bernd M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subject to an increased cardiovascular morbidity including systemic hypertension. Little is known about the effects of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on systemic hypertension. METHODS: Automated ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (BP) monitoring was performed in 88 consecutive patients ...
Navitsky Richard C - - 2002
Nasal foreign bodies in children are often encountered in emergency medicine and many methods of removal exist. This study examines the nasal positive pressure technique, a method not previously described in the literature. A retrospective chart review of nasal foreign body removal using the nasal positive pressure technique was conducted, ...
Parati Gianfranco - - 2002
This review article provides an update on two major issues. First, the most recent evidence supporting the occurrence of an association between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, or more generally sleep-disordered breathing, and arterial hypertension in humans is summarized and discussed. This includes an evaluation of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. ...
Anderson Timothy D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The study goal was to understand the incidence, etiology, and management of airway complications in infant botulism. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the period from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 1997. SETTING: Urban tertiary care children's hospital. RESULTS: Of 60 children with infant botulism, 37 (61.7%) ...
Midelton Gary T - - 2002
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy has recently been studied as a nonpharmacologic adjunct to congestive heart failure therapy. In patients with congestive heart failure, it was reported that continuous positive airway pressure therapy for the condition Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea led to long-term improvements in cardiac function ...
Donahue Michael - - 2002
Cough is the natural defense mechanism for protection of the respiratory tract. It is used to mobilize and remove secretions from the respiratory tree, moving them from the peripheral to the central airways. Effective airway clearance for individuals with cystic fibrosis is an essential component of daily therapy because of ...
Kyroussis D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Slowing of the inspiratory muscle maximum relaxation rate (MRR) is a useful index of severe inspiratory muscle loading and potential fatigue and has been measured from the oesophageal pressure during sniffs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it ...
McKay Karen O - - 2002
Alterations in airway wall anatomic properties and the consequential effects on airway narrowing have been assessed by use of computational models. In these models, it is generally assumed that at zero transmural pressure the airway wall exists in a zero-stress state. Many studies have shown that this is often not ...
Aoyama K - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of delivery of mechanical ventilation through different airway devices during fibreoptic intubation is not known. METHODS: We compared the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) and endoscopy mask for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) during fibreoptic intubation. In 80 adult paralysed patients, fibreoptic intubation was performed ...
Burns G P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects deep inspiration transiently dilates the airways, while many asthmatic subjects show bronchoconstriction by a mechanism which is incompletely understood. We hypothesised that the negative intrathoracic pressure associated with deep inspiration occurring in the context of increased leakiness of the airway vasculature may temporarily increase airway oedema ...
Litman Ronald S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods of assessing ventilatory effects of sedative agents do not measure their propensity to cause upper airway obstruction (UAO). The primary objective of this study was to develop a method, using dynamic negative airway pressure (DNAP), for replicating UAO during deep sedation. METHODS: A state of deep sedation ...
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