Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1943
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Natalini G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) may have advantages over the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in obese patients. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical setting. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (BMI >30) were randomized to receive mechanical ventilation (tidal volume 7 ml kg(-1), PEEP 10 cm H(2)O), through either ...
Woodson B Tucker - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Automatic adjusting nasal continuous positive airway pressure titration (APAP) has been introduced as an alternative method of establishing pressures for patients with sleep apnea. The performance and accuracy of APAP in nonattended home environment are controversial. This study assessed APAP polysomnographic outcomes and accuracy in a nonattended home environment. ...
Kessler Romain - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Determination of the therapeutic pressure during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is usually performed by a technician during polysomnography. In recent years, several devices for automated adjustment of the therapeutic pressure by the means of computerized algorithms were developed. The aims of the present study were to compare ...
Fauchère Jean-Claude - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: By constraining the heart, the chest wall, lungs, and pericardium limit diastolic filling and thus have a major role in determining cardiac output. Although intermittent positive pressure ventilation and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure amplifies this constraint, no clinical method exists to assess the impact that positive end-expiratory ...
Smith Philip L - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is based on raising the intramural pressure above a critical collapsing pressure of the oropharyngeal airway. It is currently unclear whether CPAP delivered orally is also capable of raising pressure in the oropharynx ...
Marrone O - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) affects blood pressure (BP) responsiveness to obstructive events occurring on the first night of CPAP withdrawal in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) after chronic treatment. Thirteen male subjects with severe OSA underwent nocturnal polysomnography with beat-by-beat ...
Mar J - - 2003
The demand for diagnostic and therapeutic services for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) showed marked growth during the 1990s. This paper analyses the long-term cost-effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment in comparison to conventional null treatment. A Markov model was used to represent the natural history of ...
Corsico Angelo - - 2003
This study investigated the relationships between pathological changes in small airways (<6 mm perimeter) and lung function in 22 nonasthmatic subjects (20 smokers) undergoing lung resection for peripheral lesions. Preoperative pulmonary function tests revealed airway obstruction [ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < ...
Loer Stephan A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbons are eliminated during partial liquid ventilation mainly by evaporation via the airways. We examined whether this is affected by the level of end-expiratory airway pressure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort animal study in the animal laboratory of a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Five foxhound dogs. INTERVENTIONS: The anesthetized dogs ...
Miller D M - - 2003
The Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) is a new inexpensive disposable supraglottic airway designed to seal without the use of an inflatable cuff. It comprises a hollow blow-moulded soft plastic airway shaped to form a seal in the pharynx. Being hollow, liquid entrapment is possible and this may ...
Verbraecken J - - 2003
We report on a patient with Marfan's syndrome, with coexistent obstructive sleep hypopnea (OSH) and restrictive lung disease, complicated by respiratory insufficiency, who was successfully treated with nasal intermittent positive airway pressure (NIPPV) and oxygen. NIPPV therapy turned out to be effective on arterial gas exchange and well tolerated. Moreover, ...
Wang X-R - - 2003
AIMS: To examine early adverse pulmonary effects of exposure to cotton dust, and to identify potential risk factors, including atopy for pulmonary responses to cotton dust. METHODS: Spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, and questionnaire; performed among 101 non-smoking newly hired textile workers at baseline (prior to starting work), and at 3, ...
Berry Richard B - - 2003
We hypothesized that the response of the genioglossus to negative pressure during wakefulness should be intact in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients despite published evidence showing impairment of the response of palatal muscles (Mortimore IL and Douglas NJ. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156: 867-873, 1997). Thus the response ...
Kirkness Jason P - - 2003
The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a disorder characterised by repetitive closure and re-opening of the upper airway during sleep. Upper airway luminal patency is influenced by a number of factors including: intraluminal air pressure, upper airway dilator muscle activity, surrounding extraluminal tissue pressure, and also surface forces which ...
Becker Heinrich F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension. Because there are no controlled studies showing a substantial effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy on hypertension in OSA, the impact of treatment on cardiovascular sequelae has been questioned ...
Wang D Y - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (B. tropicalis) was found to be the most prevalent domestic mite in Singapore. However, its pathogenicity in allergic airway diseases remains to be investigated. METHODS: Twenty adults with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) were studied. Five had a history of asthma, and all were ...
Cattapan S E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients inspiratory muscle function may be assessed by measurements of maximal inspiratory airway pressure and the response of twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi tw) to bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation. The first is limited by its total dependence on patient cooperation. Although the second approach is independent of ...
Maltby J Roger - - 2003
PURPOSE: To compare the laryngeal mask airways (LMA), LMA-Classic(TM) (LMA-C) and LMA-ProSeal(TM) (PLMA) with the endotracheal tube (ETT) with respect to pulmonary ventilation and gastric distension during gynecologic laparoscopy. METHODS: We stratified 209 women, aged > or = 18 yr, ASA physical status I-III, by body mass index as non-obese ...
Ziegler Michael G - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The failure to lower systolic blood pressure at night (called non-dipping) and sleep apnea are both associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Sleep apnea is a common cause of non-dipping blood pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep apnea increases night time blood pressure through enhanced cardiac pre-load, sleep disturbance and ...
Brimacombe J - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The LMA-ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is a new laryngeal mask airway with a modified cuff and drainage tube. We compared oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure and anatomical position (assessed fibreoptically) for the Size 5 LMA-ProSeal laryngeal mask airway and the classic laryngeal mask airway in different head-neck ...
Vérin E - - 2003
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the main treatment of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). We assessed its effects on the upper airway (UA) dynamics in response to bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (BAMPS) in 17 awake untreated OSAS patients (15 males; 52 +/- 7 years) whose effective ...
Cheah Fook-Choe - - 2003
We developed a bedside method for collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from neonates who were ventilated or receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and analyzed their EBC for hydrogen peroxide levels. A sufficient volume for analysis could be collected over 25-40 min from neonates on the ventilator and nasal ...
Young Barb - - 2003
A review of the literature on advanced airway management indicates that the intubating laryngeal-mask airway (ILMA) may be an ideal device for airway control in the rural trauma patient. The ILMA is an advanced laryngeal-mask airway designed to allow oxygenation of the unconscious patient as well as blind tracheal intubation ...
Krachman Samuel L SL Sleep Disorders Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, - - 2003
The mechanism(s) by which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remains uncertain, and may involve an increase in total oxygen body stores (dampening), changes in central and peripheral controller gain, and/or improvement in cardiac ...
Hubbard Andrea K - - 2002
The effect of exposure to irritant air pollutants on the development of allergic airway disease is poorly understood. This study examines the effects of the lower respiratory tract irritant, NO(2), on the outcome of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice were sensitized by weekly intraperitoneal (ip) ...
Wang Hong - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and some cardiovascular abnormalities in elderly snorers, as well as the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on those with SAHS. METHODS: With the use of polysomnography, 73 elderly snorers (older than 60 years) were examined and placed ...
Loke G P Y - - 2002
The aim of this crossover study was to determine the optimal size of laryngeal mask airway in children weighing 10 to 20 kg. In each of 67 apnoeic anaesthetized children, the size 2 and size 2 1/2 laryngeal mask airways were inserted consecutively by a skilled user and the cuff ...
O'Brien James - - 2002
In the last 20 years, most sleep apnea patients have been treated more or less with one individual but constant level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). New insights into CPAP- and bilevel PAP-therapy employing auto CPAP (APAP) devices might change our attitude. Readings of the pressure profiles from APAPs ...
Murray Kevin D - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Although uncommon, prolonged postoperative air leaks are a troublesome complication of lung surgery. This study was performed to determine if buttressing pulmonary staple lines would reduce air leakage at varying airway pressures, and if there was a difference between buttressing materials. METHODS: Using cadaver lungs, the development of air ...
Babik B - - 2002
The interrupter technique is commonly adopted to monitor respiratory resistance (Rrs,int) during mechanical ventilation; however, Rrs,int is often interpreted as an index of airway resistance (Raw). This study compared the values of Rrs,int provided by a Siemens 940 Lung Mechanics Monitor with total respiratory impedance (Zrs) parameters in 39 patients ...
Demin Han - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the site(s) of upper airway obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and their changes during sleep with upper airway (UA) pressure measurement; and to analyze the correspondence between the UA pressure measurement and polysomnography (PSG). METHOD: Thirty patients with OSAS underwent UA pressure measurement. ...
Chadda Karim - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered an effective nonpharmacologic method of treating patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. However, we hypothesized that bilevel noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV), which combines both inspiratory pressure support and positive expiratory pressure, would unload the respiratory muscles and improve cardiac and hemodynamic ...
Meslier Nicole N Unité de pathologie du sommeil, Service de Pneumologie, Chu Angers, France. - - 2002
To validate a new method of evaluation of respiratory efforts during polysomnographic recordings. NA PARTICIPANTS: 26 patients with sleep apnea syndrome, either during diagnostic assessment (n=16) or under nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n=10). This method consists of measuring suprastemal pressure by a pressure transducer placed over the trachea above ...
Sood Namita - - 2003
Mucociliary clearance is determined by ciliary activity and rheology of airway surface liquid. To test the hypothesis that mucociliary clearance would increase after inhalation of an osmotically active agent that would increase the volume of airway surface liquid, we measured mucociliary clearance in 16 normal subjects after inhalation of varying ...
Massie Clifford A - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use and outcomes can be improved by an autotitrating CPAP device in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) who require higher CPAP (10 cm H2O or more). In this multisite randomized single-blind cross-over study, 44 patients (mean age, 49 ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Reduction of nocturnal obstructive events during lateral position in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was previously reported. However, little information is available regarding mechanisms of the improvement and the precise pharyngeal site influenced by the lateral position. The authors tested the hypothesis that structural properties of the passive pharynx ...
O'Donnell Christopher P - - 2002
We evaluated the effects of airflow limitation and arousal on digital vascular tone in 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using the recently developed, noninvasive technique of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Subjects were maintained at a therapeutic level of continuous positive airway pressure, and nasal pressure was acutely dropped ...
Gardner S V - - 2002
This case describes the anaesthesia management of a patient with myasthenia gravis who required mastectomy with axillary lymph node clearance. After withholding medical therapy for the myasthenia preoperatively on the day of surgery, anaesthesia was maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide and a remifentanil infusion. Muscle relaxants were avoided, facilitated by ...
Eastwood Peter R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The unprotected upper airway tends to obstruct during general anesthesia, yet its mechanical properties have not been studied in detail during this condition. METHODS: To study its collapsibility, pressure-flow relationships of the upper airway were obtained at three levels of anesthesia (end-tidal isoflurane = 1.2%, 0.8%, and 0.4%) in ...
Howath A - - 2002
We determined the success rates, cardiovascular responses and airway morbidity for gum-elastic bougie-guided insertion of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. One hundred anaesthetized, non-paralyzed adults (ASA 1-2 aged 18 to 80 years) were studied. The ProSeal LMA drainage tube was primed with a well-lubricated 16 French gauge gum-elastic bougie with ...
Ocker Hartmut - - 2002
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA; Laryngeal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, UK) is an established airway device, whereas the laryngeal tube (LT) is relatively new and therefore not as well investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the LT with the LMA in routine clinical ...
Schneider Hartmut - - 2002
We hypothesized that upper airway collapsibility is modulated dynamically throughout the respiratory cycle in sleeping humans by alterations in respiratory phase and/or airflow regimen. To test this hypothesis, critical pressures were derived from upper airway pressure-flow relationships in six tracheostomized patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Pressure-flow relationships were generated by ...
Hla K Mae KM Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 2828 Marshall Court, Suite 100, Madison, WI 53705, - - 2002
To compare BP response to 3 weeks of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypertensive patients with and without sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). A controlled, interventional trial of nasal CPAP in patients with and without SDB. Twenty-four men, aged 30 to 60 years, with mild to moderate untreated hypertension recruited ...
Kelly C A - - 2002
AIMS: The study aim was to compare the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on clinical outcomes and plasma neurohormonal concentrations in patients with acute pulmonary oedema. METHODS AND RESULTS: In addition to standard therapy, 58 consecutive patients were randomized to receive 60% inhaled oxygen with or without CPAP ...
Jobe Alan H - - 2002
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is being used clinically to avoid mechanical ventilation of preterm infants as a strategy to minimize lung injury. There is little experimental information about how CPAP might minimize lung injury after preterm birth. We induced preterm labor in antenatal glucocorticoid-treated sheep carrying twins at 133 ...
Brimacombe Joseph - - 2002
We compared the laryngeal mask airway ProSeal (PLMA) and the laryngeal tube airway (LTA), two new extraglottic airway devices, with respect to: 1) insertion success rates and times, 2) efficacy of seal, 3) ventilatory variables during pressure-controlled ventilation, 4) tidal volume in different head/neck positions, and 5) airway interventional requirements. ...
Ghai B, Sharma A, ...
AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of ...
Heitman Steven J - - 2002
The reference standard for identifying apneas and hypopneas is a pneumotachograph, but using this can disrupt sleep. Nasal airflow estimation by measuring nasal pressure via nasal prongs is better tolerated by patients. However, nasal pressure has not been validated, using an event-by-event analysis, for detecting apneas/hypopneas during sleep. Eleven patients ...
Fuchs Florian S - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of microarousals (MA) associated with pressure changes during auto-CPAP therapy (APAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Patients with OSA were studied by polysomnography during APAP therapy (Somnosmart). The MA were classified on the basis of concomitant changes in APAP pressure. SETTING: Sleep laboratory ...
Bonsignore Maria R - - 2002
The role of the arterial baroreflex in the cardiovascular changes associated with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on baroreflex function during sleep are unknown. Baroreflex control of heart rate was studied in 29 normotensive patients with OSAS under ...
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