Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1981
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Oliven Arie - - 2003
Contraction of the genioglossus (GG) has been shown to improve upper airway patency. In the present study, we evaluated responses in upper airway pressure-flow relationships during sleep to electrical stimulation (ES) of the GG in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Five patients with chronically implanted hypoglossal nerve (HG) electrodes and ...
Senn Oliver - - 2003
We evaluated the efficacy of two different continuous positive airway pressure devices with automatic mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in comparison with fixed CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 29 patients. The mean (+/- SE) apnea-hypopnea index was 46 +/- 4 per hour and the Epworth score was 14.2 ...
Rodway George W - - 2003
Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the most commonly used medical modality to reverse the apneas, hypopneas and inspiratory flow-limited breaths which result in the oxyhemoglobin desaturation, altered sleep architecture, and daytime sleepiness representing the cardinal features of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H). Identifying optimal strategies to develop the initial positive ...
Lundstrøm K E - - 2003
The use of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as prophylaxis and treatment for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates, with or without prophylactic surfactant, is becoming increasingly popular. However, the justification for this is limited to comparisons between centres and comparisons of historical controls. Randomized trials and appropriate ...
Clement Peter - - 2003
The authors compared nasal resistance and pressures generated during breathing and nose blowing in patients with chronic sinusitis, septal deviations and a control group consisting of normal test subjects. The chronic sinusitis group generated pressures during nose blowing that were significantly higher (898 daPa for the left side and 913 ...
El-Kabir Desiree R - - 2003
In untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) inspiratory efforts are made against an occluded airway and diaphragm fatigue might therefore complicate OSAS. To test this hypothesis we measured twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Tw Pdi) in response to bilateral cervical magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve roots in nine patients with OSAS ...
Moritz Fabienne - - 2003
This study aimed to assess the short-term respiratory effects of a new portable device that delivers a continuous positive airway pressure via a face mask (Boussignac-CPAP) in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and the feasibility of using this technique in an emergency department. We prospectively studied 30 consecutive ...
Schönhofer Bernd - - 2003
Nasal problems are frequent at high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We hypothesized that a reduction of the nasal resistance reduces CPAP and investigated the effect of a nasal valve dilator (Nozovent) on CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In a randomized cross-over design Nozovent was inserted in 38 ...
Baran Alp Sinan - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The following hypotheses were investigated: 1) severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can mask concurrent periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder (PLMD), which becomes evident or worsens after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); 2) in patients with mild OSA, PLMs are not masked but may be triggered by ...
Barbini Paolo - - 2003
A nonlinear model of breathing mechanics, in which the tracheobronchial airways are considered in three serial segments, is presented to obtain insights into the mechanisms underlying expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in mechanically ventilated patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and normal conditions were simulated and EFL was detected by application ...
Woodson B Tucker - - 2003
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea and snoring, airway obstruction during sleep is not limited to inspiration but may also occur with expiration. The aim of this study was to assess the segmental mechanics of expiratory obstruction. DESIGN: Experimental study of a convenience sample of 20 patients with snoring ...
Natalini Giuseppe - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of airway seal and sore throat with the LMA-ProSeal (PLMA) and the standard Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) during laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, randomized, nonblinded clinical study. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 60 adult, ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery ...
Patroniti Nicolò - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess selected physiological effects of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure delivered by head helmet (CPAPH), a special interface device designed to completely contain the head of the patient, compared to face mask (CPAPM). DESIGN: Randomized physiological study. SETTING: University research laboratory. PATIENTS: Eight healthy volunteers. INTERVENTION: Continuous positive ...
Craven Rachael M - - 2003
PURPOSE: To study the feasibility of using the Pro-Seal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance during bronchoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy. METHODS: Observational study of 23 patients in an 11-bed general intensive care unit. The patient's tracheal tube was exchanged for a Pro-Seal LMA before undertaking percutaneous tracheostomy. RESULTS: Inspiratory ...
Suzina A H - - 2003
The differences in facial anatomical structures of the major ethnic groups, may also be reflected in nasal resistance. Active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR) is the recommended technique for the objective assessment of nasal airway resistance (NAR). This study comprised of 85 adult Malay subjects. All the subjects had to undergo a ...
Farré Ramon - - 2003
Increased upper airway collapsibility in the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is usually interpreted by a collapsible resistor model characterized by a critical pressure (Pcrit) and an upstream resistance (Rup). To investigate the role played by the upstream segment of the upper airway, we tested the hypothesis that breathing different gases ...
Farré Ramon - - 2003
Animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology of the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Nevertheless, in none of the models described to date have the animals been subjected to the different patterns of upper airway obstructive events (apneas, hypopneas, and inspiratory flow limitation) characterizing SAHS. Our aim was ...
Kinhult J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with strong vaso- and bronchodilator capacity. There is recent evidence that PACAP decreases the release of proinflammatory cytokines and we have previously shown that PACAP inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, but little is known about the effects of PACAP in human ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2003
Transmural pressure at any level in the upper airway is dependent on the difference between intraluminal airway and extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP). We hypothesized that ETP would be influenced by topography, head and neck position, resistive loading, and stimulated breathing. Twenty-eight male, New Zealand White, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits breathed ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This bench and human study compared large and small helmets with face mask (FM) for delivery of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: A lung simulator was employed, and the human study involved six healthy subjects. We evaluated a continuous high-flow (CPAPHF), low flow (CPAPLF), ventilator (CPAPVENT) CPAP, and pressure ...
Fournell Artur - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Adequate oxygenation of the gastrointestinal mucosa to preserve its barrier function is a basic objective in the prevention of multiple organ failure. Sustaining a positive airway pressure during the entire respiratory cycle remains a cornerstone in the therapeutic regimen to improve systemic oxygenation. Whereas increased systemic oxygenation during breathing ...
Roux Francoise J - - 2003
Automatic positive airway pressure devices are the most technologically advanced positive airway pressure devices available for use in OSA. Although heterogeneous, they have in common the ability to detect and respond to changes in upper airway resistance. Data cannot necessarily be extrapolated from one device to another, and the field ...
Scala R - - 2003
Sleep disordered breathing is common in patients with cerebrovascular disease, and could exacerbate the cerebral damage in acute stroke. Data about the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) upon cerebral perfusion are conflicting. We investigated whether increasing levels of CPAP may affect cerebral haemodynamics, assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ...
Templier François - - 2003
Continuous positive airway pressure in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema is rarely used by prehospital emergency care units, because of the particular technical drawbacks of existing equipment. The aim of this one year prospective descriptive open study without a control group was to assess the technical feasibility of using the Boussignac ...
Keller C - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that mucosal pressures are higher for the laryngeal tube airway trade mark than the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. Fifteen fresh cadavers were studied. Microchip pressure sensors were attached to the laryngeal tube airway and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway at four similar anatomical locations (base of tongue, ...
Williams M T - - 2003
In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we compared the effects of two anaesthetic techniques on surgical conditions during day-case, gynaecological laparoscopic procedures in 40 female patients. Patients were allocated randomly to two groups, either to breathe spontaneously through a laryngeal mask airway or to receive a neuromuscular-blocking agent (NMB) and ...
Hollandt Jan H - - 2003
Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment is the most efficient therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), compliance with therapy is poor because of several side effects. Among these adverse effects some are related to the reactions of the nose to nCPAP which are briefly described. In a long-term ...
Stepnowsky Carl J CJ - - 2003
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is presently considered as the "treatment of choice" for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Though some OSA patients adhere to treatment recommendations and ultimately respond quite well to CPAP therapy, there is a substantial subgroup for which compliance is a particularly difficult issue. Despite receiving ...
Takami Yoshiyuki - - 2003
To support injured lungs, we have been applying bilevel positive airway pressure for adult patients undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Among 120 consecutive patients, 31 patients whose PaO2/FiO2 decreased to less than 180 after extubation assigned to the intermittent 15 min bilevel positive airway pressure (7.3+/-3.6 times per patient). Bilevel ...
Younes Magdy - - 2003
The contributions of pharyngeal mechanical abnormalities, flow demand, and compensatory effectiveness to obstructive sleep apnea severity were determined in 82 patients. Flow demand was estimated from mean inspiratory flow on continuous positive airway pressure. Mechanical load on upper airway muscles was estimated from minimal effective continuous positive airway pressure, flow ...
Lattimore Jo-Dee L - - 2003
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. As it is strongly associated with known cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, OSA is an independent risk factor for hypertension and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis ...
Wagner-Berger Horst G - - 2003
Reducing inspiratory flow rate and peak airway pressure may be important in order to minimise the risk of stomach inflation when ventilating an unprotected airway with positive pressure ventilation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a newly developed bag-valve-mask device (SMART BAG), O-Two Systems International, ...
Butler Kenneth H - - 2003
Rapid-sequence intubation using conventional laryngoscopic technique remains the standard of airway management in emergency medicine and continues to have a success rate of approximately 98%. Preparation and proper intubation technique must be optimized at the initial attempt using direct laryngoscopy. Failure causes multiple repeated attempts, leading to a failed airway. ...
Berg Søren - - 2003
Microvascular extravasation, lamina propria flooding and luminal entry of plasma are key features of airway inflammation. We have suggested that the extravasated plasma moves across the epithelial lining along hydrostatic pressure gradients. The present study, involving healthy subjects, tests this hypothesis by examining effects of experimentally applied negative and positive ...
Kallio Tarja - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prehospital use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system for the treatment of presumed acute severe pulmonary edema (ASPE). METHODS: The efficacy of prehospital CPAP treatment was analyzed in terms of changes in oxygen saturation, need for intubation or ventilatory support, and possible morbidity associated ...
Saldien Vera - - 2003
We report a case of acute respiratory distress after upper airway obstruction following routine palatoplasty in an otherwise healthy 6-year-old boy. We believe that extreme variation of intrathoracal pressure was the basis of the development of the acute respiratory distress. We recommend after palatoplasty a more than careful postoperative clinical ...
Fogel Robert B RB Divisions of Sleep Medicine and Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA. - - 2003
While obesity is the most common risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea, the correlation between measures of obesity and apnea severity is only moderate. We thus attempted to identify anatomic and physiologic predictors of apnea severity. We combined a careful assessment of upper airway anatomy, upper airway ...
Fortier Pierre-Hugues - - 2003
We tested the hypotheses that active upper airway closure during induced central apneas in nonsedated lambs 1). is complete and occurs at the laryngeal level and 2). is not due to stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerves (SLN). Five newborn lambs were surgically instrumented to record thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle (glottal ...
Natalini G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) may have advantages over the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in obese patients. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical setting. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (BMI >30) were randomized to receive mechanical ventilation (tidal volume 7 ml kg(-1), PEEP 10 cm H(2)O), through either ...
Woodson B Tucker - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Automatic adjusting nasal continuous positive airway pressure titration (APAP) has been introduced as an alternative method of establishing pressures for patients with sleep apnea. The performance and accuracy of APAP in nonattended home environment are controversial. This study assessed APAP polysomnographic outcomes and accuracy in a nonattended home environment. ...
Kessler Romain - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Determination of the therapeutic pressure during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is usually performed by a technician during polysomnography. In recent years, several devices for automated adjustment of the therapeutic pressure by the means of computerized algorithms were developed. The aims of the present study were to compare ...
Fauchère Jean-Claude - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: By constraining the heart, the chest wall, lungs, and pericardium limit diastolic filling and thus have a major role in determining cardiac output. Although intermittent positive pressure ventilation and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure amplifies this constraint, no clinical method exists to assess the impact that positive end-expiratory ...
Smith Philip L - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is based on raising the intramural pressure above a critical collapsing pressure of the oropharyngeal airway. It is currently unclear whether CPAP delivered orally is also capable of raising pressure in the oropharynx ...
Marrone O - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) affects blood pressure (BP) responsiveness to obstructive events occurring on the first night of CPAP withdrawal in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) after chronic treatment. Thirteen male subjects with severe OSA underwent nocturnal polysomnography with beat-by-beat ...
Mar J - - 2003
The demand for diagnostic and therapeutic services for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) showed marked growth during the 1990s. This paper analyses the long-term cost-effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment in comparison to conventional null treatment. A Markov model was used to represent the natural history of ...
Corsico Angelo - - 2003
This study investigated the relationships between pathological changes in small airways (<6 mm perimeter) and lung function in 22 nonasthmatic subjects (20 smokers) undergoing lung resection for peripheral lesions. Preoperative pulmonary function tests revealed airway obstruction [ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < ...
Loer Stephan A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbons are eliminated during partial liquid ventilation mainly by evaporation via the airways. We examined whether this is affected by the level of end-expiratory airway pressure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort animal study in the animal laboratory of a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Five foxhound dogs. INTERVENTIONS: The anesthetized dogs ...
Miller D M - - 2003
The Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) is a new inexpensive disposable supraglottic airway designed to seal without the use of an inflatable cuff. It comprises a hollow blow-moulded soft plastic airway shaped to form a seal in the pharynx. Being hollow, liquid entrapment is possible and this may ...
Verbraecken J - - 2003
We report on a patient with Marfan's syndrome, with coexistent obstructive sleep hypopnea (OSH) and restrictive lung disease, complicated by respiratory insufficiency, who was successfully treated with nasal intermittent positive airway pressure (NIPPV) and oxygen. NIPPV therapy turned out to be effective on arterial gas exchange and well tolerated. Moreover, ...
Wang X-R - - 2003
AIMS: To examine early adverse pulmonary effects of exposure to cotton dust, and to identify potential risk factors, including atopy for pulmonary responses to cotton dust. METHODS: Spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, and questionnaire; performed among 101 non-smoking newly hired textile workers at baseline (prior to starting work), and at 3, ...
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