Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1958
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Rich James M - - 2004
Emergency and unexpected difficult airway management can rapidly deteriorate into a critical airway event (e.g., inadequate mask ventilation, failed tracheal intubation, or cannot ventilate-cannot intubate). Recommended options to resolve a critical airway event include the laryngeal mask airway, the esophageal tracheal Combitube (ETC; Tyco-Healthcare-Nellcor, Pleasanton, Calif), transtracheal jet ventilation, or ...
Morley Colin - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous positive airway pressure is increasingly being used in the care of premature infants. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current controversies in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: This review explores information about the devices available for delivering continuous ...
Ayas Najib T - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) versus conventional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), reducing the mean airway pressure, improving subjective sleepiness, and improving treatment adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Meta-analysis and metaregression of ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2004
A collapsible tube surrounded by soft material within a rigid box was proposed as a two-dimensional mechanical model for the pharyngeal airway. This model predicts that changes in the box size (pharyngeal bony enclosure size anatomically defined as cross-sectional area bounded by the inside edge of bony structures such as ...
Mazan Melissa R - - 2004
This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1). have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2). suffer body mass depletion, and 3). have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4). whether increased work of breathing ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2004
Airway compliance is a key factor in understanding lung mechanics and is used as a clinical diagnostic index. Understanding such mechanics in small airways physiologically and clinically is critical. We have determined the "morphometric change" and "localized compliance" of small airways under "near"-physiological conditions; namely, the airways were embedded in ...
Stradling J R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with OSA on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have considerable night-to-night variation in their pressure requirements, suggesting that a one-night titration might not be very precise. This study investigates the likely error incurred using a one-night titration, and explores whether an algorithm-based approach to determine the pressure ...
Sekita Yasuko - - 2004
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The authors have shown previously that the vocal cord adductor is activated during inspiration in patients with vocal cord abduction impairment and that this adductor inspiratory activity is abolished by relief from inspiratory tracheal negative pressure by opening the tracheostoma. (Shiba K. Isono S, Sekita Y, Tanaka A. Inspiratory ...
Nácul Flávio E - - 2004
A 58-year-old woman was brought to our emergency department with massive nasal bleeding and hemodynamic instability. The patient had been on clopidogrel treatment (75 mg/day) for 2 years, which was started after an episode of transitory ischemic attack. Blood pressure normalized following the administration of intravenous fluids, and the bleeding ...
Groeben Harald - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation can elicit reflex bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, complicating mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical support. In vitro studies of human and animal bronchial tissue indicate that alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation can lead to smooth muscle relaxation and prevention of bronchoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a ...
Heitmann J - - 2004
There is increasing evidence that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) lowers blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, not only during sleep but also in the daytime. However, both the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction and the considerable differences in the magnitude of the effect in the studies ...
Ehtezazi Touraj - - 2004
Although it is likely that the upper airway is a major factor in the large inter- and intra-subject variation in deposition of inhaled drug aerosols in the lung, data on the configuration of the upper airway during inhalation is sparse. We have developed a unique method, using magnetic resonance imaging, ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tolerance, compliance and problems associated with usage of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). PATIENTS AND METHOD: Twelve pregnant women diagnosed with SDB received polysomnography (PSG) at entry, CPAP titration, repeat PSG at 6 months gestation (GA) and ...
Pao C S - - 2004
Airway resistance using the interrupter technique (Rint) can be measured using commercial devices which employ different algorithms for estimating pressure change. We aim to describe differences in Rint due to algorithm. We compared Rint and change in Rint after bronchodilator, using four algorithms to estimate pressure change following interruption: 1) ...
Wolk Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hypertension. The vasorelaxing peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) may counteract effects of OSA-induced release of vasopressor substances. METHODS: Plasma ADM levels were measured at 9:30 PM, 2:00 AM (after 4 to 5 h of untreated OSA), and 6:00 AM (after 4 h of continuous ...
Sundaram P - - 2004
Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) occasionally may progress to extensive tracheomalacia which leads to respiratory failure. Spirometry, dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy are used to diagnose patients of suspected tracheobronchomalacia. We used the technique of night-time monitoring of respiratory variables to show the presence of respiratory abnormalities during sleep and which ...
Yamada Tomio - - 2004
It is often difficult to expeditiously establish an intravenous (IV) route in a medical emergency, and alternatives to an IV route may also be difficult for many dentists to accomplish. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that without the necessity of advanced training, the nasal mucosa route of ...
Rosenblatt William H - - 2003
Insufflation of the stomach with air can be a complication of face mask ventilation in the case of airway obstruction. Although the laryngeal mask airway has proven value in airway resuscitation, it has two major failings: a relatively low seal pressure and lack of access to the alimentary tract. A ...
Mansour Khaled - - 2003
We have previously shown that the pressure-flow relationship of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep can be characterized by a polynomial equation: F(P) = AP(3) + BP(2) + CP + D. On the basis of fluid mechanic principles, we hypothesized that we could objectively calculate upper airway resistance ...
Heshmati Farhad - - 2003
Bronchial asthma represents an increased airways responsiveness to various stimulants, leading to reversible obstruction of expiratory flow and chronic inflammatory changes in airways wall. Ketamine has been demonstrated to lower airway resistance and to increase lung compliance in the asthmatic patients. In several studies and case reports it has been ...
Nishihara Fumio - - 2003
Accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) can disturb systemic hemodynamics and increase the seizure threshold in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the laryngeal mask on blood gas, hemodynamics, and seizure duration during ECT under propofol anesthesia. Ventilation was assisted using ...
Noble P B - - 2004
A period of deep inspiration in humans has been shown to attenuate subsequent bronchoconstriction, a phenomenon termed bronchoprotection. The bronchoprotective effect of deep inspiration may be caused though a depression in the force production of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We determined the response of whole airway segments and isolated ASM ...
Mansfield Darren R - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to progression of cardiac dysfunction via hypoxia, elevated sympathetic nervous system activity, and systemic hypertension. Our aim was to assess the long-term effect of OSA treatment with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review of recent literature pertains to the growing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea contributes to the development of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: There is irrefutable evidence that OSA causes systemic hypertension and that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA causes ...
Tun Ye - - 2003
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly associated with systemic hypertension and now recognized as an independent risk factor for daytime hypertension. We aimed to study the short- and long-term effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypertensive and normotensive patients with OSA. Forty-six patients with moderated to severe ...
Cook T M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube (LT) performs similarly to the classic laryngeal mask airway during controlled ventilation but with an improved airway seal. We compared the laryngeal tube with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) throughout anaesthesia. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were studied using a randomized cross-over design. The primary outcome measure ...
Van Zundert André A J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The laryngeal mask airway LMA-Classic has been used widely in clinical practice. A new disposable supraglottic airway device, the Soft Seal LM, has been introduced recently. In a randomized study, the authors compared the LMA-Classic and the disposable Soft Seal LM in terms of their clinical performance, cuff pressures ...
Oliven Arie - - 2003
Contraction of the genioglossus (GG) has been shown to improve upper airway patency. In the present study, we evaluated responses in upper airway pressure-flow relationships during sleep to electrical stimulation (ES) of the GG in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Five patients with chronically implanted hypoglossal nerve (HG) electrodes and ...
Senn Oliver - - 2003
We evaluated the efficacy of two different continuous positive airway pressure devices with automatic mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in comparison with fixed CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 29 patients. The mean (+/- SE) apnea-hypopnea index was 46 +/- 4 per hour and the Epworth score was 14.2 ...
Rodway George W - - 2003
Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the most commonly used medical modality to reverse the apneas, hypopneas and inspiratory flow-limited breaths which result in the oxyhemoglobin desaturation, altered sleep architecture, and daytime sleepiness representing the cardinal features of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H). Identifying optimal strategies to develop the initial positive ...
Lundstrøm K E - - 2003
The use of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as prophylaxis and treatment for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates, with or without prophylactic surfactant, is becoming increasingly popular. However, the justification for this is limited to comparisons between centres and comparisons of historical controls. Randomized trials and appropriate ...
Clement Peter - - 2003
The authors compared nasal resistance and pressures generated during breathing and nose blowing in patients with chronic sinusitis, septal deviations and a control group consisting of normal test subjects. The chronic sinusitis group generated pressures during nose blowing that were significantly higher (898 daPa for the left side and 913 ...
El-Kabir Desiree R - - 2003
In untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) inspiratory efforts are made against an occluded airway and diaphragm fatigue might therefore complicate OSAS. To test this hypothesis we measured twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Tw Pdi) in response to bilateral cervical magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve roots in nine patients with OSAS ...
Moritz Fabienne - - 2003
This study aimed to assess the short-term respiratory effects of a new portable device that delivers a continuous positive airway pressure via a face mask (Boussignac-CPAP) in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and the feasibility of using this technique in an emergency department. We prospectively studied 30 consecutive ...
Schönhofer Bernd - - 2003
Nasal problems are frequent at high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We hypothesized that a reduction of the nasal resistance reduces CPAP and investigated the effect of a nasal valve dilator (Nozovent) on CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In a randomized cross-over design Nozovent was inserted in 38 ...
Baran Alp Sinan - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The following hypotheses were investigated: 1) severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can mask concurrent periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder (PLMD), which becomes evident or worsens after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); 2) in patients with mild OSA, PLMs are not masked but may be triggered by ...
Barbini Paolo - - 2003
A nonlinear model of breathing mechanics, in which the tracheobronchial airways are considered in three serial segments, is presented to obtain insights into the mechanisms underlying expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in mechanically ventilated patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and normal conditions were simulated and EFL was detected by application ...
Woodson B Tucker - - 2003
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea and snoring, airway obstruction during sleep is not limited to inspiration but may also occur with expiration. The aim of this study was to assess the segmental mechanics of expiratory obstruction. DESIGN: Experimental study of a convenience sample of 20 patients with snoring ...
Natalini Giuseppe - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of airway seal and sore throat with the LMA-ProSeal (PLMA) and the standard Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) during laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, randomized, nonblinded clinical study. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 60 adult, ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery ...
Patroniti Nicolò - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess selected physiological effects of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure delivered by head helmet (CPAPH), a special interface device designed to completely contain the head of the patient, compared to face mask (CPAPM). DESIGN: Randomized physiological study. SETTING: University research laboratory. PATIENTS: Eight healthy volunteers. INTERVENTION: Continuous positive ...
Craven Rachael M - - 2003
PURPOSE: To study the feasibility of using the Pro-Seal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance during bronchoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy. METHODS: Observational study of 23 patients in an 11-bed general intensive care unit. The patient's tracheal tube was exchanged for a Pro-Seal LMA before undertaking percutaneous tracheostomy. RESULTS: Inspiratory ...
Suzina A H - - 2003
The differences in facial anatomical structures of the major ethnic groups, may also be reflected in nasal resistance. Active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR) is the recommended technique for the objective assessment of nasal airway resistance (NAR). This study comprised of 85 adult Malay subjects. All the subjects had to undergo a ...
Farré Ramon - - 2003
Increased upper airway collapsibility in the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is usually interpreted by a collapsible resistor model characterized by a critical pressure (Pcrit) and an upstream resistance (Rup). To investigate the role played by the upstream segment of the upper airway, we tested the hypothesis that breathing different gases ...
Farré Ramon - - 2003
Animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology of the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Nevertheless, in none of the models described to date have the animals been subjected to the different patterns of upper airway obstructive events (apneas, hypopneas, and inspiratory flow limitation) characterizing SAHS. Our aim was ...
Kinhult J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with strong vaso- and bronchodilator capacity. There is recent evidence that PACAP decreases the release of proinflammatory cytokines and we have previously shown that PACAP inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, but little is known about the effects of PACAP in human ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2003
Transmural pressure at any level in the upper airway is dependent on the difference between intraluminal airway and extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP). We hypothesized that ETP would be influenced by topography, head and neck position, resistive loading, and stimulated breathing. Twenty-eight male, New Zealand White, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits breathed ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This bench and human study compared large and small helmets with face mask (FM) for delivery of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: A lung simulator was employed, and the human study involved six healthy subjects. We evaluated a continuous high-flow (CPAPHF), low flow (CPAPLF), ventilator (CPAPVENT) CPAP, and pressure ...
Fournell Artur - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Adequate oxygenation of the gastrointestinal mucosa to preserve its barrier function is a basic objective in the prevention of multiple organ failure. Sustaining a positive airway pressure during the entire respiratory cycle remains a cornerstone in the therapeutic regimen to improve systemic oxygenation. Whereas increased systemic oxygenation during breathing ...
Roux Francoise J - - 2003
Automatic positive airway pressure devices are the most technologically advanced positive airway pressure devices available for use in OSA. Although heterogeneous, they have in common the ability to detect and respond to changes in upper airway resistance. Data cannot necessarily be extrapolated from one device to another, and the field ...
Scala R - - 2003
Sleep disordered breathing is common in patients with cerebrovascular disease, and could exacerbate the cerebral damage in acute stroke. Data about the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) upon cerebral perfusion are conflicting. We investigated whether increasing levels of CPAP may affect cerebral haemodynamics, assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ...
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