Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1981
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Cebral Juan R - - 2004
Virtual bronchoscopy reconstructions of the airway noninvasively provide useful morphologic information of structural abnormalities such as stenoses and masses. In this paper, we show how virtual bronchoscopy can be used to perform aerodynamic calculations in anatomically realistic models. Pressure and flow patterns in a human airway were computed noninvasively. These ...
Cao M M - - 2004
Recent studies have indicated that despite stringent sterilization processes, the reusable silicone laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has the potential for disease transmission through residual biological debris. As a result, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) disposable LMA has been introduced. This randomized trial involved 138 spontaneously ventilating adult patients who underwent elective ...
Hermida Ramón C - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Previous reports on the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on blood pressure has shown contradictory results. Accordingly, we have investigated the effects of CPAP on blood pressure and on the potential reversal of the diagnosis of hypertension in patients with OSA ...
Hoffmann M - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing and frequently coexists with obesity. Almost 15 million Americans are affected by this disorder. This prevalence is likely increasing, given the current epidemic of obesity. Recent data confirm an association between sleep apnea and several cardiovascular disease conditions, ...
Stammnitz A - - 2004
Autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices automatically adjust the pressure according to upper airway obstructions. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effects of different automatic CPAP devices (AutoSet, Horizon and Virtuoso) with conventional CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea independently of financial manufacturer support. ...
Malek F - - 2004
Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway ...
Mohan Kamlesh - - 2004
A 70-year-old lady was admitted to hospital through the casualty department with suspected bilateral community acquired pneumonia. Although she received intravenous antibiotics, high concentrations of supplemental inhaled oxygen and continuous positive airway pressure therapy there was failure to respond. Abnormal levels of peripheral blood neutrophil and eosinophil counts as well ...
Hamilton G S - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) leads to both acute and chronic physiological effects on the cardiovascular system. There is now a large amount of evidence showing that OSA is independently associated with a wide spectrum of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for a causative effect of OSA is strongest for hypertension, ...
Noseda André - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been reported to have no more efficacy than constant CPAP in unselected patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The aim of this study was to evaluate patients judged to be good candidates for auto-CPAP because of a high within-night variability in ...
Akça Ozan - - 2004
The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to ...
Tong J L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular responses following the insertion of oropharyngeal airways in anaesthetized patients have been found to be of little consequence. However, those following the insertion of nasopharyngeal airways have not been studied. The aim of this investigation was to compare the cardiovascular responses to the insertion of oropharyngeal and ...
Matheson Melissa - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of corticosteroids on the increase in airway microvascular permeability (MVP) and airway resistance induced by N-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine in the rabbit. METHODOLOGY: After pretreatment with methylprednisolone (for 1 day or 1 week) rabbits were nebulized with N-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine and MVP ...
Zhang Xi-long - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has been proven to be effective in improving the symptoms of coexisting coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). However, it is still unclear whether such improvements are linked to changes in vascular endothelial function. This research ...
Bloch Konrad E - - 2004
In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the variability of conductance over the course of inspiration reflects flow limitation. Pressure/flow conditions in the upper airway were modelled by a collapsible tube within a rigid chamber and a pump simulating respiration. Instantaneous conductance was estimated every 20 ms ...
Gulati M - - 2004
This study of sixty ASA grade 1 or 2 children, aged 1 to 12 years, undergoing elective ophthalmic procedures, compared the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with that of an endotracheal tube. Changes in intraocular pressure and haemodynamic parameters, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were measured Patients were ...
Milner Anthony D - - 2004
Up to 50% of apnoeic episodes are obstructive or mixed apnoeas in which, by definition, there is upper airway obstruction. The other 50% of apnoeas are central in origin, but in 40% of these there is evidence of upper airway obstruction, which also occurs in periodic breathing. The obstruction occurs ...
Mansour Khaled F - - 2004
We have shown that a polynomial equation, FP = AP3 + BP2 + CP + D, where F is flow and P is pressure, can accurately determine the presence of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL). This equation requires the invasive measurement of supraglottic pressure. We hypothesized that a modification of the ...
Tokuda Y - - 2004
A 2-year-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Topical cooling of the heart with ice slush was used during the operation. Diaphragmatic paralysis occurred after the operation, inducing severe respiratory distress. To avoid repeated intubation and tracheostomy, the patient was placed on nasal mask bilevel positive airway pressure ...
Hsu Pon Poh - - 2004
AIM: To identify the clinical predictors and assist surgeons in their clinical management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective study with a new approach to analyze the static and dynamic upper airway morphology between patients with OSA and normal subjects. METHOD: Quantitative computer-assisted videoendoscopy (validated with upper airway magnetic ...
Sharabi Yehonatan - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High blood pressure and obstructive sleep apnea are closely related, and the latter is considered to induce hypertension. The primary underlying mechanism is sympathetic activation triggered by apneic episodes. This type of hypertension is difficult to treat. The purpose of this review is (1) to evaluate the ...
Tsai Willis H - - 2004
Anterior mandibular positioners (AMPs) have become increasingly popular as alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. However, widespread acceptance of AMP is limited by an efficacy rate of 50-80% and an inability to predict which patients will respond to therapy. We evaluated 23 patients ...
Patil Susheel P - - 2004
Upper airway critical pressure measurements correlate with the degree of upper airway obstruction during sleep and may have a role in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Nevertheless, the utility of the critical pressure has not yet been realized in the clinical setting because significant technical expertise is ...
Thurnheer Robert - - 2004
Nasal obstruction is common and may disturb well-being during daytime and sleep. Its objective assessment by standard methods requires patient cooperation and inconvenient instrumentation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a novel, unobtrusive technique for continuous monitoring of changes in nasal conductance during natural breathing based on ...
Rich James M - - 2004
Emergency and unexpected difficult airway management can rapidly deteriorate into a critical airway event (e.g., inadequate mask ventilation, failed tracheal intubation, or cannot ventilate-cannot intubate). Recommended options to resolve a critical airway event include the laryngeal mask airway, the esophageal tracheal Combitube (ETC; Tyco-Healthcare-Nellcor, Pleasanton, Calif), transtracheal jet ventilation, or ...
Morley Colin - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous positive airway pressure is increasingly being used in the care of premature infants. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current controversies in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: This review explores information about the devices available for delivering continuous ...
Ayas Najib T - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) versus conventional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), reducing the mean airway pressure, improving subjective sleepiness, and improving treatment adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Meta-analysis and metaregression of ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2004
A collapsible tube surrounded by soft material within a rigid box was proposed as a two-dimensional mechanical model for the pharyngeal airway. This model predicts that changes in the box size (pharyngeal bony enclosure size anatomically defined as cross-sectional area bounded by the inside edge of bony structures such as ...
Mazan Melissa R - - 2004
This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1). have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2). suffer body mass depletion, and 3). have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4). whether increased work of breathing ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2004
Airway compliance is a key factor in understanding lung mechanics and is used as a clinical diagnostic index. Understanding such mechanics in small airways physiologically and clinically is critical. We have determined the "morphometric change" and "localized compliance" of small airways under "near"-physiological conditions; namely, the airways were embedded in ...
Stradling J R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with OSA on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have considerable night-to-night variation in their pressure requirements, suggesting that a one-night titration might not be very precise. This study investigates the likely error incurred using a one-night titration, and explores whether an algorithm-based approach to determine the pressure ...
Sekita Yasuko - - 2004
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The authors have shown previously that the vocal cord adductor is activated during inspiration in patients with vocal cord abduction impairment and that this adductor inspiratory activity is abolished by relief from inspiratory tracheal negative pressure by opening the tracheostoma. (Shiba K. Isono S, Sekita Y, Tanaka A. Inspiratory ...
Nácul Flávio E - - 2004
A 58-year-old woman was brought to our emergency department with massive nasal bleeding and hemodynamic instability. The patient had been on clopidogrel treatment (75 mg/day) for 2 years, which was started after an episode of transitory ischemic attack. Blood pressure normalized following the administration of intravenous fluids, and the bleeding ...
Groeben Harald - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation can elicit reflex bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, complicating mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical support. In vitro studies of human and animal bronchial tissue indicate that alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation can lead to smooth muscle relaxation and prevention of bronchoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a ...
Heitmann J - - 2004
There is increasing evidence that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) lowers blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, not only during sleep but also in the daytime. However, both the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction and the considerable differences in the magnitude of the effect in the studies ...
Ehtezazi Touraj - - 2004
Although it is likely that the upper airway is a major factor in the large inter- and intra-subject variation in deposition of inhaled drug aerosols in the lung, data on the configuration of the upper airway during inhalation is sparse. We have developed a unique method, using magnetic resonance imaging, ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tolerance, compliance and problems associated with usage of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). PATIENTS AND METHOD: Twelve pregnant women diagnosed with SDB received polysomnography (PSG) at entry, CPAP titration, repeat PSG at 6 months gestation (GA) and ...
Pao C S - - 2004
Airway resistance using the interrupter technique (Rint) can be measured using commercial devices which employ different algorithms for estimating pressure change. We aim to describe differences in Rint due to algorithm. We compared Rint and change in Rint after bronchodilator, using four algorithms to estimate pressure change following interruption: 1) ...
Wolk Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hypertension. The vasorelaxing peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) may counteract effects of OSA-induced release of vasopressor substances. METHODS: Plasma ADM levels were measured at 9:30 PM, 2:00 AM (after 4 to 5 h of untreated OSA), and 6:00 AM (after 4 h of continuous ...
Sundaram P - - 2004
Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) occasionally may progress to extensive tracheomalacia which leads to respiratory failure. Spirometry, dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy are used to diagnose patients of suspected tracheobronchomalacia. We used the technique of night-time monitoring of respiratory variables to show the presence of respiratory abnormalities during sleep and which ...
Yamada Tomio - - 2004
It is often difficult to expeditiously establish an intravenous (IV) route in a medical emergency, and alternatives to an IV route may also be difficult for many dentists to accomplish. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that without the necessity of advanced training, the nasal mucosa route of ...
Rosenblatt William H - - 2003
Insufflation of the stomach with air can be a complication of face mask ventilation in the case of airway obstruction. Although the laryngeal mask airway has proven value in airway resuscitation, it has two major failings: a relatively low seal pressure and lack of access to the alimentary tract. A ...
Mansour Khaled - - 2003
We have previously shown that the pressure-flow relationship of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep can be characterized by a polynomial equation: F(P) = AP(3) + BP(2) + CP + D. On the basis of fluid mechanic principles, we hypothesized that we could objectively calculate upper airway resistance ...
Heshmati Farhad - - 2003
Bronchial asthma represents an increased airways responsiveness to various stimulants, leading to reversible obstruction of expiratory flow and chronic inflammatory changes in airways wall. Ketamine has been demonstrated to lower airway resistance and to increase lung compliance in the asthmatic patients. In several studies and case reports it has been ...
Nishihara Fumio - - 2003
Accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) can disturb systemic hemodynamics and increase the seizure threshold in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the laryngeal mask on blood gas, hemodynamics, and seizure duration during ECT under propofol anesthesia. Ventilation was assisted using ...
Noble P B - - 2004
A period of deep inspiration in humans has been shown to attenuate subsequent bronchoconstriction, a phenomenon termed bronchoprotection. The bronchoprotective effect of deep inspiration may be caused though a depression in the force production of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We determined the response of whole airway segments and isolated ASM ...
Mansfield Darren R - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to progression of cardiac dysfunction via hypoxia, elevated sympathetic nervous system activity, and systemic hypertension. Our aim was to assess the long-term effect of OSA treatment with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review of recent literature pertains to the growing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea contributes to the development of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: There is irrefutable evidence that OSA causes systemic hypertension and that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA causes ...
Tun Ye - - 2003
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly associated with systemic hypertension and now recognized as an independent risk factor for daytime hypertension. We aimed to study the short- and long-term effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypertensive and normotensive patients with OSA. Forty-six patients with moderated to severe ...
Cook T M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube (LT) performs similarly to the classic laryngeal mask airway during controlled ventilation but with an improved airway seal. We compared the laryngeal tube with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) throughout anaesthesia. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were studied using a randomized cross-over design. The primary outcome measure ...
Van Zundert André A J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The laryngeal mask airway LMA-Classic has been used widely in clinical practice. A new disposable supraglottic airway device, the Soft Seal LM, has been introduced recently. In a randomized study, the authors compared the LMA-Classic and the disposable Soft Seal LM in terms of their clinical performance, cuff pressures ...
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