Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1918
< 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 >
Zhang Xi-long - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has been proven to be effective in improving the symptoms of coexisting coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). However, it is still unclear whether such improvements are linked to changes in vascular endothelial function. This research ...
Bloch Konrad E - - 2004
In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the variability of conductance over the course of inspiration reflects flow limitation. Pressure/flow conditions in the upper airway were modelled by a collapsible tube within a rigid chamber and a pump simulating respiration. Instantaneous conductance was estimated every 20 ms ...
Gulati M - - 2004
This study of sixty ASA grade 1 or 2 children, aged 1 to 12 years, undergoing elective ophthalmic procedures, compared the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with that of an endotracheal tube. Changes in intraocular pressure and haemodynamic parameters, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were measured Patients were ...
Milner Anthony D - - 2004
Up to 50% of apnoeic episodes are obstructive or mixed apnoeas in which, by definition, there is upper airway obstruction. The other 50% of apnoeas are central in origin, but in 40% of these there is evidence of upper airway obstruction, which also occurs in periodic breathing. The obstruction occurs ...
Mansour Khaled F - - 2004
We have shown that a polynomial equation, FP = AP3 + BP2 + CP + D, where F is flow and P is pressure, can accurately determine the presence of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL). This equation requires the invasive measurement of supraglottic pressure. We hypothesized that a modification of the ...
Tokuda Y - - 2004
A 2-year-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Topical cooling of the heart with ice slush was used during the operation. Diaphragmatic paralysis occurred after the operation, inducing severe respiratory distress. To avoid repeated intubation and tracheostomy, the patient was placed on nasal mask bilevel positive airway pressure ...
Hsu Pon Poh - - 2004
AIM: To identify the clinical predictors and assist surgeons in their clinical management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective study with a new approach to analyze the static and dynamic upper airway morphology between patients with OSA and normal subjects. METHOD: Quantitative computer-assisted videoendoscopy (validated with upper airway magnetic ...
Sharabi Yehonatan - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High blood pressure and obstructive sleep apnea are closely related, and the latter is considered to induce hypertension. The primary underlying mechanism is sympathetic activation triggered by apneic episodes. This type of hypertension is difficult to treat. The purpose of this review is (1) to evaluate the ...
Tsai Willis H - - 2004
Anterior mandibular positioners (AMPs) have become increasingly popular as alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. However, widespread acceptance of AMP is limited by an efficacy rate of 50-80% and an inability to predict which patients will respond to therapy. We evaluated 23 patients ...
Patil Susheel P - - 2004
Upper airway critical pressure measurements correlate with the degree of upper airway obstruction during sleep and may have a role in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Nevertheless, the utility of the critical pressure has not yet been realized in the clinical setting because significant technical expertise is ...
Thurnheer Robert - - 2004
Nasal obstruction is common and may disturb well-being during daytime and sleep. Its objective assessment by standard methods requires patient cooperation and inconvenient instrumentation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a novel, unobtrusive technique for continuous monitoring of changes in nasal conductance during natural breathing based on ...
Rich James M - - 2004
Emergency and unexpected difficult airway management can rapidly deteriorate into a critical airway event (e.g., inadequate mask ventilation, failed tracheal intubation, or cannot ventilate-cannot intubate). Recommended options to resolve a critical airway event include the laryngeal mask airway, the esophageal tracheal Combitube (ETC; Tyco-Healthcare-Nellcor, Pleasanton, Calif), transtracheal jet ventilation, or ...
Morley Colin - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous positive airway pressure is increasingly being used in the care of premature infants. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current controversies in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: This review explores information about the devices available for delivering continuous ...
Ayas Najib T - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) versus conventional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), reducing the mean airway pressure, improving subjective sleepiness, and improving treatment adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Meta-analysis and metaregression of ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2004
A collapsible tube surrounded by soft material within a rigid box was proposed as a two-dimensional mechanical model for the pharyngeal airway. This model predicts that changes in the box size (pharyngeal bony enclosure size anatomically defined as cross-sectional area bounded by the inside edge of bony structures such as ...
Mazan Melissa R - - 2004
This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1). have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2). suffer body mass depletion, and 3). have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4). whether increased work of breathing ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2004
Airway compliance is a key factor in understanding lung mechanics and is used as a clinical diagnostic index. Understanding such mechanics in small airways physiologically and clinically is critical. We have determined the "morphometric change" and "localized compliance" of small airways under "near"-physiological conditions; namely, the airways were embedded in ...
Stradling J R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with OSA on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have considerable night-to-night variation in their pressure requirements, suggesting that a one-night titration might not be very precise. This study investigates the likely error incurred using a one-night titration, and explores whether an algorithm-based approach to determine the pressure ...
Sekita Yasuko - - 2004
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The authors have shown previously that the vocal cord adductor is activated during inspiration in patients with vocal cord abduction impairment and that this adductor inspiratory activity is abolished by relief from inspiratory tracheal negative pressure by opening the tracheostoma. (Shiba K. Isono S, Sekita Y, Tanaka A. Inspiratory ...
Nácul Flávio E - - 2004
A 58-year-old woman was brought to our emergency department with massive nasal bleeding and hemodynamic instability. The patient had been on clopidogrel treatment (75 mg/day) for 2 years, which was started after an episode of transitory ischemic attack. Blood pressure normalized following the administration of intravenous fluids, and the bleeding ...
Groeben Harald - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation can elicit reflex bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, complicating mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical support. In vitro studies of human and animal bronchial tissue indicate that alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation can lead to smooth muscle relaxation and prevention of bronchoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a ...
Heitmann J - - 2004
There is increasing evidence that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) lowers blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, not only during sleep but also in the daytime. However, both the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction and the considerable differences in the magnitude of the effect in the studies ...
Ehtezazi Touraj - - 2004
Although it is likely that the upper airway is a major factor in the large inter- and intra-subject variation in deposition of inhaled drug aerosols in the lung, data on the configuration of the upper airway during inhalation is sparse. We have developed a unique method, using magnetic resonance imaging, ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tolerance, compliance and problems associated with usage of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). PATIENTS AND METHOD: Twelve pregnant women diagnosed with SDB received polysomnography (PSG) at entry, CPAP titration, repeat PSG at 6 months gestation (GA) and ...
Pao C S - - 2004
Airway resistance using the interrupter technique (Rint) can be measured using commercial devices which employ different algorithms for estimating pressure change. We aim to describe differences in Rint due to algorithm. We compared Rint and change in Rint after bronchodilator, using four algorithms to estimate pressure change following interruption: 1) ...
Wolk Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hypertension. The vasorelaxing peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) may counteract effects of OSA-induced release of vasopressor substances. METHODS: Plasma ADM levels were measured at 9:30 PM, 2:00 AM (after 4 to 5 h of untreated OSA), and 6:00 AM (after 4 h of continuous ...
Sundaram P - - 2004
Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) occasionally may progress to extensive tracheomalacia which leads to respiratory failure. Spirometry, dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy are used to diagnose patients of suspected tracheobronchomalacia. We used the technique of night-time monitoring of respiratory variables to show the presence of respiratory abnormalities during sleep and which ...
Yamada Tomio - - 2004
It is often difficult to expeditiously establish an intravenous (IV) route in a medical emergency, and alternatives to an IV route may also be difficult for many dentists to accomplish. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that without the necessity of advanced training, the nasal mucosa route of ...
Rosenblatt William H - - 2003
Insufflation of the stomach with air can be a complication of face mask ventilation in the case of airway obstruction. Although the laryngeal mask airway has proven value in airway resuscitation, it has two major failings: a relatively low seal pressure and lack of access to the alimentary tract. A ...
Mansour Khaled - - 2003
We have previously shown that the pressure-flow relationship of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep can be characterized by a polynomial equation: F(P) = AP(3) + BP(2) + CP + D. On the basis of fluid mechanic principles, we hypothesized that we could objectively calculate upper airway resistance ...
Heshmati Farhad - - 2003
Bronchial asthma represents an increased airways responsiveness to various stimulants, leading to reversible obstruction of expiratory flow and chronic inflammatory changes in airways wall. Ketamine has been demonstrated to lower airway resistance and to increase lung compliance in the asthmatic patients. In several studies and case reports it has been ...
Nishihara Fumio - - 2003
Accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) can disturb systemic hemodynamics and increase the seizure threshold in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the laryngeal mask on blood gas, hemodynamics, and seizure duration during ECT under propofol anesthesia. Ventilation was assisted using ...
Noble P B - - 2004
A period of deep inspiration in humans has been shown to attenuate subsequent bronchoconstriction, a phenomenon termed bronchoprotection. The bronchoprotective effect of deep inspiration may be caused though a depression in the force production of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We determined the response of whole airway segments and isolated ASM ...
Mansfield Darren R - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to progression of cardiac dysfunction via hypoxia, elevated sympathetic nervous system activity, and systemic hypertension. Our aim was to assess the long-term effect of OSA treatment with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ...
Naughton Matthew T - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review of recent literature pertains to the growing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea contributes to the development of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: There is irrefutable evidence that OSA causes systemic hypertension and that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA causes ...
Tun Ye - - 2003
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly associated with systemic hypertension and now recognized as an independent risk factor for daytime hypertension. We aimed to study the short- and long-term effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypertensive and normotensive patients with OSA. Forty-six patients with moderated to severe ...
Cook T M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube (LT) performs similarly to the classic laryngeal mask airway during controlled ventilation but with an improved airway seal. We compared the laryngeal tube with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) throughout anaesthesia. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were studied using a randomized cross-over design. The primary outcome measure ...
Van Zundert André A J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The laryngeal mask airway LMA-Classic has been used widely in clinical practice. A new disposable supraglottic airway device, the Soft Seal LM, has been introduced recently. In a randomized study, the authors compared the LMA-Classic and the disposable Soft Seal LM in terms of their clinical performance, cuff pressures ...
Oliven Arie - - 2003
Contraction of the genioglossus (GG) has been shown to improve upper airway patency. In the present study, we evaluated responses in upper airway pressure-flow relationships during sleep to electrical stimulation (ES) of the GG in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Five patients with chronically implanted hypoglossal nerve (HG) electrodes and ...
Senn Oliver - - 2003
We evaluated the efficacy of two different continuous positive airway pressure devices with automatic mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in comparison with fixed CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 29 patients. The mean (+/- SE) apnea-hypopnea index was 46 +/- 4 per hour and the Epworth score was 14.2 ...
Rodway George W - - 2003
Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the most commonly used medical modality to reverse the apneas, hypopneas and inspiratory flow-limited breaths which result in the oxyhemoglobin desaturation, altered sleep architecture, and daytime sleepiness representing the cardinal features of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H). Identifying optimal strategies to develop the initial positive ...
Lundstrøm K E - - 2003
The use of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as prophylaxis and treatment for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates, with or without prophylactic surfactant, is becoming increasingly popular. However, the justification for this is limited to comparisons between centres and comparisons of historical controls. Randomized trials and appropriate ...
Clement Peter - - 2003
The authors compared nasal resistance and pressures generated during breathing and nose blowing in patients with chronic sinusitis, septal deviations and a control group consisting of normal test subjects. The chronic sinusitis group generated pressures during nose blowing that were significantly higher (898 daPa for the left side and 913 ...
El-Kabir Desiree R - - 2003
In untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) inspiratory efforts are made against an occluded airway and diaphragm fatigue might therefore complicate OSAS. To test this hypothesis we measured twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Tw Pdi) in response to bilateral cervical magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve roots in nine patients with OSAS ...
Moritz Fabienne - - 2003
This study aimed to assess the short-term respiratory effects of a new portable device that delivers a continuous positive airway pressure via a face mask (Boussignac-CPAP) in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and the feasibility of using this technique in an emergency department. We prospectively studied 30 consecutive ...
Schönhofer Bernd - - 2003
Nasal problems are frequent at high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We hypothesized that a reduction of the nasal resistance reduces CPAP and investigated the effect of a nasal valve dilator (Nozovent) on CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In a randomized cross-over design Nozovent was inserted in 38 ...
Baran Alp Sinan - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The following hypotheses were investigated: 1) severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can mask concurrent periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder (PLMD), which becomes evident or worsens after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); 2) in patients with mild OSA, PLMs are not masked but may be triggered by ...
Barbini Paolo - - 2003
A nonlinear model of breathing mechanics, in which the tracheobronchial airways are considered in three serial segments, is presented to obtain insights into the mechanisms underlying expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in mechanically ventilated patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and normal conditions were simulated and EFL was detected by application ...
Woodson B Tucker - - 2003
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea and snoring, airway obstruction during sleep is not limited to inspiration but may also occur with expiration. The aim of this study was to assess the segmental mechanics of expiratory obstruction. DESIGN: Experimental study of a convenience sample of 20 patients with snoring ...
Natalini Giuseppe - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of airway seal and sore throat with the LMA-ProSeal (PLMA) and the standard Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) during laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, randomized, nonblinded clinical study. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 60 adult, ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery ...
< 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 >