Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1919
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Kohler Malcolm - - 2005
Nasal obstruction disturbs comfort during daytime, and sleep quality. Convenient objective assessment of nasal ventilation would be desirable. Therefore, we developed a technique for unobtrusive monitoring of bilateral nasal airflow. Nasal cannulae with separated left- and right-sided tubings were connected to two pressure transducers. Calibration tables were obtained by recording ...
von Goedecke A - - 2005
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) improve gas exchange in adults, but there are little published data regarding children. We compared the efficacy of PSV with CPAP in anesthetized children managed with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. Patients were randomized into two equal-sized crossover groups and ...
Roth H - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) and Laryngeal Tube Suction (LTS), supraglottic airway devices allowing gastric drainage, were compared in this prospective, randomized study for airway management under conditions with elevated intra-abdominal pressure induced by capnoperitoneum. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing elective gynaecological laparoscopic surgery were randomized to two ...
Komatsu R - - 2005
We compared the placement of the laryngeal tube (LT) with the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) in 51 patients whose necks were stabilised by manual in-line traction. Following induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, the LT and ILMA were inserted consecutively in a randomised, crossover design. Using pressure-controlled ventilation (20 ...
Tamisier R - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although upper airway collapsibility (UAC) is theoretically useful to anticipate severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), inspiratory UAC measurements are poorly correlated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated in 15 healthy and 35 SDB awake subjects whether negative expiratory pressure (NEP) could be ...
Zhong Xu - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have complicated with hypertension and may be prescribed with antihypertension medications to control their blood pressure. But whether antihypertension medications can also decrease arterial stiffness or control the blood pressure increasing following obstructive events is not well described. This study aimed ...
Visaria Rachana K - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: A five-element lumped pulmonary model was developed to estimate respiratory mechanics automatically and noninvasively. The model was applied to diagnose obstructed endotracheal tube. Events like bronchospasm and stiff chest wall were also tested to determine the specificity of the diagnosis. Cases with positive end-expiratory pressure were also included in ...
Johnson Pamela L - - 2005
To examine the utility of four methods used to detect increased upper airway resistance leading to arousal from sleep. Ten overnight sleep studies were conducted on normal subjects who reported increased snoring and/or witnessed apneas following alcohol ingestion. Alcohol was used to increase upper airway resistance in these normal subjects ...
De Paoli A G - - 2005
Pharyngeal pressures in 11 preterm infants, receiving binasal Hudson prong continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) pressurised by bubbling bottles, were measured. The mean (95% confidence interval) pressure drop from the prongs to the pharynx was 3.2 (2.6 to 3.7) cm H(2)O with mouths open and 2.2 (1.6 to 2.8) cm ...
McRobbie Donald W - - 2005
The anatomical geometry of the upper airways of five healthy volunteers were studied using three-dimensional inhalation-gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for two dummy inhalation devices of varying airflow resistances (0.049(0.5) and 0.004(0.5) kPa(0.5)(L/min)(1)) using a forced maneuver (sharp inhalation) and tidal breathing. The range of maximum inspiratory pressures (MIP) was ...
Gordon P - - 2005
The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating symptoms associated with OSAHS is reviewed. Although it is an imperfect intervention, it continues to evolve and improve in such a way that patients who would not have been able to use this treatment even in the recent past can ...
Sériès F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The forces developed during inspiration play a key role in determining upper airway stability and the occurrence of nocturnal breathing disorders. Phrenic nerve stimulation applied during wakefulness is a unique tool to assess Upper airway dynamic properties and to measure the overall mechanical effects of the inspiratory process on ...
Sánchez A - - 2005
Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD), exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), and upper airway obstruction (UAO) are common respiratory tract diseases that can decrease performance. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology and arterial blood gas analysis during a treadmill test by poorly performing racehorses presented to ...
Talbert D G - - 2005
It is widely assumed that subdural and retinal haemorrhage in infants can only result from traumatic rupture of vulnerable blood vessels. An alternative aetiology, that of vascular rupture resulting from excessive intraluminal pressure, is presented in three disease conditions. (1) Perlman et al., studying premature neonates requiring mechanical ventilation for ...
Arnold Donald H - - 2005
Validated measures to assess the severity of airway obstruction in patients with obstructive airway disease are limited. Changes in the pulse oximeter plethysmograph waveform represent fluctuations in arterial flow. Analysis of these fluctuations might be useful clinically if they represent physiologic perturbations resulting from airway obstruction. We tested the hypothesis ...
Jo J J Departments of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, - - 2005
Using a Volterra-Wiener model and the Laguerre expansion technique, we estimated in a previous study the parameters that characterize linear and the second order effects of respiration ("RSA") and arterial blood pressure ("ABR") on heart rate. RSA and ABR gains were significantly lower in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients than ...
Hukins Craig - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare compliance and treatment response between continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP) and to develop selection criteria for the use of APAP. DESIGN: Randomized, single-blinded, parallel crossover study. SETTING: Tertiary referral sleep disorders center. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome ...
Goldmann K - - 2005
BACKGROUND: One of the main concerns with the use of the standard laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) in small infants is that its low-pressure seal might be inadequate for positive pressure ventilation so that there is a risk of gas leakage into the stomach with the subsequent risk of regurgitation. The ...
Park Marcelo - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP) on the rate of endotracheal intubation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary hospital emergency room. PATIENTS: We randomly assigned 80 patients with severe cardiogenic acute ...
Hukins Craig A - - 2005
Current resources are inadequate to meet the demand for polysomnography, resulting in long waiting lists. This study aimed to evaluate the role of arbitrary-pressure continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a method to reduce delays in commencing treatment. The study was of an open, randomized, parallel design. Ninety-one subjects with ...
Bruce I A - - 2004
The laryngeal mask airway is a widely used, non-invasive, general purpose airway. We report the case of a temporary vocal cord palsy following the use of such an airway. The development of inappropriately high cuff pressures secondary to nitrous oxide diffusion into the cuff is proposed as the most likely ...
Brimacombe Joseph - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that ease of insertion, oropharyngeal leak pressure, fiberoptic position, ease of ventilation, and mucosal trauma are different for the Soft Seal laryngeal mask airway (SSLM) and the laryngeal mask airway Unique (LMA-U). Ninety paralyzed, anesthetized adult patients (ASA I-II; 18-80 yr old) were studied. Both devices ...
d'Ortho M-P - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as the first line of therapy. The current standard is for an attendant technician to titrate CPAP by means of an in-laboratory polysomnography to obtain a fixed single pressure. Over the past decade and ...
Blankfield Robert P - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous research has identified an association between idiopathic edema and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in women, but a causal relationship between OSA and edema has not been established. This study was undertaken to determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) lessens edema in patients with idiopathic ...
von Goedecke Achim - - 2004
Reducing inspiratory flow rate and peak airway pressure may be important in order to minimise the risk of stomach inflation when ventilating an unprotected airway with positive pressure ventilation. This study was designed to yield enough power to determine whether employing an inspiratory gas flow limiting bag-valve device (SMART BAG, ...
Pasquina Patrick - - 2004
Atelectasis is common after cardiac surgery and may result in impaired gas exchange. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often used to prevent or treat postoperative atelectasis. We hypothesized that noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) by increasing tidal volume could improve the evolution of atelectasis more than CPAP. One-hundred-fifty patients ...
Lei Yu-Chen - - 2004
Epidemiological studies have associated particulate air pollution with exacerbation of lung function in human populations. However, the relationship between ambient particles and lung function in animal studies has been inconsistent. In order to investigate the effects of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on airway responsiveness, we exposed pulmonary hypertensive rats to ...
Chmielewski Carrie - - 2004
The purpose of this article is to discuss the benefits, safety, and efficacy of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and identify the risks and misconceptions associated with LMAs when used with positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Despite the abundance of supporting evidence that LMAs may be used successfully in a variety ...
Volpicelli Giovanni - - 2004
Unilateral re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare threatening complication of the treatment of lung atelectasis, pleural effusion or pneumothorax, the pathogenesis of which is not completely known. The clinical picture varies considerably from asymptomatic radiological findings to dramatic respiratory failure with circulatory shock. There are few literature reports of the ...
Costantino M L - - 2004
Knowledge of immature tracheae mechanical behavior is fundamental in understanding the effects exerted on the upper airways by tidal liquid ventilation (TLV). Particularly, negative pressure can take place along the airways during expiration, which can cause airway collapse and flow limitation; therefore, representing a critical issue in preterm infant patients, ...
Frawley P Milo - - 2004
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) facilitates oxygenation and ventilation by maintaining an elevated baseline airway pressure similar to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). APRV differs from CPAP only by the addition of regular, brief release of airway pressure to facilitate carbon dioxide removal. The baseline pressure maintains a near continuous ...
Ogawa Aiko - - 2004
A 57-year-old man was admitted with dyspnea. Clinical evaluation revealed atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure (CHF). Standard medical therapy of CHF failed to completely improve the dyspnea and polysomnography revealed Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA). He was equipped with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) with bilevel positive ...
Sancho Jesús - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To correlate the air flows generated by mechanical insufflation-exsufflation as a function of pressure delivery in a lung model at two pulmonary compliance and three airway resistance settings. DESIGN: With each combination of pulmonary compliances of 25 and 50 ml/cm H2O and airway resistances of 6, 11, and 17 ...
Guardiola Juan - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to see if blood oxygen levels deteriorate overnight during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Before and after sleep, arterial blood gases (ABGs) in OSA subjects and controls were drawn during a diagnostic night, as well as during a continuous positive airway pressure ...
Ayuse T - - 2004
Sedative doses of anesthetic agents affect upper-airway function. Oral-maxillofacial surgery is frequently performed on sedated patients whose mouths must be as open as possible if the procedures are to be accomplished successfully. We examined upper-airway pressure-flow relationships in closed mouths, mouths opened moderately, and mouths opened maximally to test the ...
Fodil Redouane - - 2005
We have developed a discrete multisegmental model describing the coupling between inspiratory flow and nasal wall distensibility. This model is composed of 14 individualized compliant elements, each with its own relationship between cross-sectional area and transmural pressure. Conceptually, this model is based on flow limitation induced by the narrowing of ...
Shimbori H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The LMA-ProSeal is a new laryngeal mask airway with a rear cuff and drainage tube that allows a higher seal pressure than the LMA-Classic for the same intra-cuff pressure, and it permits drainage of gastric secretions and access to the alimentary tract. The LMA-ProSeal can be used in children ...
Gotsopoulos Helen - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term effect (4 weeks) of oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Multidisciplinary sleep disorders clinic in a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography (apnea hypopnea index > or ...
Kihara Shinichi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The authors compared the manufacturer's weight-based formula (size 3 for weight < 50 kg, size 4 for weight 50-70 kg, and size 5 for weight > 70 kg) with a sex-based formula (size 4 for women and size 5 for men) for selecting the appropriate size of ProSeal laryngeal ...
Cebral Juan R - - 2004
Virtual bronchoscopy reconstructions of the airway noninvasively provide useful morphologic information of structural abnormalities such as stenoses and masses. In this paper, we show how virtual bronchoscopy can be used to perform aerodynamic calculations in anatomically realistic models. Pressure and flow patterns in a human airway were computed noninvasively. These ...
Cao M M - - 2004
Recent studies have indicated that despite stringent sterilization processes, the reusable silicone laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has the potential for disease transmission through residual biological debris. As a result, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) disposable LMA has been introduced. This randomized trial involved 138 spontaneously ventilating adult patients who underwent elective ...
Hermida Ramón C - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Previous reports on the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on blood pressure has shown contradictory results. Accordingly, we have investigated the effects of CPAP on blood pressure and on the potential reversal of the diagnosis of hypertension in patients with OSA ...
Hoffmann M - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing and frequently coexists with obesity. Almost 15 million Americans are affected by this disorder. This prevalence is likely increasing, given the current epidemic of obesity. Recent data confirm an association between sleep apnea and several cardiovascular disease conditions, ...
Stammnitz A - - 2004
Autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices automatically adjust the pressure according to upper airway obstructions. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effects of different automatic CPAP devices (AutoSet, Horizon and Virtuoso) with conventional CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea independently of financial manufacturer support. ...
Malek F - - 2004
Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway ...
Mohan Kamlesh - - 2004
A 70-year-old lady was admitted to hospital through the casualty department with suspected bilateral community acquired pneumonia. Although she received intravenous antibiotics, high concentrations of supplemental inhaled oxygen and continuous positive airway pressure therapy there was failure to respond. Abnormal levels of peripheral blood neutrophil and eosinophil counts as well ...
Hamilton G S - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) leads to both acute and chronic physiological effects on the cardiovascular system. There is now a large amount of evidence showing that OSA is independently associated with a wide spectrum of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for a causative effect of OSA is strongest for hypertension, ...
Noseda André - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been reported to have no more efficacy than constant CPAP in unselected patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The aim of this study was to evaluate patients judged to be good candidates for auto-CPAP because of a high within-night variability in ...
Akça Ozan - - 2004
The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to ...
Tong J L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular responses following the insertion of oropharyngeal airways in anaesthetized patients have been found to be of little consequence. However, those following the insertion of nasopharyngeal airways have not been studied. The aim of this investigation was to compare the cardiovascular responses to the insertion of oropharyngeal and ...
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