Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1893
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Lei Yu-Chen - - 2004
Epidemiological studies have associated particulate air pollution with exacerbation of lung function in human populations. However, the relationship between ambient particles and lung function in animal studies has been inconsistent. In order to investigate the effects of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on airway responsiveness, we exposed pulmonary hypertensive rats to ...
Chmielewski Carrie - - 2004
The purpose of this article is to discuss the benefits, safety, and efficacy of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and identify the risks and misconceptions associated with LMAs when used with positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Despite the abundance of supporting evidence that LMAs may be used successfully in a variety ...
Volpicelli Giovanni - - 2004
Unilateral re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare threatening complication of the treatment of lung atelectasis, pleural effusion or pneumothorax, the pathogenesis of which is not completely known. The clinical picture varies considerably from asymptomatic radiological findings to dramatic respiratory failure with circulatory shock. There are few literature reports of the ...
Costantino M L - - 2004
Knowledge of immature tracheae mechanical behavior is fundamental in understanding the effects exerted on the upper airways by tidal liquid ventilation (TLV). Particularly, negative pressure can take place along the airways during expiration, which can cause airway collapse and flow limitation; therefore, representing a critical issue in preterm infant patients, ...
Frawley P Milo - - 2004
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) facilitates oxygenation and ventilation by maintaining an elevated baseline airway pressure similar to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). APRV differs from CPAP only by the addition of regular, brief release of airway pressure to facilitate carbon dioxide removal. The baseline pressure maintains a near continuous ...
Ogawa Aiko - - 2004
A 57-year-old man was admitted with dyspnea. Clinical evaluation revealed atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure (CHF). Standard medical therapy of CHF failed to completely improve the dyspnea and polysomnography revealed Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA). He was equipped with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) with bilevel positive ...
Sancho Jesús - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To correlate the air flows generated by mechanical insufflation-exsufflation as a function of pressure delivery in a lung model at two pulmonary compliance and three airway resistance settings. DESIGN: With each combination of pulmonary compliances of 25 and 50 ml/cm H2O and airway resistances of 6, 11, and 17 ...
Guardiola Juan - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to see if blood oxygen levels deteriorate overnight during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Before and after sleep, arterial blood gases (ABGs) in OSA subjects and controls were drawn during a diagnostic night, as well as during a continuous positive airway pressure ...
Ayuse T - - 2004
Sedative doses of anesthetic agents affect upper-airway function. Oral-maxillofacial surgery is frequently performed on sedated patients whose mouths must be as open as possible if the procedures are to be accomplished successfully. We examined upper-airway pressure-flow relationships in closed mouths, mouths opened moderately, and mouths opened maximally to test the ...
Fodil Redouane - - 2005
We have developed a discrete multisegmental model describing the coupling between inspiratory flow and nasal wall distensibility. This model is composed of 14 individualized compliant elements, each with its own relationship between cross-sectional area and transmural pressure. Conceptually, this model is based on flow limitation induced by the narrowing of ...
Shimbori H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The LMA-ProSeal is a new laryngeal mask airway with a rear cuff and drainage tube that allows a higher seal pressure than the LMA-Classic for the same intra-cuff pressure, and it permits drainage of gastric secretions and access to the alimentary tract. The LMA-ProSeal can be used in children ...
Gotsopoulos Helen - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term effect (4 weeks) of oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Multidisciplinary sleep disorders clinic in a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography (apnea hypopnea index > or ...
Kihara Shinichi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The authors compared the manufacturer's weight-based formula (size 3 for weight < 50 kg, size 4 for weight 50-70 kg, and size 5 for weight > 70 kg) with a sex-based formula (size 4 for women and size 5 for men) for selecting the appropriate size of ProSeal laryngeal ...
Cebral Juan R - - 2004
Virtual bronchoscopy reconstructions of the airway noninvasively provide useful morphologic information of structural abnormalities such as stenoses and masses. In this paper, we show how virtual bronchoscopy can be used to perform aerodynamic calculations in anatomically realistic models. Pressure and flow patterns in a human airway were computed noninvasively. These ...
Cao M M - - 2004
Recent studies have indicated that despite stringent sterilization processes, the reusable silicone laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has the potential for disease transmission through residual biological debris. As a result, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) disposable LMA has been introduced. This randomized trial involved 138 spontaneously ventilating adult patients who underwent elective ...
Hermida Ramón C - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Previous reports on the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on blood pressure has shown contradictory results. Accordingly, we have investigated the effects of CPAP on blood pressure and on the potential reversal of the diagnosis of hypertension in patients with OSA ...
Hoffmann M - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing and frequently coexists with obesity. Almost 15 million Americans are affected by this disorder. This prevalence is likely increasing, given the current epidemic of obesity. Recent data confirm an association between sleep apnea and several cardiovascular disease conditions, ...
Stammnitz A - - 2004
Autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices automatically adjust the pressure according to upper airway obstructions. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effects of different automatic CPAP devices (AutoSet, Horizon and Virtuoso) with conventional CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea independently of financial manufacturer support. ...
Malek F - - 2004
Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway ...
Mohan Kamlesh - - 2004
A 70-year-old lady was admitted to hospital through the casualty department with suspected bilateral community acquired pneumonia. Although she received intravenous antibiotics, high concentrations of supplemental inhaled oxygen and continuous positive airway pressure therapy there was failure to respond. Abnormal levels of peripheral blood neutrophil and eosinophil counts as well ...
Hamilton G S - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) leads to both acute and chronic physiological effects on the cardiovascular system. There is now a large amount of evidence showing that OSA is independently associated with a wide spectrum of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for a causative effect of OSA is strongest for hypertension, ...
Noseda André - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been reported to have no more efficacy than constant CPAP in unselected patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The aim of this study was to evaluate patients judged to be good candidates for auto-CPAP because of a high within-night variability in ...
Akça Ozan - - 2004
The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to ...
Tong J L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular responses following the insertion of oropharyngeal airways in anaesthetized patients have been found to be of little consequence. However, those following the insertion of nasopharyngeal airways have not been studied. The aim of this investigation was to compare the cardiovascular responses to the insertion of oropharyngeal and ...
Matheson Melissa - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of corticosteroids on the increase in airway microvascular permeability (MVP) and airway resistance induced by N-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine in the rabbit. METHODOLOGY: After pretreatment with methylprednisolone (for 1 day or 1 week) rabbits were nebulized with N-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine and MVP ...
Zhang Xi-long - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has been proven to be effective in improving the symptoms of coexisting coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). However, it is still unclear whether such improvements are linked to changes in vascular endothelial function. This research ...
Bloch Konrad E - - 2004
In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the variability of conductance over the course of inspiration reflects flow limitation. Pressure/flow conditions in the upper airway were modelled by a collapsible tube within a rigid chamber and a pump simulating respiration. Instantaneous conductance was estimated every 20 ms ...
Gulati M - - 2004
This study of sixty ASA grade 1 or 2 children, aged 1 to 12 years, undergoing elective ophthalmic procedures, compared the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with that of an endotracheal tube. Changes in intraocular pressure and haemodynamic parameters, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were measured Patients were ...
Milner Anthony D - - 2004
Up to 50% of apnoeic episodes are obstructive or mixed apnoeas in which, by definition, there is upper airway obstruction. The other 50% of apnoeas are central in origin, but in 40% of these there is evidence of upper airway obstruction, which also occurs in periodic breathing. The obstruction occurs ...
Mansour Khaled F - - 2004
We have shown that a polynomial equation, FP = AP3 + BP2 + CP + D, where F is flow and P is pressure, can accurately determine the presence of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL). This equation requires the invasive measurement of supraglottic pressure. We hypothesized that a modification of the ...
Tokuda Y - - 2004
A 2-year-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Topical cooling of the heart with ice slush was used during the operation. Diaphragmatic paralysis occurred after the operation, inducing severe respiratory distress. To avoid repeated intubation and tracheostomy, the patient was placed on nasal mask bilevel positive airway pressure ...
Hsu Pon Poh - - 2004
AIM: To identify the clinical predictors and assist surgeons in their clinical management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective study with a new approach to analyze the static and dynamic upper airway morphology between patients with OSA and normal subjects. METHOD: Quantitative computer-assisted videoendoscopy (validated with upper airway magnetic ...
Sharabi Yehonatan - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High blood pressure and obstructive sleep apnea are closely related, and the latter is considered to induce hypertension. The primary underlying mechanism is sympathetic activation triggered by apneic episodes. This type of hypertension is difficult to treat. The purpose of this review is (1) to evaluate the ...
Tsai Willis H - - 2004
Anterior mandibular positioners (AMPs) have become increasingly popular as alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. However, widespread acceptance of AMP is limited by an efficacy rate of 50-80% and an inability to predict which patients will respond to therapy. We evaluated 23 patients ...
Patil Susheel P - - 2004
Upper airway critical pressure measurements correlate with the degree of upper airway obstruction during sleep and may have a role in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Nevertheless, the utility of the critical pressure has not yet been realized in the clinical setting because significant technical expertise is ...
Thurnheer Robert - - 2004
Nasal obstruction is common and may disturb well-being during daytime and sleep. Its objective assessment by standard methods requires patient cooperation and inconvenient instrumentation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a novel, unobtrusive technique for continuous monitoring of changes in nasal conductance during natural breathing based on ...
Rich James M - - 2004
Emergency and unexpected difficult airway management can rapidly deteriorate into a critical airway event (e.g., inadequate mask ventilation, failed tracheal intubation, or cannot ventilate-cannot intubate). Recommended options to resolve a critical airway event include the laryngeal mask airway, the esophageal tracheal Combitube (ETC; Tyco-Healthcare-Nellcor, Pleasanton, Calif), transtracheal jet ventilation, or ...
Morley Colin - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous positive airway pressure is increasingly being used in the care of premature infants. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current controversies in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: This review explores information about the devices available for delivering continuous ...
Ayas Najib T - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) versus conventional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), reducing the mean airway pressure, improving subjective sleepiness, and improving treatment adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Meta-analysis and metaregression of ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2004
A collapsible tube surrounded by soft material within a rigid box was proposed as a two-dimensional mechanical model for the pharyngeal airway. This model predicts that changes in the box size (pharyngeal bony enclosure size anatomically defined as cross-sectional area bounded by the inside edge of bony structures such as ...
Mazan Melissa R - - 2004
This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1). have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2). suffer body mass depletion, and 3). have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4). whether increased work of breathing ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2004
Airway compliance is a key factor in understanding lung mechanics and is used as a clinical diagnostic index. Understanding such mechanics in small airways physiologically and clinically is critical. We have determined the "morphometric change" and "localized compliance" of small airways under "near"-physiological conditions; namely, the airways were embedded in ...
Stradling J R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with OSA on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have considerable night-to-night variation in their pressure requirements, suggesting that a one-night titration might not be very precise. This study investigates the likely error incurred using a one-night titration, and explores whether an algorithm-based approach to determine the pressure ...
Sekita Yasuko - - 2004
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The authors have shown previously that the vocal cord adductor is activated during inspiration in patients with vocal cord abduction impairment and that this adductor inspiratory activity is abolished by relief from inspiratory tracheal negative pressure by opening the tracheostoma. (Shiba K. Isono S, Sekita Y, Tanaka A. Inspiratory ...
Nácul Flávio E - - 2004
A 58-year-old woman was brought to our emergency department with massive nasal bleeding and hemodynamic instability. The patient had been on clopidogrel treatment (75 mg/day) for 2 years, which was started after an episode of transitory ischemic attack. Blood pressure normalized following the administration of intravenous fluids, and the bleeding ...
Groeben Harald - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation can elicit reflex bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, complicating mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical support. In vitro studies of human and animal bronchial tissue indicate that alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation can lead to smooth muscle relaxation and prevention of bronchoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a ...
Heitmann J - - 2004
There is increasing evidence that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) lowers blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, not only during sleep but also in the daytime. However, both the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction and the considerable differences in the magnitude of the effect in the studies ...
Ehtezazi Touraj - - 2004
Although it is likely that the upper airway is a major factor in the large inter- and intra-subject variation in deposition of inhaled drug aerosols in the lung, data on the configuration of the upper airway during inhalation is sparse. We have developed a unique method, using magnetic resonance imaging, ...
Guilleminault Christian - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tolerance, compliance and problems associated with usage of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). PATIENTS AND METHOD: Twelve pregnant women diagnosed with SDB received polysomnography (PSG) at entry, CPAP titration, repeat PSG at 6 months gestation (GA) and ...
Pao C S - - 2004
Airway resistance using the interrupter technique (Rint) can be measured using commercial devices which employ different algorithms for estimating pressure change. We aim to describe differences in Rint due to algorithm. We compared Rint and change in Rint after bronchodilator, using four algorithms to estimate pressure change following interruption: 1) ...
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