Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1923
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Shardonofsky Felix R - - 2006
Desmin is a structural protein that is expressed in smooth muscle cells of both airways and alveolar ducts. Therefore, desmin could be well situated to participate in passive and contractile force transmission in the lung. We hypothesized that desmin modulates lung compliance, lung recoil pressure, and airway contractile response. To ...
Bagnoli P - - 2005
A new model lung (ML), designed to reproduce the tracheal pressure vs. fluid flow relationship in animals undergoing total liquid ventilation (TLV) trials, was developed to be used as a mock bench test for neonatal TLV circuits. The ML is based on a linear inertance-resistance-compliance (LRC) lumped-parameter model of the ...
Wexler David - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the aerodynamic consequences of conservative unilateral inferior turbinate reduction using computational fluid dynamics methods to accomplish detailed nasal airflow simulations. DESIGN: A high-resolution, finite-element mesh of the nasal airway was constructed from magnetic resonance imaging data of a healthy man. Steady-state, inspiratory airflow simulations were conducted at ...
Narkiewicz Krzysztof - - 2005
There is growing evidence of a causal relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension. Untreated OSA may have direct and deleterious effects on cardiovascular function and structure through several mechanisms, including sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. OSA may contribute to or augment elevated blood pressure levels ...
Migliori Claudio - - 2005
Our aim was to compare the effects of nasal bilevel positive airway pressure (N-BiPAP) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) on gas exchange in preterm babies. Twenty preterm infants (mean gestational age, 26.3 weeks; mean weight at study, 1,033 g) were evaluated. Patients received two repeated cycles of N-CPAP ...
Tiran Joseph - - 2005
Rhinomanometry is a method for measuring nasal resistance for the purpose of providing an objective evaluation of nasal patency. Posterior rhinomanometry is accomplished without the use of a mask, thus allowing the patient to breathe naturally. Here, we report on the improvements we have made to the existing posterior rhinomanometry ...
Silva Paulo Sérgio Lucas da - - 2005
Negative-pressure pulmonary edema is a rare but life-threatening complication of upper airway obstruction. Because negative-pressure pulmonary edema may occur in a large spectrum of pathologies associated with upper airway obstruction, awareness of this condition is crucial during daily clinical practice. We report a case of negative-pressure pulmonary edema during anesthetic ...
Trachsel D - - 2005
Young children are at increased risk for hypoxaemia and hypercapnia during flexible bronchoscopy due to the small size and increased collapsibility of their airways. Various strategies are used to prevent hypoventilation and to provide oxygen during the procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of continuous ...
Noble P B - - 2005
During bronchoconstriction elastic after-loads arise due to distortion of lung parenchyma by the narrowing airway. In the present study, the functional effect of parenchymal elastic after-load on airway narrowing was determined. Airway narrowing was measured in vivo over a range of transpulmonary pressures and compared with in vitro narrowing measured ...
West S D - - 2006
The simplest method of initiating and maintaining therapeutic continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has not been established. Ninety eight subjects with OSA requiring CPAP treatment (more than 10 dips in oxygen desaturation of >4% per hour of sleep study and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) ...
Fu Carolina - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of two continuous flow generators with a ventilator designed for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The performance of flow generators using different oxygen pressure supplies was also compared. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study using a mechanical lung model ...
Takrouri Mohamad - - 2005
A case of negative pressure bilateral pulmonary edema in a 28 years old healthy female patient, scheduled for diagnostic pelvic laparoscopy for infertility. Following extubation and apparent recovery from anesthesia, she had strong inspiratory efforts due to airway obstruction caused by coughing and laryngeal spasm, that lead to negative pressure ...
Agarwal R - - 2005
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the delivery of assisted mechanical ventilation to the lungs, without the use of an invasive endotracheal airway. NIV has revolutionised the management of patients with various forms of respiratory failure. It has decreased the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and its attendant complications. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema ...
Insalaco Giuseppe - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) by negative expiratory pressure (NEP) testing, quantified as the expiratory flow-limited part of the flow-volume curve, may be influenced by airway obstruction of intrathoracic and extrathoracic origins. NEP application during tidal expiration immediately determines a rise in expiratory flow (V) followed by a short-lasting V ...
Ferrier Katherine - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has a potential role in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). High rates of central sleep apnea (CSA) are found in patients with severe CHF, and equal proportions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and CSA in are found CHF patients referred to sleep clinics. The ...
Nobata Kouichi - - 2005
Lysophosphatidylcholine is increased in the airway of bronchial asthma, but its role is not clear. We investigated the role of lysophosphatidylcholine in asthma in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. Pressure at the airway opening was measured as an index of bronchial response. Increasing doses of lysophosphatidylcholine (1--10 mg/ml) were inhaled ...
Mansour Khaled F - - 2006
A noninvasive measurement of pharyngeal cross-sectional area (CSA) during sleep would be advantageous for research studies. We hypothesized that CSA could be calculated from the measured pharyngeal pressure and flow by finite element analysis (FEA). The retropalatal airway was visualized by using a fiber-optic scope to obtain the measured CSA ...
Bateman Leigh - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) provides a better airway than a facemask in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rabbits, and to test if it can be used for mechanically controlled ventilation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS: Sixteen young, healthy, specific pathogen-free Giant Flemish cross Chinchilla rabbits ...
Isono Shiroh - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Appropriate bag-and-mask ventilation with patent airway is mandatory during induction of general anesthesia. Although the sniffing neck position is a traditionally recommended head and neck position during this critical period, knowledge of the influences of this position on the pharyngeal airway patency is still inadequate. METHODS: Total muscle paralysis ...
Goldmann Kai - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the LMA-ProSeal for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the pig. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. ANIMALS: Twelve German country pigs, weighing 25-62 kg. METHOD: Lungs of pigs were mechanically ventilated under general anaesthesia using the LMA-ProSeal. The ease of insertion, number of attempts and total time until ...
Eastwood Peter R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of varying concentrations of propofol on upper airway collapsibility and the mechanisms responsible for it. METHODS: Upper airway collapsibility was determined from pressure-flow relations at three concentrations of propofol anesthesia (effect site concentration = 2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 mug/ml) in 12 subjects spontaneously breathing ...
Papon Jean-François - - 2006
Nasal compliance is a measure related to the blood volume in the nasal mucosa. The objective of this study was to better understand the vascular response in vasomotor rhinitis by measuring nasal cross-sectional area and nasal compliance before and after mucosal decongestion in 10 patients with vasomotor rhinitis compared with ...
Hoekema Aarnoud - - 2006
When treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) several alternatives for standard (manual) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration are feasible. A practical alternative is titration without polysomnography during an afternoon nap (Nap-titration). The aim of the present study was to assess whether Nap-titration is appropriate for effective titration of CPAP. ...
Unterberg Christina - - 2005
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with oxygen desaturation, blood pressure increase, and neurohumoral activation, resulting in possible detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the therapy of choice for OSA. In a recent study, nocturnal atrial overdrive pacing (pacing) reduced the severity of ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2006
The pharyngeal airway can be considered as an airway luminal shape formed by surrounding tissues, contained within a bony enclosure formed by the mandible, skull base, and cervical vertebrae. Mandibular advancement (MA), a therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, is thought to increase the size of this bony enclosure and to ...
Xu Chun - - 2006
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was used to model the effect of airway geometry on internal pressure in the upper airway of three children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and three controls. Model geometry was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images obtained during quiet tidal breathing, meshed with an unstructured ...
Akashiba Tsuneto - - 2005
Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 96 consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) before and after nasal continous positive airway pressure treatment. CRP levels only displayed significant correlations with body mass index (BMI) before treatment. No significant changes were observed in BMI and CRP levels ...
Kindgen-Milles Detlef - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients who undergo surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms have a high risk for the development of respiratory complications, which cause significant postoperative morbidity and prolong hospitalization, compared to patients who undergo other types of surgery. We studied whether prophylactic noninvasive application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure ...
Arias Miguel A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as an independent risk factor for the development of left ventricular diastolic abnormalities. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) improves such alterations in OSAS patients by eliminating ...
Ryan C F - - 2005
This article provides an overview of the management of the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Where possible, recommendations are based on a review of the relevant literature. With the exception of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, which is considered in greater detail elsewhere in the series, and certain oral appliances, ...
Hailey David - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) devices have the potential to address some of the disadvantages of titration and treatment with conventional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Information on the performance of APAP in clinical use is still comparatively limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of APAP devices in ...
Singh G Dave - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three-dimensional changes in nasal morphology in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) to correct naso-labio-alveolar deformity. DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal study. Digital stereophotogrammetry was used to capture three-dimensional facial images, and x, y, and z coordinates of 28 ...
Morley C J - - 2005
In a randomised crossover trial, 26 babies, treated with Hudson prong continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from a bubbling bottle, received vigorous, high amplitude, or slow bubbling for 30 minutes. Pulse oximetry, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and respiratory rate were recorded. The bubbling rates had no effect on carbon dioxide, oxygenation, ...
Kawamura Masafumi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: There is little experimental evidence to show how much positive airway pressure fibrin sealants can actually withstand, and in particular, how this effect changes over time. In the present study, we experimentally evaluated the sealing effect of fibrin glue against alveolar air leakage up to 48 h after application. ...
Bellemare François - - 2005
RATIONALE: Anesthesia-induced uncoupling of upper airway dilating and inspiratory pump muscles activation may cause inspiratory flow limitation, thereby mimicking obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea. OBJECTIVES: Determine whether inspiratory flow limitation occurs in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rabbits and whether this can be reversed by direct hypoglossal nerve stimulation and by the application of ...
Leman Peter - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To compare the novel Boussignac valve continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) delivery mask and a standard closed-circuit Drager CF800 CPAP system in the management of acute pulmonary oedema (APO) patients. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial whereby patients presenting to the ED with APO and who met the ...
Inazawa T - - 2005
It has been proposed that advancement of the mandible is a useful method for decreasing upper airway collapsibility. We carried out this study to test the hypothesis that mandibular advancement induces changes in upper airway patency during midazolam sedation. To explore its effect, we examined upper airway pressure-flow relationships in ...
Goldmann Kai - - 2005
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-ProSeal (P-LMA) forms a more effective seal than the LMA-Classic (C-LMA) and facilitates gastric tube (g-tube) placement in adults. The first pediatric sizes of P-LMA recently became available. In 30 anesthetized, nonparalyzed children, aged 7.7 +/- 2 yr and weighing 27 (20-35) kg, we inserted the ...
Tsuchida Shinya - - 2005
Continuous positive airway pressure, aimed at preventing pulmonary atelectasis, has been used for decades to reduce lung injury in critically ill patients. In neonatal practice, it is increasingly used worldwide as a primary form of respiratory support due to its low cost and because it reduces the need for endotracheal ...
Cook T M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The Laryngeal Tube Sonda (LTS) is a supraglottic airway which, like the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA), incorporates a drain tube. We compared the performances of LTS and PLMA during controlled ventilation anaesthesia. METHODS: The devices were studied in 32 ventilated patients by randomized crossover trial. Primary outcome was ...
O'Donnell C P F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The key to successful neonatal resuscitation is effective ventilation. Little evidence exists to guide clinicians in their choice of manual ventilation device or face mask. The expiratory tidal volume measured at the mask (V(TE(mask))) is a good estimate of the tidal volume delivered during simulated neonatal resuscitation. AIM: To ...
Bellone Andrea - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study compared noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with acute hypercapnic pulmonary edema with regard to resolution time. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized prospective study in an emergency department. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: We randomly assigned 36 patients with respiratory failure due to ...
Harar R P S - - 2005
We describe a case of a newborn baby with a prenatal diagnosis of an epignathus (oropharyngeal teratoma). With the potential for airway problems at birth, he was delivered by an elective EXIT (Extra Utero Intrapartum Treatment) procedure at 38 weeks of pregnancy. The airway was secured and rigid bronchoscopy performed. ...
Bein B - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare three supraglottic airway devices: the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA), the laryngeal tube S (LTS) and the oesophageal-tracheal combitube (OTC) during routine surgical procedures. METHODS: Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-III patients scheduled for routine minor obstetric surgery were randomly ...
Schwartz Daniel J - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pulse transit time (PTT) is a non-invasive index which reflects changes in peripheral vascular resistance and intrathoracic pressure. PTT arousal index (PTT Ar/I) is defined as the frequency (number/hour) of a defined decrease in PTT which may serve as a marker for respiratory events, and associated arousals ...
Tan S M - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate if size 5 compared with size 4 ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) in Asian men and size 4 compared with size 3 ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) in Asian women, would give a better glottic seal. We conducted a randomized crossover study ...
Yasuma Fumihiko - - 2005
Five adult patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) due to dilated cardiomyopathy complicated by Cheyne-Stokes respiration/central sleep apnea (CSR/CSA) were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with an initial pressure of 5 cm H2O. Four patients were followed up for 12 months with CPAP of 5 cm H2O. The ...
Maino P - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate cuff pressure changes found in disposable size 3 laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) from different manufacturers during nitrous oxide exposure and to compare the results with the re-usable Classic LMA. In an in vitro experiment, laryngeal mask airway cuff pressures starting from a ...
Rowley James A - - 2005
Titration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is performed to determine the CPAP setting to prescribe for an individual patient. A prediction equation has been published that could be used to improve the success rate of CPAP titrations. The goals of this study were: (1) to test the hypothesis that ...
Kawati Rafael - - 2005
If peak inspiratory airway pressure (Ppeak) is used to monitor airway patency, progressive obstruction of the endotracheal tube (ETT) resulting from secretions can go undetected for a prolonged period. The reason is that any increase in Ppeak depends not only on the degree of narrowing but also on the inspiratory ...
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