Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1981
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Gruis Kirsten L - - 2006
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) treatment of advanced respiratory insufficiency prolongs survival in ALS. To investigate the critical question of whether earlier initiation of NIV might provide additional benefit, a randomized trial with an appropriate placebo is needed. This study evaluated sub-therapeutic (sham) continuous positive airway pressure as a potential ...
Ofoegbu Bibian N - - 2006
We report the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for neonatal back transfer of 51 babies. nCPAP may be used to provide safe respiratory support during back transportation of infants. Babies transferred on nCPAP were significantly smaller and of younger postmenstrual age than historical comparators who had to ...
Park Marcelo - - 2006
Current literature was searched by using the MEDLINE database to find consistent evidence regarding the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. 18 studies demonstrating that noninvasive ventilation applied by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP) is safe, and that ...
Liner Lisa H - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current management of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children with sleep-disordered breathing. RECENT FINDINGS: Although most children with sleep-disordered breathing respond to surgical treatment, the use of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ...
Brown Robert H - - 2007
Airways distend with each inspiration, while a sigh or deep inspiration (DI) leads to a significant or a maximum distension of the airways. Distension of the airways is thought to play an important role in maintaining airway patency. Limited distension of the airways with lung inflation may be a major ...
Makino Shinya - - 2006
A 55-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension (274/140 mmHg). Endocrinological examination revealed that her plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) was elevated with high levels of urinary NE, normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), suggesting the presence of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor MIBG scintigraphy detected any ...
Verin Eric - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Mandibular advancement (MA) can be an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This study was designed to describe its effects on upper airway mechanics. METHODS: Six awake healthy subjects (four men, 31+/-8 years, body mass index (BMI) 25+/-2kg/m2) were studied ...
Fregosi R F - - 2006
There is evidence that narrowing or collapse of the pharynx can contribute to obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults and children. However, studies in children have focused on those with relatively severe SDB who generally were recruited from sleep clinics. It is unclear whether children with mild SDB who primarily ...
Donadio Vincenzo - - 2006
Studies comparing the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus surgery in correcting cardiovascular abnormalities in OSAS are lacking. We describe an OSAS patient with hypertension who responded favorably to CPAP treatment, whereas subsequent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was less successful. While CPAP markedly lowered daytime muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) ...
Saslow J G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the work of breathing (WOB) in premature neonates supported with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). STUDY DESIGN: Eighteen preterm neonates <2.0 kg on HFNC or NCPAP support were studied in a random order. A ventilator was used to deliver 6 cm ...
Kitahara Yoshihiro - - 2006
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a good indicator of arterial stiffness and an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Recent studies have revealed that PWV increases in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and it also correlates with its severity. However, the therapeutic effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ...
Ikeda Hidetoshi - - 2006
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the change of body and head position affects upper airway patency during midazolam sedation. DESIGN: Clinical study using 30 healthy subjects. SETTING: Research unit for sleep study. INTERVENTIONS: We used a pressure-flow relationship to evaluate critical closing pressure (Pcrit) and upper airway resistance ...
Ulrich-Pur Herbert - - 2006
BACKGROUND: High pressures exerted by balloons and cuffs of conventional endotracheal tubes, the Combitube (Tyco Healthcare Nellcor Mallinckrodt, Pleasanton, CA), the EasyTube (Teleflex Ruesch, Kernen, Germany), the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA North America, San Diego, CA), the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (Fastrach; LMA North America), the ProSeal (LMA North America), ...
Zonato Adriane Iurck - - 2006
The objective of this study was to observe the change in CPAP pressure after nasal and/or tonsil surgery in a retrospective study involving 17 patients unable to tolerate CPAP titration. All patients had two polysomnography studies for titration: one before and another subsequent to upper airway surgical treatment. The results ...
Hutter Deborah A DA Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, - - 2006
Diastolic heart failure with hypoxemia is a dangerous condition in pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Continuous positive airway pressure may help to decrease afterload and reduce venous return and ventricular filling, but its use in diastolic dysfunction has not yet been established. The authors report a case ...
Lomask Morton - - 2006
Unrestrained plethysmography (UP) has been widely used to measure airway reactivity in conscious mice. It is non-invasive, easy to use, suitable for longitudinal studies, and allows a large throughput of animals for screening purposes. A non-dimensional parameter based on a characteristic change in the expiratory waveshape of the UP box ...
Bayle Frédérique - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess a sigmoidal equation for describing airway closure. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight piglets mechanically ventilated on zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP). INTERVENTIONS: Control and lung saline lavage. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Lungs were inflated up to transpulmonary pressure of 30 cmH(2)O at constant flow (0.12l s(-1)) ...
Norman Daniel - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with recurrent episodes of nocturnal hypoxia and increased risk for development of systemic hypertension. Prior studies have been limited, however, in their ability to show reduction in blood pressure after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the effect of supplemental oxygen alone on ...
Goldmann K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In light of the increased use of the LMA-ProSeal (P-LMA) it seems desirable to consider the P-LMA for prolonged surgical cases or post-operative ventilation. Long-term use could carry the risk of serious complications. An experimental pig model could be used to gain basic knowledge about long-term use before conducting ...
Dahaba A A - - 2006
Supraglottic airway devices such as the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) and Laryngeal Tube-Suction Airway (LTS) that provoke the least stress responses could be beneficial in many situations, especially in patients with cardiovascular disease. We compared the haemodynamic and catecholamine stress response of the LTS and PLMA in a randomised ...
Hanning S J - - 2006
We tested the oropharyngeal leak pressure with the reusable laryngeal mask airway and the single-use Soft Seal laryngeal mask airway. These two types of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) have a similar design but the reusable LMA cuff is made from silicone whereas the Soft Seal LMA cuff is polyvinylchloride. Thirty-five ...
Sucena M - - 2006
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the best treatment for sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS). In the 1990s, many authors reported on daily compliance, but all of the studies utilised relatively short periods of follow-up that did not exceed a few years. The mean annual rate of CPAP use in patients ...
Nolan G M - - 2006
Auto-adjustable continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) devices are an emerging treatment alternative to fixed-pressure continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. They have been engineered to automatically adjust the pressure to the optimal level on a continuous basis. However, not all APAP technologies use the same ...
Chen Kuo-Tai - - 2006
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is gaining wide application as an alternative method of maintaining the airway in situations including general anaesthesia, for difficult airways and pre-hospital resuscitation. During resuscitation, drug administration via an LMA is sometimes warranted when vascular accesses cannot be established immediately. Therefore, we conducted a study ...
DiMarco Anthony F - - 2006
Patients with spinal cord injury have an increased risk of developing respiratory tract infections as the result of expiratory muscle paralysis and consequent inability to cough. We have developed a method by which the expiratory muscles can be activated via lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord stimulation to produce ...
Lattimore J L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and potentially reversible cause of systemic hypertension. The mechanisms whereby OSA leads to hypertension and the effects of treatment on arterial function, however, are not well established. Microvascular arterial endothelial and smooth muscle function was assessed in subjects with OSA before and ...
Reo Mitani / Masahiko ...
A 36-year-old women (height 157cm, weight 114kg, body mass index 46.2kg/㎡) with intolerable sleepiness and cyanosis was diagnosed with respiratory failure caused by Pickwickian syndrome. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular systolic function and moderate pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was estimated at 50mmHg with doppler echocardiography. Oxygen inhalation and ...
McNicholas Walter T - - 2006
OSA syndrome is characterized by recurring episodes of upper airway (UA) obstruction during sleep. The UA is subjected to collapse when the negative airway pressure generated by inspiratory activity of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles exceeds the force produced by the UA dilating muscles. Factors that reduce UA calibre lead ...
Kushida Clete A - - 2006
Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used to treat patients with sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Currently, PAP devices come in three forms: (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), (2) bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP), and (3) automatic self-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP). After a ...
Litman Ronald S - - 2006
We sought to establish the feasibility of measuring upper airway narrowing in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized children using dynamic application of negative airway pressure. A secondary aim was to compare differences in upper airway collapsibility after the administration of sevoflurane or halothane. Subjects were randomized to either drug for inhaled anesthetic ...
Tsai Tung-Ying - - 2006
A 35-day-old male infant was scheduled for bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy. No history of recent upper airway infection or other reactive respiratory disease was noted before anesthesia. Breath holding was noted immediately after laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. Removal of the LMA and positive pressure ventilation via face mask did not ...
Turan A - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We compared the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the laryngeal tube (LT) with the newly introduced perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA, PLA) with regard to haemodynamic responses induced by airway insertion, clinical performance and occurrence of postoperative sore throat after short surgical procedures. METHODS: After premedication, 90 ASA I-II ...
Warren James - - 2006
In pregnant patients with myasthenia gravis and respiratory compromise, neuraxial anesthesia for lower abdominal surgery can risk further respiratory depression. We report the use of epidural anesthesia for dilation and curettage and tubal ligation in a 26-yr-old woman with a 12-wk intrauterine pregnancy with severe myasthenia gravis and respiratory insufficiency ...
Arias Miguel A - - 2006
AIMS: We tested the hypothesis that: (i) obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) by itself originates pulmonary hypertension (PH); and (ii) the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce pulmonary pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized and cross-over trial, 23 middle-aged OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index, 44.1 +/- 29.3 h(-1)) and ...
Bayat Sam - - 2006
We studied the kinetics of proximal and distal bronchial response to histamine aerosol in healthy anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits up to 60 min after histamine administration using a novel xenon-enhanced synchrotron radiation computed tomography imaging technique. Individual proximal airway constriction was assessed by measuring the luminal cross-sectional area. Distal ...
Robinson G V - - 2006
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several randomised controlled trials have shown that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA reduces blood pressure (BP). This randomised, sham-placebo controlled crossover trial assesses whether CPAP produces a similar clinically significant fall in BP in hypertensive ...
Miller Donald M - - 2006
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of the ProSeal LMA and SLIPA supralaryngeal airways (SLA) with the standard tracheal tube (TT) in 150 consecutive day-case laparoscopic gynecological surgery procedures requiring general anesthesia. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were randomized into three groups. An identical general anesthesia technique was used in ...
Gaitini Luis - - 2006
The Laryngeal Mask (LMA) Unique and the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (PLA) are single-use supraglottic devices. There are no published studies comparing these devices during spontaneous ventilation. We compared the LMA Unique and the Cobra PLA with respect to 1) ventilatory variables during spontaneous ventilation, 2) time to achieve an effective ...
Goldmann Kai - - 2006
Many problems with the Classic laryngeal mask airway (CLMA) in infants are believed to be related to its inadequate cuff design. One of the main limitations of the CLMA is that the resulting low-pressure seal can be inadequate for positive pressure ventilation (PPV). The ProSeal LMA (PLMA), a new laryngeal ...
Hagberg Carin - - 2006
Trials of the King LT trade mark (LT, King Systems, Noblesville, IN) in controlled ventilation of the lungs have shown that it is an effective supraglottic airway device. We designed this study to evaluate the King LT regarding ease of insertion, position within the airway, and anatomic sealing properties during ...
Martinón-Torres Federico - - 2006
This is the first study aiming to assess the effects of heliox in combination with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (Hx-nCPAP) as a rescue treatment in infants with refractory acute bronchiolitis. Fifteen out of 78 infants with acute bronchiolitis consecutively admitted to PICU fulfilled the inclusion criteria: clinical score>or=5 or ...
Calero Gabriel - - 2006
Flow limitation during sleep occurs when the rise in esophageal pressure is not accompanied by a flow increase which results in a non-rounded inspiratory flow shape. Short periods of flow limitation ending in an arousal or in a fall in SaO2 (hypopnea or upper airway resistance syndrome) are detrimental but ...
Pay L L - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The modified Airway Management Device (AMD) and the Proseal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) are both supraglottic airway devices designed to maintain airway patency and allow ventilation during anaesthesia. In this prospective, randomized trial, we compared the two devices in patients undergoing major gynaecological procedures. METHODS: Eighty-two patients ...
Abe Kazuo - - 2006
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on oxygenation and the shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) during one-lung ventilation (OLV). METHODS: Twenty-five patients who were undergoing resection of a descending aortic aneurysm were studied. Arterial oxygenation, Qs/Qt, and hemodynamics were evaluated just before ...
Sundy John S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of environmental endotoxin is important in the pathogenesis of asthma and other environmental airway diseases. Inhaled airway challenge using lipopolysaccharide in humans has been performed for over 20 years to assess the airway response to endotoxin. However, there are no published data on the short-term safety of endotoxin ...
Visser W Anton - - 2006
Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the T7-8 or T8-9 intervertebral space into 2 groups. The control ...
von Goedecke Achim - - 2006
Bag-valve-mask ventilation in an unprotected airway is often applied with a high flow rate or a short inflation time and, therefore, a high peak airway pressure, which may increase the risk of stomach inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration. Strategies to provide more patient safety may be a reduction in inspiratory ...
McCool F Dennis - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The anatomy and neurophysiology of cough has been reviewed in the preceding section. The objective of this section is to describe how the varied anatomic components of the respiratory system work in concert to produce an effective cough. METHODS: This was accomplished by reviewing (1) the factors needed to ...
McCool F Dennis - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Airway clearance may be impaired in disorders associated with abnormal cough mechanics, altered mucus rheology, altered mucociliary clearance, or structural airway defects. A variety of interventions are used to enhance airway clearance with the goal of improving lung mechanics and gas exchange, and preventing atelectasis and infection. METHOD: A ...
McArdle Nigel - - 2006
OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea) is a common condition that is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. It is remains unclear what role OSA plays in determining cardiovascular risk. The immediate physiological changes that occur during upper airway obstruction are potential contributors to cardiovascular risk in OSA. These changes include increased sympathetic ...
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