Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1579
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Shewchenko N - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Head impacts from footballs are an essential part of the game but have been implicated in mild and acute neuropsychological impairment. Ball characteristics have been noted in literature to affect the impact response of the head; however, the biomechanics are not well understood. The present study determined whether ball ...
Sagawa Sueko - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Accumulated evidence indicates attenuated vasopressin (AVP) release associated with hyperbaria in humans. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that plasma AVP response to central hypovolemia was attenuated in a hyperbaric environment. METHODS: Response of AVP to central hypovolemic stress, in the form of lower-body negative pressure ...
Cui Jian - - 2005
Orthostatic stress leads to a reduction in central venous pressure (CVP), which is an index of cardiac preload. Skin surface cooling has been shown to improve orthostatic tolerance, although the mechanism resulting in this outcome is unclear. One possible mechanism may be that skin surface cooling attenuates the drop in ...
Chao Clare Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether application of functional electric stimulation (FES) to lower-limb muscles during postural tilting improves orthostatic tolerance in people with tetraplegia. DESIGN: A crossover design. SETTING: A rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen acute and chronic subjects with tetraplegia (15 men, 1 woman) with complete motor function loss at the ...
Pennock Andrew T - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify the effects of forearm rotation on radial inclination, radial height and palmar tilt. Seventeen arms, nine cadaveric and eight volunteer, were examined using a radiolucent device that allowed for the controlled rotation of each arm. Lateral and posterior-anterior X-rays were ...
Convertino Victor A - - 2005
There is little evidence obtained from space flight to support the notion that occurrence of cardiac dysrhythmias, impaired cardiac and vascular function, and manifestation of asymptomatic cardiovascular disease represent serious risks during space flight. Therefore, the development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight probably reflect the ...
Eiken Ola - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness is a common aeromedical problem that may occur in pilots exposed to increased gravitoinertial load in the head-to-foot direction (+Gz). Since motion sickness may affect autonomic nervous functions including cardiovascular control, it was hypothesized that it might interfere with cardiovascular responses to high +Gz, thereby decreasing G ...
Hernandez Juliane P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of age and fitness on tolerance to maximal lower body negative pressure (LBNP). METHODS: Ten older fit (OF) [73.9 +/- 2 years; 39.0 +/- 2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (age and estimated VO(2)peak, respectively)], 10 older unfit (OU) (70.9 +/- 1 years; ...
Kamiya Atsunori - - 2005
Since humans are under ceaseless orthostatic stress, the mechanism to maintain arterial pressure (AP) under orthostatic stress against gravitational fluid shift is of great importance. We hypothesized that (1) orthostatic stress resets the arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to a higher SNA, and (2) resetting of the ...
Convertino Victor A - - 2005
Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrated that spontaneous breathing through an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) increased heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in supine human subjects. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of an ITD as a countermeasure against ...
Ito Tomoyuki - - 2005
The aim of this study was to elucidate the interactive effect of central hypovolemia and plasma hyperosmolality on regulation of peripheral vascular response and AVP secretion during heat stress. Seven male subjects were infused with either isotonic (0.9%; NOSM) or hypertonic (3.0%; HOSM) NaCl solution and then heated by perfusing ...
Groothuis Jan T - - 2005
Despite loss of centrally mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction to the legs, spinal cord-injured individuals cope surprisingly well with an orthostatic challenge. This study assessed changes in leg vascular resistance following head-up tilt in healthy (C) and in paraplegic (P) individuals. After 10 min of supine rest, subjects were tilted 30 degrees ...
Fernhall Bo - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether heart rate and blood pressure responses to upright tilt would be lower in subjects with Down syndrome (DS) than in control subjects with no disabilities. DESIGN: Comparative study. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen people with DS (mean age, 25.1+/-7.3 y) and 17 control subjects without ...
Groothuis Jan T - - 2005
Despite the loss of centrally mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction, spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals cope surprisingly well with orthostatic challenges. In the pathophysiology of this intriguing observation spinal sympathetic-, veno-arteriolar-(VAR), and myogenic reflexes seem to play a role. The purpose of this study was to assess whether central (stroke volume, heart rate, ...
Raffai Gábor - - 2005
Incidence of orthostatic hypertension is estimated at 5% but is even more prevalent in borderline hypertension and autonomic neuropathies. The aim of this study was to develop a potential model to investigate orthostatic hypertension. We used normotensive and hypertensive Wistar rats to analyze responses and diurnal variations of arterial blood ...
Wolinsky Fredric D - - 2005
We evaluate the test-retest stability of physical performance and physiologic assessments used in epidemiologic research. METHOD: Eighty subjects aged 50 to 65 were randomly selected from a probability sample of African Americans for test-retest assessments 5 to 45 days after baseline. Physical performance assessments included grip strength, chair stands, gait ...
Nette R W - - 2005
AIMS: Hypotensive episodes are a major complication of hemodialysis. Hypotension during dialysis could be directly related to a reduction in blood volume or to a decrease in cardiovascular activation as a response to decreased cardiac filling. A decreased cardiovascular activation could be due to patient-related or to dialysis-related factors. In ...
Petrofsky Jerrold Scott - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is often associated with orthostatic hypotension and temperature intolerance. Studies have examined either one stress or the other and not both to see if the stresses are additive. MATERIAL/METHODS: Eight subjects with Type 1 and 12 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and 15 controls were tested for orthostatic ...
Meendering Jessica R - - 2005
Women have decreased orthostatic tolerance compared with men, and anecdotal evidence suggests women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance in warm environments. Because estrogen and progesterone affect numerous physiological variables that may alter orthostatic tolerance, the purpose of our study was to compare orthostatic tolerance across the menstrual cycle phases ...
Kitano Asami - - 2005
To investigate local blood-flow regulation during orthostatic maneuvers, 10 healthy subjects were exposed to -20 and -40 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP; each for 3 min) and to 60 degrees head-up tilt (HUT; for 5 min). Measurements were made of blood flow in the brachial (BF(brachial)) and femoral arteries ...
Prakash E S - - 2005
In vasovagal syncope, occurrence of bradycardia/asystole in the wake of hypotension has often been considered paradoxical. The major objective of this teaching module is to critically examine the pathophysiological mechanism and significance of the hypotension-bradycardia paradox unique to this condition. We narrate here how we discussed the pathophysiology of vasovagal ...
Shibao Cyndya - - 2005
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disabling condition that commonly affects otherwise normal young females. Because these patients can present with a flushing disorder, we hypothesized that mast cell activation (MCA) can contribute to its pathogenesis. Here we describe POTS patients with MCA (MCA+POTS), diagnosed by episodes of flushing and ...
Uchiyama T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) occasionally have episodes of syncope or pre-syncope after micturition. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanism of these episodes by investigating the haemodynamic changes associated with micturition. METHODS: 25 patients with probable MSA and 16 age matched normal controls were studied. Continuous records of blood ...
Gulli Giosuè - - 2005
In addition to the gain, the time delay in the input-output response in a feedback system is crucial for the maintenance of its stability. Patients with posturally related (vasovagal) syncope have inadequate control of blood pressure and one possible explanation for this could be prolonged latency of the baroreflex. We ...
Gisolf J - - 2005
Reduction in plasma volume is a major contributor to orthostatic tachycardia and hypotension after spaceflight. We set out to determine time- and frequency-domain baroreflex (BRS) function during preflight baseline and venous occlusion and postflight orthostatic stress, testing the hypothesis that a reduction in central blood volume could mimic the postflight ...
Ouchi Yasuomi - - 2005
To investigate whether a physiological change in the orthostatic condition is associated with a deterioration of cerebrovascular and metabolic homeostasis in patients with neurocardiovascular compromises, we examined 10 patients with unilateral carotid artery occlusive disease (CVD), 6 CVD patients with coronary artery disease (CVDC), and 10 healthy subjects scanned twice ...
Sahni Manish - - 2005
Orthostatic hypotension is very common in the elderly. It increases morbidity and is an independant predictor of all cause mortality. It is defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure greater than 20 mm Hg or a fall in diastolic blood pressure greater than 10 mm Hg within 3 minutes ...
Hoshide Satoshi - - 2005
To investigate the impact of arterial properties on orthostatic blood pressure (BP) dysregulation in older hypertensives, orthostatic BP dysregulation, a common phenomenon in elderly hypertensives, is associated with target organ damage and falls. However, the mechanism of orthostatic BP dysregulation remains unclear. The pulse wave velocity (PWV), related arterial stiffness, ...
Asahina Masato - - 2005
On head down tilt to the supine horizontal position (tilt reversal) after head up tilt (HUT), patients with orthostatic hypotension may show an increase in blood pressure (BP) relative to baseline readings. We assessed this BP overshoot in 8 patients with pure autonomic failure (PAF, 64+/-13 years) and 8 patients ...
van Dijk Nynke - - 2005
A 33-year old male patient, with Marfan's syndrome, reported symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and fatigue as a longstanding problem. Orthostatic cardiovascular examination showed poor orthostatic tolerance, with a rise in heart rate and a fall in arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Self-discovered physical counterpressure manoeuvers improved symptoms, ...
Stage Kurt Bjerregaard Bjerregaard - - 2005
From a clinical point of view, orthostatic hypotension is a significant side effect during antidepressant treatment, particularly in the case of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). This prospective, randomized clinical trial evaluated the effects of clomipramine and moclobemide on orthostatic blood pressure during treatment for depression. One hundred and fifteen depressed inpatients, ...
Gorelik Oleg - - 2005
Information about orthostatic hypotension (OH) among elderly patients hospitalized for acute conditions in short-term facilities is scarce. Many older inpatients carry various predisposing factors for OH. However, its existence goes frequently unrecognized. In this context, first morning standing up following admission for an acute disease may be dangerous. The aim ...
Russomano T - - 2005
A headward fluid shift occurs during microgravity exposure, which causes the cardiovascular adaptive syndrome. Different countermeasures have been proposed to decrease its symptomatology, like the application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). A LBNP box with an environment control system was developed, aiming to improve features of LBNP boxes used ...
Naylor Justine M - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Isolated head-down postural drainage is assumed to acutely load the cardiovascular system. Consequently, it is considered a relative contraindication in the presence of severe cardiovascular disease. Evidence demonstrating that the head-down manoeuvre as used by physiotherapists does significantly load the cardiovascular system is lacking. The present study ...
Lu Hongbing - - 2005
The aim of this study is to investigate the upper limit of protection afforded by various protective equipment and techniques that used in combination and used individually. A multi-element, nonlinear mathematical model, which was previously used to produce cardiovascular response to +Gz stress and protection afforded by anti-G suits, was ...
Tachtsidis Ilias - - 2005
The cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to head-up postural change are compromised in pure autonomic failure (PAF) patients because of sympathetic denervation. The aim of this study was to characterize the rate of change of systemic mean blood pressure (MBP) and cerebral haemodynamics in response to passive posture changes. Nine PAF ...
Gupta S C - - 2005
This study anus at determining the effect of transmyringeal ventilation on Eustachian tube functions. Seventy ears clinically diagnosed as having otitis media with effusion or grade I and II retraction of pars-tensa of tympanic membrane were treated with antiallergics, decongestants, mucolytics, and antibiotics as required for maximum upto three months. ...
Hao Wei-Ya - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: The development of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is complex and multi-factorial. Previous simulation work indicates that myocardial contractility depression (MCD) may increase OH when there is a total blood volume decrease. This paper hypothesized that MCD increased OH in both humans with and without decrease in blood volume. METHODS: A ...
Chang Angela T - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of standing with assistance of the tilt table on ventilatory parameters and arterial blood gases in intensive care patients. DESIGN: Consecutive sample. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen adult patients who had been intubated and mechanically ventilated for more than 5 days (3 subjects successfully ...
Young T M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Oral ingestion of water increases seated blood pressure in patients with chronic autonomic failure by mechanisms that remain unclear. As orthostatic hypotension is common in chronic autonomic failure, and is not always adequately controlled by medication, the potential benefits of water ingestion on standing blood pressure were studied in ...
Romano Salvatore M - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to noninvasively define the hemodynamic profile characterizing the early response to tilting. BACKGROUND: The mechanisms causing orthostatic intolerance have not been fully elucidated. Usually, patients undergoing tilt test are studied in a time-consuming way. Moreover, the test can cause discomfort to the patient ...
Hinghofer-Szalkay Helmut - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the combinations of head down tilt (HDT) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) that would counterbalance each other's effects on cardiovascular and endocrine variables to produce a "neutral point" (NP). METHODS: We conducted 8 30-min experiments in 14 normotensive subjects (2 ...
Ichinose Masashi - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that orthostatic stress would modulate the arterial baroreflex (ABR)-mediated beat-by-beat control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans. In 12 healthy subjects, ABR control of MSNA (burst incidence, burst strength, and total activity) was evaluated by analysis of the relation between beat-by-beat spontaneous variations in ...
Otto M E B - - 2004
The first minutes of the time course of cardiopulmonary reflex control evoked by lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in patients with hypertensive cardiomyopathy have not been investigated in detail. We studied 15 hypertensive patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and 15 matched normal controls to observe the time course response ...
Fu Qi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that individual variability in orthostatic tolerance is dependent on the degree of neural and vasomotor reserve available for vasoconstriction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and hemodynamics were measured in 12 healthy young volunteers during 60 degrees head-up tilt (HUT), followed by a ...
Mori R L - - 2005
The vestibular system participates in cardiovascular regulation during postural changes. In prior studies (Holmes MJ, Cotter LA, Arendt HE, Cas SP, and Yates BJ. Brain Res 938: 62-72, 2002, and Jian BJ, Cotter LA, Emanuel BA, Cass SP, and Yates BJ. J Appl Physiol 86: 1552-1560, 1999), transection of the ...
Bogert Lysander W J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: In patients with recurrent syncope, monitoring of intra-arterial pressure during orthostatic stress testing is recommended because of the potentially sudden and rapid development of hypotension. Replacing brachial arterial pressure (BAP) by the non-invasively obtained finger arterial pressure (FinAP) has advantages because catheterization in itself may provoke a syncope. OBJECTIVE: ...
Hainsworth Roger - - 2004
Syncope or near-syncope is a not uncommon effect of gravitational or other stresses and it occurs when cerebral blood flow falls to below about half the normal value. It is not necessarily abnormal, and individuals who are usually asymptomatic show the same reaction if a stress is sufficiently great to ...
Evans Joyce M - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to spaceflight or simulations of microgravity reduce human postflight orthostatic tolerance. Exercise training and volume loading can reduce associated losses of plasma volume and muscle strength, but are not successful in maintaining postflight orthostatic tolerance. A preliminary study (16) indicated that short bouts of artificial gravity (AG) training ...
Cybulski G - - 2004
The aim of the study was to compare stroke volume (SV), ejection time (ET) and pre-ejection period (PEP) measurements obtained using a central haemodynamics ambulatory monitoring device based on impedance cardiography (ICG), in supine and tilted positions (60 degrees), with pulsed Doppler echocardiography as a non-invasive reference method. The Holter-type ...
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