Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1579
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Tsai Pei-Shan - - 2006
Vasovagal syncope refers to a reflex cardiovascular depression that gives rise to loss of consciousness with bradycardia and profound vasodilatation. This response commonly occurs during regional anesthesia, hemorrhage or supine inferior vena cava compression in pregnancy. The changes in circulatory response from the normal maintenance of arterial pressure to parasympathetic ...
Lahrmann H - - 2006
Orthostatic (postural) hypotension (OH) is a common, yet under diagnosed disorder. It may contribute to disability and even death. It can be the initial sign, and lead to incapacitating symptoms in primary and secondary autonomic disorders. These range from visual disturbances and dizziness to loss of consciousness (syncope) after postural ...
Kappel Franz - - 2007
This paper considers a model developed to study the cardiovascular control system response to orthostatic stress as induced by two variations of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) experiments. This modeling approach has been previously applied to study control responses to transition from rest to aerobic exercise, to transition to non-REM ...
Ichinose Masashi - - 2006
We tested the hypothesis that arterial baroreflex (ABR)-mediated beat-to-beat control over muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is progressively modulated as orthostatic stress increases in humans, but that this control becomes impaired just before the onset of orthostatic syncope. In 17 healthy subjects, the ABR control over MSNA (burst incidence, burst ...
Fessel Joshua - - 2006
Orthostatic hypertension--a rise in blood pressure upon assuming upright posture-is an underappreciated and understudied clinical phenomenon. There is currently no widely agreed-upon definition of clinical orthostatic hypertension, the current definitions being operational within the context of particular studies. The underlying pathophysiology is thought to involve activation of the sympathetic nervous ...
Pathak Atul - - 2006
Blood pressure disorders are highly prevalent in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). They relate to autonomic failure and are frequently associated with orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension and supine hypertension. Supine hypertension, which may concern up to 50% of patients with PD and autonomic failure, is driven by residual sympathetic ...
Freitas J - - 2007
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) syndromes are frequent and share symptoms like dizziness and orthostatic syncope. Their pathophysiology however seems to be different. The aim of our work was to evaluate autonomic and hemodynamic behaviour in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy and neurally mediated syncope in supine position and after acute orthostatic ...
Gibbons Christopher H - - 2006
To investigate the prevalence, symptoms, and neurophysiologic features of delayed orthostatic hypotension (OH). Blood pressures (BP) were measured at 1-minute intervals on 230 patients during 60 degrees head-up tilt for 45 minutes and standing for 5 minutes. OH was defined as a sustained fall in BP (>or=20 mm Hg systolic ...
Krassioukov A V - - 2006
Prospective assessment of cardiovascular parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in response to harness application and postural changes including orthostatic stress. To evaluate arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) with and without harness application during sitting, supine, and standing positions in able-bodied and SCI individuals. Measurements were ...
Shibasaki Manabu - - 2006
Given the large increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during whole-body heat stress, this vascular bed is important in the regulation of blood pressure during orthostatic stress. In this thermal state, changes in CVC are reported to be due to withdrawal of active vasodilator activity. The purpose of this study ...
Cutuk Adnan - - 2006
The purpose of this study is to assess cardiovascular responses to lower body positive pressure (LBPP) and to examine the effects of LBPP unloading on gait mechanics during treadmill ambulation. We hypothesized that LBPP allows comfortable unloading of the body with minimal impact on the cardiovascular system and gait parameters. ...
Wilson Thad E - - 2006
Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. This study tested the following hypotheses: 1) whole body heat stress reduces cerebral blood velocity (CBV) and increases cerebral vascular resistance (CVR); and 2) reductions in CBV and increases in CVR in response to an orthostatic challenge will be greater while subjects ...
Naschitz Jochanan E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of different orthostatic hypotension (OH) patterns in patients having supine hypertension with OH ('SHOH') versus patients with OH and normal supine blood pressure ('OH alone'); and to relate OH patterns with outcomes on head-up tilt. METHODS: Consecutive patients with nonspecific dizziness were studied with a ...
Green Alexander L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation of the midbrain is known to influence blood pressure in animals. In humans, it is used for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Our aim was to assess whether orthostatic hypotension can be successfully treated with deep brain stimulation of the periventricular/periaqueductal gray areas in humans. METHODS: ...
Mayer Antje F - - 2006
Previous studies suggest that neuronal norepinephrine transporter function may regulate the distribution of sympathetic activity among blood vessels, heart, and kidney; we tested the functional relevance in humans. Sixteen healthy men (26+/-1 years) ingested 8 mg of the selective norepinephrine reuptake transporter inhibitor reboxetine or a matching placebo on 2 ...
Krediet C T Paul - - 2006
Vasovagal syncope is the most common cause of transient loss of consciousness, and recurrent vasovagal fainting has a profound impact on quality of life. Physical countermaneuvers are applied as a means of tertiary prevention but have so far only proven useful at the onset of a faint. This placebo-controlled crossover ...
Convertino Victor A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Breathing through an impedance threshold device (ITD) might prove effective as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension since it increased blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output in supine human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous breathing through an ITD would attenuate the reduction in stroke volume and ...
Berry Narelle M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular system is highly adaptable to sustained +Gz acceleration. Little is known as to whether the cardiovascular system can adapt to acute, repetitive +Gz exposures. This study tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular system would adapt to repeated orthostatic challenges in a single session. METHODS: Over a 70-min ...
Momen Afsana - - 2006
Renal circulatory adjustments to stress contribute to blood pressure and volume regulation. Both handgrip (HG) and disengagement of baroreflexes with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can engage the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of simultaneous HG and LBNP on the renal circulation in humans is not known. Eighteen ...
Murphy Dennis J - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Methods most commonly used for detecting susceptibility to orthostatic hypotension in humans include head-up tilt and the application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of LBNP for detecting drug-induced changes in susceptibility to orthostatic hypotension in conscious monkeys (Macaca ...
Duschek Stefan - - 2006
Alterations in cortical activation processes due to chronic low blood pressure were investigated. In 40 hypotensive subjects and 40 normotensive controls, the contingent negative variation (CNV), induced by a constant foreperiod reaction time task, was assessed at nine scalp sites (F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4). Additionally, ...
Wang Xue - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies show that cardiorespiratory variables are nonlinearly coupled. In the present study, we tested the feasibility of using bispectral analysis to estimate changes in nonlinear phase coupling. METHODS: We stimulated chemo- and baro-reflexes by switching inspired gas between air and air with 5% CO2 added during supine and ...
Naschitz J E - - 2006
The clinical syndrome of supine hypertension associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH) in given individuals is recognized by specialists, but is underdiagnosed in the community. The objective of this study was to assess supine hypertension associated with hypotensive reactions on head-up tilt (SH-HRT) among patients evaluated for nonspecific dizziness. Consecutive patients ...
Mattace-Raso Francesco U S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether arterial stiffening, one of the characteristics of the aging vascular system, is associated with orthostatic hypotension. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data of a cohort study in elderly men and women. PARTICIPANTS: We investigated the relationship between arterial stiffness and orthostatic hypotension within the framework of the Rotterdam Study, ...
Raffai Gábor - - 2006
Microgravity and simulated microgravity may cause cardiovascular deconditioning, but mechanisms of instantaneous responses to inverse-orthostasis are not studied. Hence, we investigated transient and steady state cardiovascular changes by combining the tilt technique with cardiovascular telemetry. Normotensive and NO-deprived hypertensive Wistar rats were used to analyze responses of mean arterial blood ...
Guo Hong - - 2006
We sought to determine whether cerebral autoregulation (CA) is compromised during orthostatic stress superimposed with systemic hypotension. Transient systemic hypotension was produced by deflation of thigh cuffs previously inflated to suprasystolic pressure, combined with or without lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Cardiac output (CO) decreased from a baseline of 5.0+/-0.5 ...
Cohen Eytan - - 2006
The study sought to determine the duration of standing needed to detect most cases of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in the emergency room (ER) and to correlate OH with symptoms, hospitalization and survival. Patients attending a tertiary-center ER within a 2-month period underwent orthostatic tests after 1, 3 and 5 min ...
Mathias Christopher J - - 2006
The spinal cord is essential for normal autonomic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system as the preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels originate in the thoracolumbar spinal segments. The site and extent of a spinal cord injury determine the degree of autonomic involvement in cardiovascular dysfunction after ...
Binzoni Tiziano - - 2006
The interest in, and the need for effective measures to be used in screening, diagnosis, and the follow-up of skeletal pathologies is growing markedly. This paper proposes a completely new and non-invasive technique allowing the study of the human tibia bone marrow (BM) haemodynamics with a time resolution of 1 ...
Vijayalakshmi P - - 2006
There are very few reports on the acute cardiovascular responses to head-down tilt of more than 30 degrees on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in human subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine the BP and HR response to five minutes of 30 degrees, 60 ...
Tan Maw Pin - - 2006
Falls in older people can be caused by underlying cardiovascular disorders, either because of balance instability in persons with background gait and balance disorders, or because of amnesia for loss of consciousness during unwitnessed syncope. Pertinent investigations include a detailed history, 12-lead electrocardiography, lying and standing blood pressure, carotid sinus ...
Janský L - - 2006
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether repeated local cooling induces the same or different adaptational responses as repeated whole body cooling. Repeated cooling of the legs (immersion into 12 degrees C water up to the knees for 30 min, 20 times during 4 weeks = local cold ...
Posner Lysa P - - 2005
The objective of this project was to evaluate the acid-base, blood gas, and physiologic parameters of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during laparoscopy in the head-down position. Eleven white-tailed does were captured and then immobilized with xylazine (6 mg/kg i.m.) and ketamine (7 mg/kg i.m.). The deer were intubated orotracheally and ...
Claydon V E - - 2006
Motor and sensory deficits are well-known consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). During the last decade, a significant number of experimental and clinical studies have focused on the investigation of autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular control following SCI. Numerous clinical reports have suggested that unstable blood pressure control in individuals with ...
Xiao Xinshu - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance continues to be a primary problem after space missions. Its etiology remains uncertain despite significant research efforts over the past years. We hypothesized that calf hemodynamic parameters (compliance and resistance) are significantly affected by 14 to 16-d head-down bed rest (simulated microgravity), and their alterations play ...
Cohen G A - - 2005
The aim of this study is to assess the reproducibility of a head-up tilt-table test protocol so it may be used to more accurately evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment protocol. Children between the ages of 10 and 18 years presenting to the cardiology department at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin ...
Dalla Pozza R - - 2005
Syncope represents a diagnostic challenge in patients affected by long-QT syndrome (LQTS). It is crucial for the therapeutic decision to distinguish between potentially life-threatening ventricular tachycardias (Torsadede-pointes) and-especially during adolescence-neurocardiogenic syncopes. This case report presents a patient with LQTS2 (mutation in the HERG gene) on medication with beta-blocker, in whom ...
Chang Angela T - - 2005
Passive tilting increases ventilation in healthy subjects; however, controversy surrounds the proposed mechanism. This study is aimed to evaluate the possible mechanism for changes to ventilation following passive head-up tilt (HUT) and active standing by comparison of a range of ventilatory, metabolic and mechanical parameters. Ventilatory parameters (V (T), V ...
Gibbons Christopher H - - 2005
The authors report a 46-year-old woman with antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (NiAchR) of the autonomic ganglia. She presented with severe orthostatic intolerance refractory to treatment with midodrine, fludrocortisone, erythropoietin, vasopressin, salt, and fluid loading. Addition of L-threo-3,4-dihidroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS) substantially improved blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance. L-DOPS may benefit ...
Goldstein David S - - 2005
Patients with Parkinson disease often have orthostatic hypotension. Neurocirculatory abnormalities underlying orthostatic hypotension might reflect levodopa treatment. Sixty-six Parkinson disease patients (36 with orthostatic hypotension, 15 off and 21 on levodopa; 30 without orthostatic hypotension) had tests of reflexive cardiovagal gain (decrease in interbeat interval per unit decrease in systolic ...
van Lieshout J J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The stroke volume (SV) of the heart depends on the diastolic volume but, for the intact organism, central pressures are applied widely to express the filling of the heart. METHODS: This study evaluates the interdependence of SV and thoracic electrical admittance of thoracic fluid content (TA) vs. the central ...
Laperrière E - - 2006
North American workers usually stand while working, and prolonged standing is associated with discomfort and cardiovascular problems. Since prolonged sitting is also associated with health problems, and standing postures differ as to mobility and access to seating, it is desirable to identify an optimal mix of postures. As a step ...
Kimmerly Derek S - - 2005
The purpose of the present study was to determine the cortical structures involved with integrated baroreceptor-mediated modulation of autonomic cardiovascular function in conscious humans independent of changes in arterial blood pressure. We assessed the brain regions associated with lower body negative pressure (LBNP)-induced baroreflex control using functional magnetic resonance imaging ...
Fortrat Jacques-Olivier - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sophisticated atrio-ventricular pacing models are designed to integrate the pacemaker into cardiovascular autonomic control to react appropriately to the cardiovascular demands. Such an approach might be beneficial for patients with vasovagal responses to counterbalance the upright fall in arterial blood pressure by a pacing rate increase. We hypothesized that ...
Diehl Rolf R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of the postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) includes the demonstration of an upright heart rate (HR) of at least 30 beats per minute (bpm) above supine HR. The dynamic behavior of HR during the course of standing has not yet been studied systematically in POTS. METHODS: HR ...
Kim Kye Hun - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It is known that approximately two-thirds of patients with vasovagal syncope have prodromal symptoms and when these start, physical maneuvers that can increase venous return may abort the syncopal attack. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of 3 physical maneuvers, squatting, leg-crossing with muscle tensing, ...
Carvalho D C L - - 2005
Blood pressure pattern was analyzed in 12 complete quadriplegics with chronic lesions after three months of treadmill gait training. Before training, blood pressure values were obtained at rest, during treadmill walking and during the recovery phase. Gait training was performed for 20 min twice a week for three months. Treadmill ...
Tanaka Kunihiko - - 2005
To examine a hypothesis that change in regional blood flow due to decreased hydrostatic pressure gradient and redistribution of blood during reduced gravity (rG) is different between organs, changes in cerebrocortical blood flow (CBF) and blood flow in the temporal muscle (MBF) with exposure to rG were measured in anesthetized ...
Benditt David G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: "Cough syncope" is uncommon, and its mechanism remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated susceptibility to cough-triggered neural reflex hypotension-bradycardia among cough syncope patients. We hypothesized that individuals with cough syncope would manifest not only more profound cough-triggered hypotension than do other fainters but also an inappropriate chronotropic response accompanying ...
Cooke William H - - 2005
Cardiovascular adaptations driven by exposure to weightlessness cause some astronauts to experience orthostatic intolerance upon return to Earth. Maladaptations of spaceflight that lead to hemodynamic instability are temporary, and therefore astronauts provide for researchers a powerful model to study cardiovascular dysfunction in terrestrial patients. Orthostatic intolerance in astronauts is linked ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >