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Boerrigter Guido G Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2011
The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) plays a key role in regulating cardiorenal function. Classic "unbiased" AT1R antagonists block receptor coupling to both G(αq) and ß-arrestin-mediated signals, which desensitize G-protein signaling as well as transduce G-protein-independent signals. TRV120027 is a novel ß-arrestin-biased AT1R ligand, which engages ß-arrestins while blocking ...
Tagashira Hideaki - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: We recently reported decreased σ1 receptor expression in the heart after abdominal aortic stenosis in bilateral ovariectomized rats. Here, we use ovariectomized female rats to investigate the distinct cardioprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in pressure overload (PO)-induced cardiac dysfunction. METHODS:: E2 (0.1 mg/kg) and DHEA (30 ...
Kusumoto Keiji - - 2011
The pharmacological profile of a novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, azilsartan medoxomil, was compared with that of the potent angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan medoxomil. Azilsartan, the active metabolite of azilsartan medoxomil, inhibited the binding of [(125)I]-Sar(1)-I1e(8)-angiotensin II to angiotensin II type 1 receptors. Azilsartan medoxomil inhibited angiotensin ...
Casserly Brian - - 2011
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a local regulator of vascular tone and remodeling in many vascular beds. However, the role of CNP in modulating pulmonary arterial hypertensive and vascular remodeling responses is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if CNP is capable of preventing the development of ...
Swan Christina E - - 2011
Hypertension is a well established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and is the leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Although a number of pharmacologic agents are available for the treatment of hypertension including agents that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), unmet needs in the treatment of hypertension ...
Bhagat R - - 2011
To investigate whether there is a change in airway rapidly adapting receptor (RAR) activity during high altitude exposure, rabbits were placed in a high altitude simulation chamber (barometric pressure, 429mm Hg). With 12h exposure, when there was pulmonary congestion, an increase in basal RAR activity was observed. With 36h exposure, ...
Bergaya Sonia - - 2011
Gain-of-function mutations in the human WNK1 (with-no-lysine[K]1) gene are responsible for a monogenic form of arterial hypertension, and WNK1 polymorphisms have been associated with common essential hypertension. The role of WNK1 in renal ionic reabsorption has been established, but no investigation of its possible influence on vascular tone, an essential ...
Li Huiping H Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, - - 2011
All components of the renin angiotensin system necessary for ANG II generation and action have been reported to be present in renal proximal convoluted tubules. Given the close relationship between renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation, we hypothesized that modulating the action of ANG II specifically in the renal ...
Goodwin Julie E - - 2011
Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension is a common clinical problem that is poorly understood, thus rendering treatment strategies sub-optimal. This form of hypertension has been commonly thought to be mediated by excess sodium and water reabsorption by the renal mineralocorticoid receptor. However, experimental and clinical data in both humans and animal models suggest ...
Goodwin Julie E - - 2011
Glucocorticoid-mediated hypertension is incompletely understood. Recent studies have suggested the primary mechanism of this form of hypertension may be through the effects of glucocorticoids on vascular tissues and not to excess sodium and water re-absorption as traditionally believed. The goal of this study was to better understand the role of ...
Perry Steve F - - 2011
Previous studies in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have demonstrated that dietary salt loading causes hypertension and a decreased sensitivity of the systemic vasculature to α-adrenergic stimulation, consistent with a possible blunting of homeostatic responses normally aimed at raising blood pressure. This idea was tested by examining the consequences of long-term ...
Park Hyun Woo - - 2011
Mutations in the serine-threonine kinase with-no-lysine 4 (WNK4) cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 (PHAII), a Mendelian form of human hypertension. WNK4 regulates diverse ion transporters in the kidney, and dysregulation of renal transporters is considered the main cause of the WNK4 mutation-associated hypertension. Another determinant of hypertension is vascular tone that ...
Satrawaha Sirichom - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An increase in intrapulpal pressure occurs during inflammation and restorative procedures; however, the role of the pressure on human dental pulp cell (HDPC) is not yet clarified. In this study, the effect of pressure on interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression of HDPCs was examined. DESIGN: HDPCs were applied with ...
Gomez-Sanchez Elise P EP Research Service, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center, 1500 Woodrow Wilson Dr., Jackson, MS 39216, USA. - - 2012
Addition of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists to standard therapy for heart failure, kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes is increasing steadily in response to clinical trials demonstrating clear benefits. In addition to blocking deleterious activity of MR within the heart, vessels and kidneys, MR antagonists target MR in hemodynamic regulatory ...
Rieg Timo T Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92161, USA. - - 2011
ATP and UTP are endogenous agonists of P2Y(2/4) receptors. To define the in vivo effects of P2Y(2) receptor activation on blood pressure and urinary excretion, we compared the response to INS45973, a P2Y(2/4) receptor agonist and UTP analog, in wild-type (WT) and P2Y(2) receptor knockout (P2Y(2)-/-) mice. INS45973 was administered ...
Matsui Yoshio - - 2011
The maximum office systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, independently of the mean SBP level. However, the clinical implications of maximum home SBP have never been reported. We investigated the association between the maximum home SBP and target organ damage (TOD). ...
Stiefel P - - 2011
Aldosterone facilitates cardiovascular damage by increasing blood pressure and through different mechanisms that are independent of its effects on blood pressure. In this respect, recent evidence involves aldosterone in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Although this relationship is complex, there is some evidence suggesting that different factors may play an ...
Kaczyńska Katarzyna - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aortic depressor nerve (ADN) transection, supranodosal vagi denervation (NG vagi cut) and adrenergic receptor blocker treatment on the cardiovascular responses evoked by systemic injection of bombesin. The cardiovascular effects were studied in spontaneously breathing rats that were (i) ...
Zhou Xiaoyan X Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, USA. - - 2011
We investigated the effects of chronic mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with eplerenone on the development and progression of hypertension and end organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Eplerenone significantly attenuated the progressive rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (204 ± 3 vs. 179±3 mmHg, p < 0.05), reduced proteinuria (605.5 ± ...
Kakade R H - - 2011
A double drum dryer working under atmospheric pressure was developed for water evaporation rate of 20 kg/h. Potato slurry of 12% solid concentration was dried to obtain potato flakes. Experiments were carried out at drum speed of 5 to 30 rpm, steam pressure 2 to7 kg/cm(2) gauge (saturation temperature 120-164 °C) and liquid level ...
Navasiolava Nastassia M - - 2011
Actual and simulated microgravity induces hypovolemia and cardiovascular deconditioning, associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that vasoconstriction of skin microcirculatory bed should be altered following 7days of simulated microgravity in order to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis during active standing. Eight healthy men were studied before and after 7days of simulated microgravity ...
Jan Yih-Kuen - - 2010
To investigate the efficacy of wheelchair tilt-in-space and recline on enhancing skin perfusion over the ischial tuberosity in wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). Repeated-measures, intervention, and outcomes-measure design. A university research laboratory. Wheelchair users with SCI (N=11; 9 men, 2 women; mean ± SD age, 37.7±14.2y; body mass ...
Porta Alberto - - 2011
In physiological conditions, heart period (HP) affects systolic arterial pressure (SAP) through diastolic runoff and Starling's law, but, the reverse relation also holds as a result of the continuous action of baroreflex control. The prevailing mechanism sets the dominant temporal direction in the HP-SAP interactions (i.e., causality). We exploited cross-conditional ...
Schroeder Christoph - - 2011
We tested the hypothesis that detailed anthropometric and hemodynamic measurements predict orthostatic tolerance in neurally mediated syncope patients. In addition, we tested whether orthostatic tolerance is related to syncope frequency in real life. Earlier studies in patients with neurally mediated syncope suggested that orthostatic heart rate and blood pressure responses ...
Roessler Andreas - - 2011
We investigated whether head up tilt (HUT) with and without simultaneous epinephrine infusion modulate plasma adrenomedullin. We studied eight healthy male volunteers, using two 5 min 70° HUT trials: control (saline infusion) and intervention (epinephrine infusion, titrated to a dose which increased supine systolic pressure by 20% above resting values). Protocols ...
Bressel Eadric - - 2010
Bicycle seat pressure is thought to be the principal risk factor for bicycle seat injuries such as erectile dysfunction; however there is a lack of understanding regarding the characteristics of a cyclist that predict bicycle seat pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine if select attributes of a ...
Montesano Marilisa - - 2010
The aim of our study was to investigate cardiovascular autonomic activity during wakefulness, using cardiovascular tests, in a population of children with OSAS. Prospective study. Sleep unit of an academic center. We included 25 children (mean age 10.2 +/- 2.3 years) undergoing a diagnostic assessment for OSAS, and 25 age-matched ...
Stenger Michael B - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance affects approximately 30% of short-duration and 80% of long-duration crewmembers. While the current NASA antigravity suit is effective during Space Shuttle re-entry, it is not designed to be worn postflight and has several drawbacks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of commercially ...
Crandall C G - - 2010
As much as 50% of cardiac output can be distributed to the skin in the hyperthermic human, and therefore the control of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) becomes critical for the maintenance of blood pressure. Little is known regarding the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction in profoundly hypotensive individuals while heat stressed. ...
Hachiya T - - 2010
Central blood volume loss to venous pooling in the lower extremities and vasoconstrictor response are commonly viewed as key factors to distinguish between individuals with high and low tolerance to orthostatic stress. In this study, we analyzed calf vasoconstriction as a function of venous pooling during simulated orthostatic stress. We ...
Czarkowska Hanna - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is not clear how cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction can affect falls in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic responses to orthostatic stress and occurrence of falls in PD patients over a period of 1-2 years. MATERIAL AND ...
Tzeng Yu-Chieh - - 2010
The cerebrovasculature dilates or constricts in response to acute blood pressure changes to stabilize cerebral blood flow across a range of blood pressures. It is unclear, however, whether such dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is equally effective in responding to falling versus rising blood pressure. In this study we applied a ...
Bundgaard-Nielsen Morten - - 2010
Both hypovolemia and a fluid overload are detrimental for outcome in surgical patients but the effort to establish normovolemia is hampered by the lack of an operational clinical definition. Manipulating the central blood volume on a tilt table demonstrates that the flat part of the Frank-Starling curve is reached when ...
Folino Antonio Franco - - 2010
The aim of our study was to identify specific age-related hemodynamic changes during upright tilt test in patients with vasovagal syncope. We studied 115 subjects who were referred to us for unexplained syncope during 65 degrees tilt with pharmacological challenge (s.l. nitrate) by noninvasive monitoring of blood pressure (Finometer). Two ...
Ryan Kathy L - - 2010
Heart period variability (HPV) metrics have been suggested for use in medical monitoring of trauma patients. This study sought to ascertain the use of various HPV metrics in tracking central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage in individual humans. One hundred one healthy nonsmoking volunteers (58 men, 43 women) were instrumented ...
Iacoviello Massimo - - 2010
AIMS: The involvement of arterial baroreflex function in the pathophysiology of vasovagal syncope (VVS) is controversial, and there are no published data supporting its clinical usefulness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) at baseline and during head-up tilt testing (HUT) in ...
Czajkowska Jadwiga - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The move from lying to standing is typically associated with a variety of physiological and neurohumoral changes, most especially a slight increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Decreased efficacy of the various mechanisms that control orthostatic blood pressure (BP) regulation may result in lightheadedness, dizziness, syncope, and cerebral hypoperfusion. ...
Fagard Robert H - - 2010
Aims of the study were to assess in an elderly population the prevalences of orthostatic hypotension at different times after standing and of nighttime reverse dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, as well as their interrelationships and relative prognostic power for incident cardiovascular events. The study population consisted of 374 ...
Koehle Michael S - - 2010
PURPOSE: Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) augments the acute hypoxic ventilatory response (AHVR) in humans, presumably through altered central integration of baro- and chemoreceptor afferents. This study investigated the effects of LBNP and lower body positive pressure (LBPP) on hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD) in humans. METHODS: Nine individuals (4 females ...
Dimitrow Pawel Petkow - - 2010
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG) measured both in supine and upright position (provocative maneuver to unload LV cavity by rapid preload reduction). Supine/standing echocardiography was performed immediately before and immediately after HD. For additional verification ...
Clarke Debbie A DA Department of Pediatrics, The Center for Hypotension, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, - - 2010
Initial orthostatic hypotension is common in children. Isometric handgrip increases arterial pressure, central blood volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance. We show that in 14 subjects with initial orthostatic hypotension, isometric handgrip coupled with standing abolished symptoms of initial orthostatic hypotension and minimized decreases in blood pressure and cardiac ...
Kamiya Atsunori - - 2010
Since humans are under ceaseless orthostatic stress, the mechanisms to maintain arterial pressure (AP) against gravitational fluid shift are important. As one mechanism, it was reported that upright tilt reset baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to a higher SNA in anesthetized rabbits. In the present study, we ...
Goldstein David S DS Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1620, USA. - - 2011
L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), a norepinephrine (NE) prodrug, is investigational for orthostatic hypotension, which occurs commonly in Parkinson's disease. Adjunctive anti-parkinsonian drugs might interact with L-DOPS. We tested whether L-aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase inhibition by carbidopa (CAR) attenuates L-DOPS conversion to NE and blocks the pressor effect of L-DOPS, whereas catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition by ...
Koseoglu Zikret - - 2010
Cardiotoxicity is an important adverse effect of tricyclic antidepressants. But cardiac side effects after intoxication with the tetracyclic mianserin are rare. In this paper, we describe a case in which bradycardia and hypotension occured due to mianserin overdose. A 37-year-old woman was admitted to the medical intensive care unit for ...
Skinner Joline E - - 2010
This descriptive population study of 307 public high school students, ages 15 to 17 years, was performed to establish reference ranges for orthostatic changes in heart rate and blood pressure in adolescents, and to identify influential variables. Noninvasive measurements of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. Reference ranges for ...
Peltier Amanda C AC Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, A-0118 Medical Center North, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. - - 2010
We report the case of a 55-year-old man with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent radiation, chemotherapy with carbotaxol and paclitaxel, and left upper lobe removal 2 years prior to evaluation. He was referred for disabling orthostatic hypotension (113/69 mm Hg supine and 66/47 mm Hg standing after 10 minutes) without ...
Livingstone Kristina - - 2010
Although head-up tilt and upright standing are common methods used to induce orthostatic stress, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is another safe and easy technique that induces orthostatic stress independently of gravity. However, the use of LBNP in children has never been investigated. The purpose of this pilot study was ...
Coats Brandon W - - 2010
One proposed method to overcome postflight orthostatic intolerance is for astronauts to undergo inflight centrifugation. Cardiovascular responses were compared between centrifuge and gravitational conditions using a seven-compartment cardiovascular model. Vascular resistance, heart rate, and stroke volume values were adopted from literature, while compartmental volumes and compliances were derived from impedance ...
Minns Alicia B - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Guanfacine is an alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders. Few reports exist regarding overdose with guanfacine. CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old female with Tourette's syndrome presented with diaphoresis, dry mouth, and hypertension 8 h after ingesting 25 mg of guanfacine. These symptoms improved ...
Jarvis Sara S - - 2010
The volume indifferent point (VIP) is the point within the circulation where blood volume does not change with changes in posture. Because both volume and pressure are unaffected by posture at this point, its location should dictate the filling gradient to the heart. Previously we identified a contribution of the ...
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