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Krebs Christian - - 2012
BackgroundCCR5 is expressed on infiltrating T cells in hypertensive mice and CCR5 antagonists reduce hypertension making CCR5 an interesting target in treatment of hypertension.MethodsTo evaluate the role of CCR5 in hypertensive renal and cardiac end-organ damage, we induced hypertension with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in wild-type ...
Iwata Shinichi - - 2012
Atherosclerotic plaque in the aortic arch is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although high blood pressure (BP) measured at the doctor's office is known to be associated with aortic atherosclerosis, little is known on the association between 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic arch plaque presence and severity. Our ...
Gavras Irene - - 2012
It is widely believed that salt-dependent hypertension is induced and maintained by expansion of intravascular fluid volume resulting from excessive retention of sodium. The purpose of this brief article is to present a series of arguments in support of the thesis that volume overload per se does not raise the ...
Paulis Ludovit - - 2012
Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct marker of arterial stiffness, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Although the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade belongs to major antihypertensive and cardioprotective therapies, less is known about the effects of long-term stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. Previously, compound 21, ...
Al-Nimer Marwan S - - 2012
Hypertension is the most important controllable and modifiable risk factor for stroke. The relationship between blood pressure and stroke mortality is strong and linear. Angiotensin receptor blockers (sartans) are competitive pharmacological antagonists of angiotensin II receptors, and some of them are approved for use in the treatment of hypertension. These ...
Clark Vernessa R - - 2012
The purpose of our study was to determine which measure of obesity is better at predicting cardiovascular risk in African Americans. We hypothesized that BMI alone would be significantly associated with cardiovascular reactivity. We also hypothesized that waist circumference alone would be significantly associated with cardiovascular reactivity. Lastly, we hypothesized ...
Kim In Byung - - 2012
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. We performed a prospective observational study and applied recently published consensus criteria to measure and describe the incidence of IAH and ACS, identify risk factors for their development and define their association with outcomes. We ...
Masugata H - - 2012
This study examined the association between cardiac function and pulmonary function in hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients without overt cardiovascular disease were enrolled (n = 43; mean ± SD age 71 ± 9 years). Pulmonary function was measured by the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) and the ratio of ...
Kidambi Srividya - - 2012
A recent genome wide association study in 1017 African Americans identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms that reached genome-wide significance for systolic blood pressure. We attempted to replicate these findings in an independent sample of 2474 unrelated African Americans in the Milwaukee metropolitan area; 53% were women and 47% were hypertensives. ...
Guo Youling - - 2012
Hypertension is caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The condition which is very common, with about 18% of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population and over 50% of older individuals affected, is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. To identify genes influencing hypertension and blood pressure, we ...
Gaál Emília Ilona - - 2012
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of complex trait loci, the pathomechanisms of most remain elusive. Studying the genetics of risk factors predisposing to disease is an attractive approach to identify targets for functional studies. Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are rupture-prone pouches at cerebral artery branching sites. IA is ...
Duarte Julio D - - 2012
Nearly one-third of the United States adult population suffers from hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), one of the most commonly used medications to treat hypertension, has variable efficacy. The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) provides a mechanism for fine-tuning sodium excretion, and is a major regulator of blood pressure homeostasis. DOT1L, MLLT3, ...
Liang Jun - - 2012
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 ...
Gan Wei - - 2012
Dysregulation of the complement system has been linked to pathogenesis of hypertension. However, whether genetic changes of complement factor H (CFH) and its related genes are associated with hypertension is unknown. We genotyped three SNPs in the CFH gene cluster that are closely linked to age-related macular degeneration, namely rs1061170 ...
Kumar Pradeep - - 2012
Due to their self-catalytic properties, small RNAs with bulge bases are hypothesized to be primordial molecules which could form elementary translation systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the binding propensity of small RNAs by calculating the free energy barrier corresponding to the looped out conformations of bulge bases, which ...
El Shamieh Said - - 2012
Although numerous genetic studies have been performed, only 0.9% of blood pressure phenotypic variance has been elucidated. This phenomenon could be partially due to epistatic interactions. Our aim was to identify epistatic interaction(s) associated with blood pressure levels in a pre-planned two-phase approach. In a discovery cohort composed of 3,600 ...
Winokur Eric S ES Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2012
A continuous, wearable and wireless vital signs monitor at the ear is demonstrated. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. The device monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a single lead configuration, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) with ...
Dimitriadis K - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests that the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is implicated in the development of vascular disease. We investigated the interrelationships of sRAGE with albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 309 untreated non-diabetic hypertensives, ACR ...
Hamza Shereen M - - 2011
In portal hypertension (PH), development of a hyperdynamic circulation is preceded by transient mesenteric vasoconstriction. PH increases splenic venous outflow pressure. We hypothesized that this causes direct reflex activation of mesenteric vasoconstrictor nerves and splenorenal reflex-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In anaesthetized male rats, we measured mesenteric efferent nerve ...
Renda Giulia - - 2011
Background: The widely observed between-subject variability in cardiovascular responses to coffee may have a genetic basis.Objective: We evaluated acute blood pressure (BP) responses to caffeine and explored whether they are influenced by candidate gene variants affecting caffeine metabolism (for cytochrome P450 1A2), adenosine metabolism (for adenosine receptor and AMP deaminase), ...
Bucolo Claudio - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of D(3) receptor on intraocular pressure regulation using WT and KO D(3)R(-/-) mice. Both mice were used with normal eye pressure or steroid-induced ocular hypertension. As measured by tonometry, the topical application of 7-OH-DPAT, a dopamine D(3)-preferring receptor agonist, ...
Ehrentraut Stefan - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Severe sepsis and septic shock are often accompanied by acute cardiovascular depression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can induce septic organ dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo impact of pharmacological TLR4 antagonism on LPS-induced cardiovascular depression using eritoran tetrasodium (E5564). ...
Yu Jun - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist on the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in rat retinal Müller cells at elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of GS and GFAP was used for the identification ...
Kappers Mariëtte H W - - 2011
Angiogenesis inhibition with agents targeting tyrosine kinases of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors is an established anticancer treatment, but is, unfortunately, frequently accompanied by systemic hypertension and cardiac toxicity. Whether vascular endothelial growth factor receptor antagonism also has adverse effects on the pulmonary and coronary circulations is presently unknown. In ...
Napolitano Raffaele - - 2011
BackgroundG-Protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) represents a regulator of cell function in different cardiovascular conditions, including high blood pressure. The relationship between elevated GRK2 levels and impaired vasorelaxant responses is causative of hypertension through the increase in vascular resistances. The aim of this study is to ascertain if this ...
Dabertrand Fabrice - - 2012
Gravity has a structural role for living systems. Tissue development, architecture, and organization are modified when the gravity vector is changed. In particular, microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume and thus pressure in the astronaut body, abolishing an upright blood pressure gradient, inducing orthostatic hypotension. The present study was ...
Igase Michiya M Department of Geriatric Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon City, Ehime 791-0295, - - 2011
Controversy exists as to whether angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) acts as a protective hormone against renal injury. We compared the degree of improvement of hypertensive nephropathy following 8 weeks' treatment with either the angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist olmesartan medoxomil or the cardioselective beta blocker atenolol in 8-week-old spontaneously ...
Comiter Craig - - 2011
Local renin-angiotensin systems are common throughout the human body. Recent evidence supports the existence of such local renin-angiotensin systems in the penis, clitoris, bladder, ureter, internal anal sphincter, and urethral sphincter. Beyond its role in regulating blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone, sodium balance, and fluid homeostasis, angiotensin ...
Begg Denovan P - - 2011
Dietary deficiency of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 DEF) produces hypertension in later life. This study examined the effect of ω-3 DEF on blood pressure and hypothalamic gene expression in young rats, before the development of hypertension, and in older rats following the onset of hypertension. Animals were fed experimental diets ...
Stokes Leanne - - 2011
The P2X4 receptor is involved in endothelium-dependent changes in large arterial tone in response to shear stress and is, therefore, potentially relevant to arterial compliance and pulse pressure. Four identified nonsynonymous polymorphisms in P2RX4 were reproduced in recombinantly expressed human P2X4. Electrophysiological studies showed that one of these, the Tyr315>Cys ...
McCarty Catherine A CA Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, USA. - - 2012
To evaluate the association between variants in the prostaglandin F(α) receptor (PTGFR) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family 2A1 (SLCO2A1) genes and intraocular pressure (IOP) response to prostaglandin analogs. The medical records of subjects with previously diagnosed open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were searched for intraocular pressure measurements ...
Di Stefano M - - 2011
There are limited data concerning the effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor activation on esophageal motility. Sumatriptan, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, was recently reported to enhance esophageal peristalsis after intravenous administration. Buspirone, an orally available 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, was shown to modulate gastroduodenal motor function. Our aim was to evaluate the effect ...
Lam Sum - - 2011
Hypertension is a common chronic disease that leads to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Blood pressure control is essential to prevent end-organ complications, such as stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, or kidney disease. Azilsartan is the eighth angiotensin II receptor blocker approved for the management of hypertension, alone or in ...
Fujiwara Yoko - - 2011
A prompt rise in blood pressure occurs when arginine-vasopressin is administered in quantities adequate to activate vascular V1a subtype vasopressin receptors. However, it has been controversial whether the endogenous vasopressin-V1a system contributes to the maintenance of basal blood pressure during normal development and aging. Mutant mice lacking the V1a receptor ...
Sestito A - - 2011
Arterial hypertension and its pharmacological control are discussed in view of the high cardiovascular risk due to lack of target blood pressure achievement. It is, therefore, underlined the need for a highly effective therapy, able to provide protection from organ damage through a marked antihypertensive activity. In addition to this ...
Hysek Cedric M - - 2011
The mechanism of action of 3,4-methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) involves the carrier-mediated and potentially vesicular release of monoamines. We assessed the effects of the sympatholytic α2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (150 µg, p.o.), which inhibits the neuronal vesicular release of norepinephrine, on the cardiovascular and psychotropic response to MDMA (125 mg, p.o.) ...
Hockel Konstantin - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Arginine vasopressin V(1) receptors have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of acute brain injury. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of arginine vasopressin V(1) receptors after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to SAH by endovascular puncture received either vehicle or ...
Ito Koji - - 2011
Aims Depression often coexists with cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension and heart failure, in which sympathetic hyperactivation is critically involved. Reduction of the brain sigma-1 receptor (S1R) functions in depression pathogenesis via neuronal activity modulation. We hypothesized that reduced brain S1R exacerbates heart failure, especially with pressure-overload via sympathetic hyperactivation ...
Thomsen M - - 2012
The β(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is located on smooth muscle cells and is an important regulator of smooth muscle tone. The Thr164Ile polymorphism (rs1800888) in the ADRB2 gene is rare but has profound functional consequences on receptor function and could cause lifelong elevated smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis ...
Unger Thomas - - 2011
The conventional antihypertensive therapies including renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists (converting enzyme inhibitors, receptor blockers, renin inhibitors, and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers), diuretics, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers are variably successful in achieving the challenging target blood pressure values in hypertensive patients. Difficult to treat hypertension is still a commonly observed problem world-wide. ...
Hekmat Ava Soltani - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Apelin and its receptor APJ have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. Apelin was shown to elicit hypotensive effects and also a positive inotropic effect on failing hearts. In this study, we investigated the effect of apelin on blood pressure and cardiac contractility in a two-kidney-one-clip ...
Park Jin Baek - - 2011
Probenecid has long been used in the treatment of gout. Its anti-gout mechanisms consist of uric acid reuptake inhibition and the consequent facilitation of uric acid excretion. In the present study, we investigated whether probenecid could exert an anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The noninvasive indirect tail cuff ...
Lazich Ivana - - 2011
The necessity for new and more effective management approaches to achieve blood pressure goals is still present in spite of the number of antihypertensive medications available. One of the cornerstones of successful therapy is implementation of drug combinations that act on complementary biological pathways. This review article focuses on the ...
Vasiliou S - - 2011
The use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) represents a favorable approach for the control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Azilsartan medoxomil, a prodrug that undergoes rapid hydrolysis to its active moiety azilsartan, is an angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist with promising antihypertensive activity and a good safety profile. The ...
McMullen Michael K MK School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK. - - 2011
The immediate and short-term chemosensory impacts of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular activity. Caffeine is detected by 5 of the 25 gustatory bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) as well as by intestinal STC-1 cell lines. Thus there is a possibility that caffeine may elicit reflex autonomic responses via chemosensory stimulation. The ...
Fukuda Michio - - 2011
Recently, we found that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) restored the circadian rhythm of the blood pressure (BP) from a non-dipper to dipper pattern, similar to that achieved with sodium intake restriction and diuretics. ARB enhanced natriuresis during the day, while BP was markedly lower during the night, resulting ...
Crowley Steven D - - 2011
Activation of type 1 angiotensin II (AT(1)) receptors in the kidney promotes blood pressure elevation and target organ damage, but whether renal AT(1) receptors influence the level of hypertension by stimulating sodium retention or by raising systemic vascular resistance has not been established. In the current studies, we used a ...
Barrios Vivencio - - 2011
Although all of the first-line antihypertensive drugs effectively reduce blood pressure, there are some conditions that may favor the use of angiotensin receptor blockers over others, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, renal dysfunction, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome, among others. This manuscript reviewed the data supporting the use of candesartan ...
Boerrigter Guido G Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2011
The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) plays a key role in regulating cardiorenal function. Classic "unbiased" AT1R antagonists block receptor coupling to both G(αq) and ß-arrestin-mediated signals, which desensitize G-protein signaling as well as transduce G-protein-independent signals. TRV120027 is a novel ß-arrestin-biased AT1R ligand, which engages ß-arrestins while blocking ...
Tagashira Hideaki - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: We recently reported decreased σ1 receptor expression in the heart after abdominal aortic stenosis in bilateral ovariectomized rats. Here, we use ovariectomized female rats to investigate the distinct cardioprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in pressure overload (PO)-induced cardiac dysfunction. METHODS:: E2 (0.1 mg/kg) and DHEA (30 ...
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