Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1598
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Hisdal Jonny - - 2002
Mild (0 to -20 mmHg) lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has traditionally been considered to elicit reflex responses mediated by cardiopulmonary baroreceptors only, without any arterial baroreflex involvement. Mild LBNP has therefore frequently been used to study the influence of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors on the human circulatory system. In a previous ...
Stewart Julian M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is characterized by postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) with exaggerated tachycardia, orthostatic symptoms, and "pooling" (which comprises acrocyanosis and dependent edema when upright). My colleagues and I tested the hypothesis that pooling results from increased venous compliance in POTS patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients aged 13 to ...
Mukai Seiji - - 2002
A common problem among elderly people, orthostatic hypotension is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which may be caused by medications, the cumulative effects of age- and hypertension-related alterations in blood pressure regulation, or age-associated diseases that impair autonomic function. Evaluation requires multiple blood pressure measurements taken at different times ...
Hilz M J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral autoregulation was assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in 10 patients with familial dysautonomia and 10 age matched controls. METHODS: Blood pressure, heart rate, and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFV) were simultaneously recorded when supine and during 180 seconds of head up tilt. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was ...
Tsutsui Yuka - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is warranted to test the hypothesis that the orthostatic tolerance does not diminish in the aging process per se in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of aging on cardiovascular response and baroreflex sensitivity during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) ...
Heitterachi Edward - - 2002
BACKGROUND: orthostatic hypotension may be an important risk factor for falls, though this has not yet been demonstrated in prospective studies. This may be because conventional methods of measuring blood pressure changes are too imprecise and not optimally timed. OBJECTIVES: to determine whether changes in blood pressure induced by upright ...
Vloet Lilian C M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: orthostatic hypotension is a common and potentially dangerous condition in elderly patients, often accompanied by dizziness and falls. To diagnose orthostatic hypotension, many physicians rely on blood pressure measurements performed by nurses. DESIGN: observational and descriptive study. SETTING: departments of Internal Medicine, Geriatric Medicine, and Surgery in eight hospitals ...
Jardine D L - - 2002
The importance of cardiac output (CO) to blood pressure level during vasovagal syncope is unknown. We measured thermodilution CO, mean blood pressure (MBP), and leg muscle mean sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) each minute during 60 degrees head-up tilt in 26 patients with recurrent syncope. Eight patients tolerated tilt (TT) for ...
Mathias Christopher J - - 2002
A fundamental human expectation is to stand upright. This exposes the cardiovascular system to gravitational forces, with a fall in pressure above heart level exposing organs such as the brain to impaired perfusion if adequate adaptive mechanisms are not activated. The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the ...
Chandler Margaret P - - 2002
Continuous haemodynamic responses to head-up tilt (HUT) and its reversal were studied in 21 subjects with sympathetic denervation due to primary chronic autonomic failure; 10 had pure autonomic failure (PAF; peripheral failure) and 11 had multiple system atrophy (MSA; central failure); 8 healthy subjects (controls) also were studied. Supine systolic, ...
Harada Chizuru C Oita Medical University, School of Nursing, Hasama, Japan. - - 2002
This pilot study was undertaken to determine the effects of a 10-degree leg elevation for 30-degree head-up position on body displacement and sacral interface pressure for 2 hours. The study used a comparative, quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. A convenience sample of 10 healthy Japanese women was used. Body displacement ...
Yamasaki Masao - - 2002
To clarify the effects of the head-down tilt (HDT) posture on the postnatal development of the aortic baroreflex, we raised rabbits from 3-4 weeks of age for 34-36 d in this posture, which simulates the headward shift of body fluid in space, and examined the structural and functional characteristics of ...
Shannon John R - - 2002
PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS ...
Faber J - - 2002
In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH] despite free thyroxine [T(4)] and triiodothyronine [T(3)] estimates within reference range) ...
Vaitl Dieter - - 2002
This article examines the relation between the perception of one's own body position and the distribution of fluid along the subject's spinal (z-) axis. Two experiments are reported. The first one is a replication of the Vaitl et al. study [J. Psychophysiol. 27 (1997) 99] which has shown that changes ...
Toska Karin - - 2002
Mechanisms involved in the control of arterial pressure during postural changes were studied by analysis of the dynamic time course of cardiovascular changes during head-up tilt (HUT) and tilt back to supine position (TB). Beat-to-beat values of cardiovascular variables were recorded continuously before, during, and after passive HUT to 30 ...
Hofer C K - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is still controversial whether elevated cardiac filling pressures after the onset of pneumoperitoneum are the consequence of increased intrathoracic pressure or of increased venous return. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pneumoperitoneum and body positioning on intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV). METHODS: Thirty anesthetized ...
Jordan Jens - - 2002
Orthostatic hypotension is seen in various medical conditions. It can be secondary to medications or volume depletion. It can also be due to autonomic neuropathy secondary to other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, or to primary degenerative processes of the autonomic nervous system. Orthostatic hypotension dominates the clinical picture of ...
Kimmerly Derek S - - 2002
Humans exposed to real or simulated microgravity experience decrements in blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress that may be related to autonomic dysregulation and/or hypovolemia. We examined the hypothesis that hypovolemia, without the deconditioning effects of bed rest or spaceflight, would augment the sympathoneural and vasomotor response to graded orthostatic ...
Loke G P Y - - 2002
Forty women presenting for elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomly assigned to have anaesthesia induced in the right lateral position either in the horizontal position or with 10 degrees head-up tilt. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 2 ml 0.5% with 0.1 mg of morphine was injected intrathecally before the parturients were ...
Peterson Kristy - - 2002
A numerical model of the cardiovascular system was used to quantify the influences on cardiac function of intrathoracic pressure and intravascular and intraventricular hydrostatic pressure, which are fundamental biomechanical stimuli for orthostatic response. The model included a detailed arterial circulation with lumped parameter models of the atria, ventricles, pulmonary circulation, ...
Schroeder Christoph - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Observations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effect of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on cardiovascular responses to cold ...
Pitzalis Mariavittoria - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic reductions in arterial pressure have been reported to occur before the onset of tilt-induced syncope. We investigated the predictive value of these reductions for a positive tilt result. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a first study, 238 consecutive healthy subjects with unexplained syncope underwent a passive tilt table test. ...
Suzuki Takashi - - 2002
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to examine perioperative alterations in hemodynamic changes with head-up tilt (HUT) in patients undergoing endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS). METHODS: The subjects were 11 patients with essential hyperhidrosis scheduled to undergo ETS (ETS group) and 9 age-matched volunteers undergoing minor surgery (control group). HUT was performed (40 ...
Rees S G O - - 2002
Sixty healthy women undergoing elective Caesarean section were randomly allocated to either a measured 15 degrees left table tilt position (n = 31) or full left lateral position (n = 29) for a 15-min period after spinal blockade. Arm and leg blood pressure, ephedrine requirements, symptoms, fetal heart rate, cord ...
Cavalcanti Silvio - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A large inter-subject variability exists in the arterial pressure response to hemodialysis-induced blood volume (BV) withdrawal. We investigated the hypothesis that this variability is due to the inter-subject differences in the short-term reflex capacity to compensate for hypovolemia. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the percentage ...
Prisk G Kim - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Head-down tilt (HDT) of 6 degrees is a commonly used model of weightlessness, but there are few comparisons with actual microgravity. HYPOTHESIS: Our study was designed to prove that the changes in cardiopulmonary function seen in HDT would be similar to those seen in microgravity. METHODS: We compared measurements ...
Yalcin Ahmet U─čur - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Recently some pathogenetic parallels have been drawn between dialysis-induced hypotension and disorders characterized by hemodynamic instability due to autonomic dysfunction, such as neurocardiogenic syncope and idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. Several studies have shown that central serotonergic pathways participate in the abnormal response, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve the symptoms ...
Vijayalakshmi P - - 2002
Time course of systolic time interval (STI) variations during 60 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) was studied in 21 patients with essential hypertension and equal number of age-matched control subjects. ECG, Phonocardiogram and carotid pulse were recorded simultaneously on polygraph. Electromechanical systole (QS2), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), pre ejection period ...
Nakajima Yasufumi - - 2002
Thermoregulation interacts with cardiovascular regulation within the central nervous system. We therefore evaluated the effects of head-down tilt on intraoperative thermal and cardiovascular regulation. Thirty-two patients undergoing lower-abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to the 1) supine, 2) 15 degrees -20 degrees head-down tilt, 3) leg-up, or 4) combination of leg-up ...
Ertl Andrew C - - 2002
Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight alterations. We tested the hypotheses ...
Shiraishi Makoto - - 2002
The hypothesis was tested that acute water immersion to the neck (WI) compared with 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) induces a more pronounced distension of the heart and lower plasma levels of vasoconstrictor hormones. Ten healthy males underwent 30 min of HDT, WI, and a seated control (randomized). During WI, ...
Arbeille P - - 2001
The objective of this investigation was to identify the major cardiovascular changes induced by exposure to real or simulated Og (spaceflights: 6, 14, 21 and 25 days, and 6 months; head down tilt, HDT: 10 h, 4, 5, 7, 30 and 42 days), with a minimum of counter-measures. The following ...
Kawanokuchi J - - 2001
To clarify the response of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to static stimulation of otolith organs in a craniocaudal direction (+Gz) in humans, we examined the effect of otolith stimulation on MSNA without changing the effect of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors using a 6-8.5 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) and lower body negative ...
Fulco C S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Increased blood level of norepinephrine, a primary alpha-adrenergic agonist, is associated with high-altitude exposure, and may help regulate key physiological functions (e.g., blood pressure). We hypothesized that blocking alpha1-adrenergic receptors would impair circulatory compensation for an orthostatic challenge to a greater extent at altitude than at sea level. METHODS: ...
Omboni S - - 2001
In the present study, we have assessed in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension the haemodynamics underlying the reduced tolerance to standing after prolonged recumbency at night. In 10 patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (age 33-68 years), of which seven were being treated with fludrocortisone and/or sleeping in the 12 degrees ...
Convertino V A - - 2001
We measured central venous pressure (CVP); plasma volume (PV); urine volume rate (UVR); renal excretion of sodium (UNa); and renal clearances of creatinine, sodium, and osmolality before and after acute volume infusion to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity causes resetting of the CVP operating point. Six rhesus monkeys ...
Convertino V A - - 2001
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing ...
Faghri P D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of functional electric stimulation (FES) of lower limb muscles during 30 minutes of upright standing on the central and peripheral hemodynamic response in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: A repeated-measure design. Subjects were used as their own control and underwent 2 testing protocols ...
Shoemaker J K - - 2001
We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) ...
Hermosillo A G - - 2001
Upright posture requires rapid and effective circulatory and neurologic compensations to maintain blood pressure and consciousness. Although it has been recognized over the past 100 years or more that the act of standing may cause hypotension in patients with autonomic dysfunction, only recently several of the pathophysiologic mechanisms resulting in ...
Blaber A P - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: The partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PetCO2) is known to decrease with head-up tilt. Decreases in arterial CO2 reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF) and may increase the incidence of presyncope. We measured cerebral and central cardiovascular responses to repeated tilt where: 1) PetCO2 was allowed to change with ...
Evans J M - - 2001
Healthy young people may become syncopal during standing, head up tilt (HUT) or lower body negative pressure (LBNP). To evaluate why this happens we measured hormonal indices of autonomic activity along with arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and measures ...
Singh K - - 2001
One of the pathophysiological features in Buerger's disease, i.e. thromboangitis obliterans (TAO), is vasospastic phenomena. So autonomic reactivity was evaluated in 12 patients of Buerger's disease (1-6 years duration) and compared to age and sex matched controls (nonsmokers). Basal heart rate was significantly (P < 0.001) higher without any variation ...
Potocka-Plazak K - - 2001
Orthostatic hypotension is common in the elderly and could be the cause of impaired vision, dizziness, fainting spells and falls. To date, studies on orthostatic hypotension have chiefly concentrated on elderly patients in nursing homes, outpatients or healthy subjects. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common causes ...
Carey B J - - 2001
The cerebrovascular changes that occur prior to vasovagal syncope (VVS) are unclear, with both increases and decreases in cerebrovascular resistance being reported during pre-syncope. This study assessed the cerebrovascular responses, and their potential underlying mechanisms, that occurred before VVS induced by head-up tilt (HUT). Groups of 65 normal subjects with ...
Mano T - - 2001
Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can be directly recorded from human peripheral nerves in situ using microneurography. MSNA plays an essential role to control systemic blood pressure against gravitational stress. MSNA was enhanced by changing posture against terrestrial gravity from lying to sitting, and from sitting to standing. This activity ...
Panton L B - - 2001
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether resistance training alters the cardiovascular responses to submaximal lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in the elderly. Twenty-one subjects were randomized into a control (C: n=10; 70 +/- 3 years, mean +/- SD) or a resistance training (TR: n=11; 67 +/- ...
Regnard J - - 2001
Many studies have used water immersion and head-down bed rest as experimental models to simulate responses to microgravity. However, some data collected during space missions are at variance or in contrast with observations collected from experimental models. These discrepancies could reflect incomplete knowledge of the characteristics inherent to each model. ...
Shoemaker J K - - 2001
Arterial hypocapnia has been associated with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that hypocapnia may be detrimental to increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) during head-up tilt (HUT). Ventilation was increased approximately 1.5 times above baseline for each of three conditions, whereas end-tidal ...
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