Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1579
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Bellard Elisabeth - - 2003
In patients with recurrent unexplained syncope, exaggerated peripheral venous pooling and impaired circulatory adjustment is thought to contribute to the outcome of a head-up tilt (HUT) test. The present study investigated the role of leg volume changes during venous congestion in the haemodynamic response of patients with recurrent unexplained syncope ...
Singer W - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatment of orthostatic hypotension is often limited because of troublesome supine hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a novel approach to treatment using acetylcholinesterase inhibition, based on the theory that enhanced sympathetic ganglion transmission increases systemic resistance in proportion to orthostatic needs. DESIGN: Prospective open label single dose trial. MATERIAL: ...
Abdelmoneim Ismail - - 2003
To investigate the prevalence of possible hearing impairment and hypertension in long distance bus drivers compared to the city bus drivers in Abha city. This was a cross-sectional study involving 62 long distance bus drivers and 46 city bus drivers from October 2001 to March 2002. A specially-designed questionnaire was ...
Hisdal Jonny - - 2003
We have designed a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber and control system that makes it possible to apply LBNP either very rapidly (< 300 ms), or more gradually, according to predefined protocols. The capability of the new, high-performance agile aircraft to reach a high-G onset rate makes it highly ...
Kaufmann Horacio - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), the availability of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic cleft is insufficient to maintain blood pressure while in the standing posture. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined the effect of oral administration of the synthetic amino acid L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), which is ...
Rickards Caroline A - - 2003
The physiological differences between active and passive changes in posture have been previously established. This study determined the extent of the differences in the initial cardiovascular responses to the passive head-up tilt (HUT) and the active squat-stand test (SST). Eleven females and 13 males underwent one +75 degrees HUT and ...
Olsen H - - 2003
This study examined the influence of insulin and glucose on the transcapillary fluid absorption during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in humans. Ten healthy males [23 (1) years] were exposed to LBNP of 45 cmH(2)O on two occasions: (1) before and during a hyperinsulinaemic clamp (HI) and (2) before and ...
Antonutto G - - 2003
Microgravity is an extreme environment inducing relevant adaptive changes in the human body, especially after prolonged periods of exposure. Since the early sixties, numerous studies on the effects of microgravity, during manned Space flights, have produced an increasing amount of information concerning its physiological effects, globally defined "deconditioning". Microgravity deconditioning ...
van Lieshout Johannes J - - 2003
The proper understanding of the cardiovascular mechanisms involved in complaints of short-lasting dizziness and the evaluation of unexplained recurrent syncope requires continuous monitoring of cardiac stroke volume (SV) in addition to blood pressure and heart rate. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate a pulse wave analysis ...
Cui Jian - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that systemic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase does not alter the regulation of sympathetic outflow during head-up tilt in humans, in eight healthy subjects NO synthase was blocked by intravenous infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and ...
Youde Jane - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: to assess the reproducibility of the cardiovascular responses to head-up tilt including cardiac output, stroke volume and peripheral resistance, in healthy older subjects using non-invasive methods. PARTICIPANTS: twenty-five healthy community-dwelling volunteers with a mean age of 69+/-3 years. METHODS: the subjects underwent head-up tilt table testing on two occasions ...
Kurihara Koichi - - 2003
Reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a suitable and easily manageable method to monitor cerebral oxygenation changes in presyncopal and syncopal symptoms caused by postural changing or standing. A new clinical tissue oxygenation monitor has been recently developed which measures absolute tissue haemoglobin saturation (Tissue Oxygenation Index, TOI) utilizing spatially ...
Cron Thomas A - - 2003
Closed-loop stimulation (CLS) is a new sensor concept for rate adaptive pacing measuring changes in the unipolar right ventricular impedance, which correlates to changes of the right ventricular contractility and reflects the autonomic nervous innervation of the heart. Some patients do not tolerate the CLS mode because of inappropriate tachycardia, ...
Jacob Giris - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic patients with incapacitating orthostatic hypotension can have either a "hyperadrenergic" or "hypoadrenergic" presentation. Although the latter is related to overt autonomic neuropathy, the former is proposed to be explained by appropriate autonomic responses. We hypothesize, however, that both conditions are part of a spectrum of autonomic dysfunction. RESEARCH ...
Perez Sondra A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Many cardiovascular changes associated with spaceflight reduce the ability of the cardiovascular system to oppose gravity on return to Earth, leaving astronauts susceptible to orthostatic hypotension during re-entry and landing. Consequently, an anti-G suit was developed to protect arterial pressure during re-entry. A liquid cooling garment (LCG) was then ...
Hakeman Amy L - - 2003
Tolerance to positive vertical acceleration (Gz) gravitational stress is reduced when positive Gz stress is preceded by exposure to hypogravity, which is called the "push-pull effect." The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that baroreceptor reflexes contribute to the push-pull effect by augmenting the magnitude of simulated ...
Sheriff Don D - - 2003
The "push-pull" effect denotes the reduced tolerance to +Gz (hypergravity) when +Gz stress is preceded by exposure to hypogravity, i.e., fractional, zero, or negative Gz. Previous studies have implicated autonomic reflexes as a mechanism contributing to the push-pull effect. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ...
Jones A Y M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Effect of gravity on heart rate and blood pressure are well documented but the effect of posture on R-wave amplitude has not been studied. AIM: To investigate the effect of posture on the heart rate (HR) and R-wave amplitude (RWA). METHODS: The electrocardiograph (ECG) was recorded in 20 young ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2003
This investigation examined the interaction between carotid baroreflex (CBR) responsiveness during head-up tilt (HUT)-induced central hypovolaemia and aerobic fitness. Seven average fit (AF) individuals, with a mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 49 +/- 1 (ml O2) kg-1 min-1, and seven high fit (HF) individuals, with a VO2max of 61 ...
Wasmund Stephen L - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in healthy subjects with either a positive (n = 24, SNA in 8) or a negative (n = 18, SNA in 6) LBNP response. A positive LBNP ...
Shoemaker J Kevin - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to examine whether 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) alters autonomic regulation during Valsalva's manoeuvre (VM) and if this would predict blood pressure control during a 60 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) test. To examine autonomic control of blood pressure, we measured the ...
Jáuregui-Renaud Kathrine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests that, through the control of heart rate, paced breathing may prevent syncope. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of metronome-paced breathing (0.2 Hz) on the outcome of head-up tilt test (HUT) in patients with vasovagal syncope. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients (two men), mean +/- SD age ...
Victorino Gregory P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Tachycardia is believed to be closely associated with hypotension and is often listed as an important sign in the initial diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock, but the correlation between heart rate and hypotension remains unproved. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected from all trauma patients, 16 to 49 years old, presenting ...
Lin Yuh-Feng - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The effects of midodrine on chronic hypotension in hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. METHODS: We evaluated midodrine's effect on autonomic function and hemodynamics in 12 HD patients who had chronic systolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg. Midodrine (5.0 mg) twice a day was given ...
Karlsborg M - - 2003
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe, progressive disease affecting both the central and peripheral parts of the motor nervous system. Some studies have shown unequivocal indications of a more disseminated disease also affecting the autonomic nervous system. We therefore evaluated the centrally and peripherally mediated autonomic vascular reflexes by ...
Kamiya Atsunori - - 2003
Although orthostatic hypotension is a common clinical syndrome after spaceflight and its ground-based simulation model, 6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR), the pathophysiology remains unclear. The authors' hypothesis that a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity is the major pathophysiology underlying orthostatic hypotension after HDBR was tested in a study involving ...
Brown Clive M - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine whether lower body negative pressure (LBNP), combined with noninvasive methods of assessing changes in systemic and cerebral vascular resistance, is suitable as a method for assessing cerebral autoregulation. In 13 subjects we continuously assessed heart rate, blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity ...
Julu P O O - - 2003
To study cardiovascular control in the period leading to vasovagal syncope we monitored beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and forearm blood flow in 14 patients with posturally related syncope, from supine through to tilt-induced pre-syncope. Signals of arterial blood pressure (BP) from a Finapres photoplethysmograph and an electrocardiograph (ECG) ...
Eckberg D L - - 2003
AIM: Astronauts return to Earth with reduced red cell masses and hypovolaemia. Not surprisingly, when they stand, their heart rates may speed inordinately, their blood pressures may fall, and some may experience frank syncope. We studied autonomic function in six male astronauts (average +/- SEM age: 40 +/- 2 years) ...
Franchi Franco - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Defective baroreflex function has been suggested as a potential mechanism accounting for the development of syncopal episodes. The present study was therefore aimed at assessing the non-invasive, indirect hemodynamic profile and baroreflex function by means of tilting, which is a natural stimulation crucial to physiological baroreflex activity, in syncopal ...
Sundblad Patrik - - 2003
It has recently been shown that the phase relationship between respiration-induced changes in arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) are different in supine and upright postures. We wanted to further analyse the coupling between respiration, arterial blood pressure and HR in the time domain, and how this coupling was ...
Franke Warren D - - 2003
This study tested the hypotheses that trained swimmers would have greater orthostatic tolerance than runners and, if present, it would be due to differences in their autonomic and hemodynamic responses to graded central hypovolemia. Twenty intercollegiate male athletes [11 runners and 9 swimmers; .VO(2max) =70.0 (1.6) vs 69.5 (2.6) ml.kg(-1).min(-1), ...
Béchir Markus - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The interplay of resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA) and the baroreceptor reflex in patients with vasovagal syncope remains elusive. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate MSA, baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate, and blood pressure under resting conditions and during orthostatic stress in patients with a ...
Journeay W Shane - - 2003
The hypothesis that reduced cardiac filling, as a result of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and postexercise hypotension (PEH), would attenuate the reflex changes to heart rate (HR), skin blood flow (SkBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) normally induced by facial immersion was tested. The purpose of this study was ...
Perrault Hélène - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and its surgical repair are associated with alterations in right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. The cardiopulmonary baroreflex describes the peripheral vasoconstriction response to the volume-unloading deactivation of left and possibly right ventricular receptors. Alterations in cardiac geometry or distensibility and pulmonary vasculature of operated ...
Bellard Elisabeth - - 2003
We determined whether early changes in central haemodynamics, as determined by transthoracic impedance, induced by a 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) test could predict syncope. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and central haemodynamics [pre-ejection period and rapid left ventricular ejection time ( T (1)), slow ejection time ( T (2)) ...
Brown Clive M - - 2003
Patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) frequently have profound orthostatic hypotension without compensatory tachycardia. Although the aetiology is presumed to be sympathetic impairment, peripheral vascular responses to orthostasis have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the control of vascular responses to postural stress in FD patients. ...
Suzuki Masaru - - 2003
The vasovagal reaction is thought to be caused by sympathetic withdrawal and vagal augmentation. While measurements of muscle sympathetic nerve activity support sympathetic withdrawal in tilt induced syncope, the results of previous attempts to quantify vagal control using spectral analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. The sampling period ...
Franke Warren D - - 2003
This study tested the hypotheses that differences in the adrenergic, central venous pressure (CVP), cardiovascular, or baroreflex responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) or differences in body size would be associated with gender differences in orthostatic tolerance. Subjects (24 females, 22 males) underwent graded LBNP to -100 mmHg or ...
Hakeman Amy L - - 2003
Tolerance to +G(z) stress is reduced by preceding exposure to -G(z) (push-pull effect). The mechanism(s) responsible for this effect are not fully understood, although the arterial baroreceptor reflexes have been implicated. We investigated the integrative response of the autonomic nervous system by studying responses to gravitational stress before and after ...
Tschakovsky M E - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sympathetic vasoconstriction is rapidly blunted at the onset of forearm exercise. Nine healthy subjects performed 5 min of moderate dynamic forearm handgrip exercise during -60 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) vs. without (control). Beat-by-beat forearm blood flow (Doppler ...
Kozłowski Dariusz - - 2003
One of the hypotheses put forward concerning the mechanism of vasovagal syncope is that the vagal afferent fibres are activated during vigorous contractions against a partly empty left ventricle. The aim of the study was to confirm this hypothesis by using 2D echocardiography during a head-up tilt test. The study ...
Hao W Y - - 2003
To investigate the role played by hypovolaemia in the mechanism of orthostatic intolerance, a mathematical model was developed. The model consisted of seven sub-models that describe: the redistribution of blood induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP); filling of the left ventricle; contracting of the left ventricle; interaction between the ...
Razumovsky Alexander Y - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During head-up tilt (HUT), patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have higher rates of neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) than healthy controls. The authors studied whether patients with CFS were also more likely to have abnormal cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) compared with ...
Belz Gustav Georg - - 2003
Independent, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies using sublingual/oral administration of D-camphor, an extract from fresh crataegus berries, and a combination of the two (CCC) yielded the following results: Both the D-camphor and the extract from fresh crataegus berries, the components of CCC, contribute to the pressoric effects of the combination. The ...
Witting Michael D - - 2003
The study objective was to describe the distribution of normal changes in vital signs related to moving from a sitting to a standing position. Subjects were free of cardiovascular disease and determined to be euvolemic by structured interview. Vital signs were measured after a minimum of 5 minutes of sitting ...
Shi Shang-Jin - - 2003
Insomnia is a common symptom, not only in the adult population but also in many astronauts. Hypnotics, such as temazepam (a benzodiazepine) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine), are often taken to relieve insomnia. Temazepam has been shown clinically to have hemodynamic side effects, particularly in the elderly; however, the mechanism is ...
Kawakami Kazunobu - - 2003
A 71-year-old man, who was diagnosed with familial amyloidosis type I, was admitted for treatment of severe orthostatic hypotension associated with recurrent syncopal attacks. Head-up tilt testing demonstrated severe orthostatic hypotension (114/72 mmHg in the supine position and 62/34 mmHg in the upright position) with syncope or presyncope. Oral midodorine ...
Shamim Tabassum - - 2003
PURPOSE: To determine the amount of time necessary for stabilization of blood pressure and heart rate in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and the percentage of ideal body weight (IBW) at which this occurs. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 36 adolescent patients (33 F, 3 M) with AN, ...
Frishman William H - - 2003
Orthostatic hypotension is a common problem, estimated to occur in 5 out of every 1000 individuals and in as many as 7% to 17% of patients in an acute care setting. Moreover, orthostatic hypotension may be more prominent in elderly patients due to the increased intake of vasoactive medications and ...
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