Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1606
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Padwal Raj S - - 2008
To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and assessment of adults with hypertension. The diagnosis of hypertension is dependent on appropriate blood pressure measurement, the timely assessment of serially elevated readings, degree of blood pressure elevation, method of measurement (office, ambulatory, home) and associated comorbidities. The presence of cardiovascular ...
Wang Jie Jin - - 2008
The authors assessed associations between retinal vascular signs and incident severe hypertension in an older population-based cohort. At baseline (1992-1994), 3,654 residents aged 49-97 years living in the Blue Mountains area west of Sydney, Australia, were examined; respectively, 2,335 (75.1%) and 1,952 (76%) survivors were reexamined 5 and 10 years ...
Panoulas V F - - 2008
RA associates with an increased burden of cardiovascular disease, which is at least partially attributed to classical risk factors such as hypertension (HT) and dyslipidaemia. HT is highly prevalent, and seems to be under-diagnosed and under-treated among patients with RA. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that may lead ...
Shah Sanjiv J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction predicts mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. How renal dysfunction relates to hemodynamics and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cohort study of 500 patients with World Health Organization group I PAH from 1982 to 2006 with data on ...
Lawes Carlene M M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the extent and distribution of the blood-pressure burden worldwide. The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of disease related to high blood pressure. METHODS: Worldwide burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (> or =115 mm Hg systolic) was estimated ...
Martini Ligia A - - 2008
Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease. High blood pressure is a growing public health problem that is expected to affect 1.6 billion people worldwide by the year 2025. In light of emerging evidence of a widespread global problem of vitamin D deficiency, there has been ...
Zaiem Ahmed - - 2008
Perindopril, a prodrug ester of perindoprilat, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that lowers angiotensin II and potentiates bradykinin. This agent has proven efficacy in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Its efficacy, safety and tolerability are well established in the treatment of hypertension. Beyond pharmacodynamic effects shown in lowering blood ...
Navas-Acien Ana - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have shown increases in blood pressure and hypertension associated with increases in lead levels in blood. We performed a meta-analysis of the association of bone lead levels with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension using published data. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Toxline for ...
Viazzi Francesca - - 2008
Sub-clinical organ damage is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in primary hypertension, and its changes over time parallel those in risk of cardiovascular events. A better understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of target organ damage may help us devise more effective therapeutic strategies. We therefore ...
Ayo-Yusuf Olalekan A OA Department of Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria. - - 2008
Hypertension may result from changes in dietary quality and nutrient intake. We therefore sought to determine the epidemiological association between tooth loss and hypertension in South African adults. This is a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of adults aged 25 - 70 years ...
Murakami Yoshitaka - - 2008
Hypertension is a leading cause of death because of cardiovascular disease and predominantly affects total mortality. To reduce avoidable deaths from hypertension, we need to collect blood pressure data and assess their impact on total mortality. To examine this issue, a meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies was conducted in Japan. ...
Ang Dsc - - 2008
In hypertension, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, the electrocardiogram (ECG) remains the cornerstone of LVH diagnosis in clinical practice because it is universally available, technically easy to perform and highly specific. In the most recent ...
Holmes Elaine - - 2008
Metabolic phenotypes are the products of interactions among a variety of factors-dietary, other lifestyle/environmental, gut microbial and genetic. We use a large-scale exploratory analytical approach to investigate metabolic phenotype variation across and within four human populations, based on 1H NMR spectroscopy. Metabolites discriminating across populations are then linked to data ...
Hergens M-P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The scientific evidence on whether long-term use of snuff is associated with high blood pressure is limited, inconsistent and based only on cross-sectional data. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at studying the risk of hypertension in relation to long-term use of snuff based on longitudinal data. DESIGN: Repeated health check-ups were ...
Singer D R J - - 2008
Cardiovascular disease and death are major life-threatening problems in patients with atheromatous peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This review focuses on management of hypertension in the context of cardiovascular risk in patients with PAD. PAD is underdiagnosed and hypertension in PAD is often poorly managed. Current evidence supports a low threshold ...
Chalmers John - - 2008
1. The epidemic of diabetes is accelerating and the World Health Organization estimates that the number of people affected worldwide will grow from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million by 2030. 2. The main causes of death and disability in individuals with type 2 diabetes are macrovascular and microvascular ...
Wen Chi Pang - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To express the increased risk from smoking in terms of 'blood pressure' so that hypertensive smokers are motivated into quitting. METHODS: Mortality risks of smokers were compared with nonsmokers in a large worker cohort in Taiwan (n = 23755 with a 17-year follow-up) for all-cause and for cardiovascular diseases. ...
Spence Vance A - - 2008
Some of the symptoms reported by people with CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) are associated with various cardiovascular phenomena. Markers of cardiovascular risk, including inflammation and oxidative stress, have been demonstrated in some patients with CFS, but little is known about the relationship between these and prognostic indicators of cardiovascular risk ...
Head Geoffrey A - - 2008
1. The morning period has been recognized as the highest risk period of the day for cardiovascular events, particularly stroke and is also associated with a rapid surge in blood pressure. 2. Evidence now exists to show that the morning surge in blood pressure is an independent risk factor in ...
Iwashima Yoshio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The prognostic significance of the pulmonary venous flow in essential hypertensive patients was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Doppler transthoracic echocardiograms were analyzed in 705 essential hypertensive subjects with no prior cardiovascular disease. At baseline, most subjects had 'normal diastolic function' or 'mild diastolic dysfunction'. During follow-up (mean, 32 months), ...
Vlcek Marianne - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with hypertensive urgency have a higher risk for subsequent cardiovascular events compared with hypertensive patients without this event. METHODS: Overall, 384 patients with hypertensive urgency and 295 control patients were followed up for at least 2 years. Hypertensive urgency was defined as a systolic blood ...
Pavlopoulos Harry - - 2008
Hypertension should be regarded not as a simple elevation of blood pressure, but as a constellation of functional and structural abnormalities that create a phenotypic portrait of hypertensive disease. Recent research has expanded our knowledge related to hypertensive heart disease. Future assessment of hypertensive patients' global risk should probably incorporate ...
Christensen Cynthia - - 2008
Panama is a beautiful country with many disparities. It was estimated in 1995 that 40% of the population lived in poverty. Deaths from cardiovascular disease increased by 2% annually from 1990 to 1994, with hypertension being the leading cause of death for persons aged 60 years or more. I had ...
Henry R M A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with a greater risk of heart failure. The mechanisms underlying this association remain controversial and include diabetes-associated hypertension and obesity, impaired small and large artery function, and a distinct metabolic cardiomyopathy related to hyperglycaemia/ hyperinsulinaemia. The proximate causes of heart failure are left ...
Brooks Deborah - - 2008
The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) was conducted over a 7-year period at 21 clinical centers across the United States to investigate whether one of two levels of blood pressure control and/or one of three classes of antihypertensive medications was more effective at slowing the rate ...
Firdaus Muhammad - - 2008
Hypertension in older adults is not well controlled in clinical practice. Isolated systolic hypertension is often more difficult to manage. A systematic PubMed search was conducted to look for evidence showing benefits of lowering blood pressure (BP) in older hypertensive adults. Lowering BP in these individuals significantly reduces the risk ...
Rao Anupama K AK Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Section of Nephrology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792, - - 2008
Left atrial volume (LAV) is an independent echocardiographic predictor of cardiovascular events in the general population. We evaluated predictors of LAV in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Increasing LAV identifies increased cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in CKD patients undergoing cardiovascular evaluation prior ...
Naschitz J E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic lower limb amputees have an increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for this amplified morbidity and the involved pathophysiologic mechanisms have not been comprehensively studied. METHODS: The MEDLINE database was reviewed, with case-controlled studies and nested in cohort studies eligible for inclusion in this analysis. ...
Hansen T - - 2008
The aim of this study was to create a scoring system for whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) that allows estimation of atherosclerotic induced luminal narrowing, and determine whether the traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors included in the Framingham risk score (FRS) were related to this total atherosclerotic score (TAS) in ...
Gu Qiuping - - 2008
PURPOSE: We sought to examine whether prehypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk and whether the association of blood pressure with CVD outcome is modified by social demographics or hypertension treatment and control. METHODS: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and mortality follow-up ...
Sutton-Tyrrell Kim - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low values of ankle-arm systolic blood pressure ratio predict mortality and cardiovascular events. High values, associated with arterial calcification, also carry risk for mortality. We focus on the extent to which low and high ankle-arm index values as well as noncompressible arteries are associated with mortality and ...
Nakagawa Naoki - - 2008
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and thus is a major worldwide public health problem. Recently, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese patients was proposed by the Japanese Society of Nephrology. However, ...
Marant C - - 2008
AIMS: In type 2 diabetes (T2D), to describe treatments to prevent cardiovascular disease, to compare current practice to French guidelines, and to identify factors associated with recommended treatments. METHODS: In the Echantillon National Témoin Représentatif des Personnes Diabétiques (ENTRED) study, 10,000 adults treated for diabetes (any type) were randomly selected ...
Patel Priyesh V - - 2008
Adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death are well known to follow a circadian pattern, peaking in the morning hours of 6 AM to 12 PM. Many physiologic factors have been shown to follow a circadian pattern and together may create an environment that ...
Kagiyama Shuntaro - - 2008
Hypertension is one of the greatest risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but the contribution of high blood pressure to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is weakened with aging. In the present study, we examined whether high blood pressure would be a risk factor for total and cardiovascular mortality in a group ...
Hoyer Dirk - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with a complex dysfunction of cardiac, cardiovascular, autonomic, and other mechanisms. Autonomic information flow (AIF) characteristics calculated from heart rate patterns were recently found as promising predictors of outcome in several cardiovascular diseases. AIM: To assess the prognostic value of AIF indices in ...
Mays Maureen E - - 2008
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Lower risks of morbidity and mortality in trials of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) have changed the conventional wisdom regarding lipid lowering. Since 2001, there have been surprising results concerning the early benefits of statin therapy, ...
Fraser-Bell Samantha S Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2008
To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors and ocular perfusion pressure with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a population-based sample of self-identified adult Latinos using standardized protocols for assessing blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and stereoscopic ...
Boersma Cornelis - - 2008
Albuminuria has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Such an association has been found not only in subjects with diabetes and hypertension, but also in the general population. It could therefore be expected that especially subjects with higher albuminuria levels may benefit from blood pressure-lowering agents ...
Schneider Alexandra - - 2008
Given the accumulating evidence that people with underlying heart disease are a particularly vulnerable group for triggers like changing meteorological parameters, the objective of this longitudinal study was to analyze the influence of weather parameters on blood pressure, arrhythmia and ischemia in cardiovascular patients. A panel study with repeated measurements ...
Gianaros Peter J PJ Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. - - 2008
Individuals who exhibit exaggerated blood pressure reactions to psychological stressors are at risk for hypertension, ventricular hypertrophy, and premature atherosclerosis; however, the neural systems mediating exaggerated blood pressure reactivity and associated cardiovascular risk in humans remain poorly defined. Animal models indicate that the amygdala orchestrates stressor-evoked blood pressure reactions via ...
Moriya Hidekazu - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With regard to monitoring blood pressure in hemodialysis patients, it is important to define clearly the time point at which the blood pressure is measured, because the blood pressure of hemodialysis patients varies with each hemodialysis session as a result of loss of excess fluid. DESIGN, SETTING, ...
Sever Peter S PS International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, 59 North Wharf Road, London W2 1PG, UK. - - 2008
To determine the cardiovascular benefits in those originally assigned atorvastatin in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-2.2 years after closure of the lipid-lowering arm of the trial (ASCOT-LLA). The Blood Pressure Lowering Arm of the ASCOT trial (ASCOT-BPLA) compared two different antihypertensive treatment strategies on cardiovascular outcomes. ASCOT-LLA was a double-blind ...
Laine Loren - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) in osteoarthritis (OA) and their gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renovascular, and hepatic side effects compared with traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen. METHODS: Bibliographic database searches for randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and literature reviews. RESULTS: Coxibs are comparable to traditional NSAIDs, ...
Ogihara Toshio - - 2008
The Candesartan Antihypertensive Survival Evaluation in Japan Trial was designed to compare the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan and the calcium channel blocker amlodipine on the incidence of cardiovascular events, represented as a composite of sudden death and cerebrovascular, cardiac, renal, and vascular events in high-risk ...
Kosanovic-Jakovic Natalija - - 2008
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome denotes a common cluster of naturally connected risk factors including obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, proinflammatory state and prothrombotic state. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is an acute ischaemic disorder of the optic nerve head and may lead to severe visual loss. METHODS: We considered three ...
Cheung Bernard M Y - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a predictor of diabetes and coronary events. We hypothesized that it also predicts hypertension. METHODS: A total of 1,944 subjects (901 men and 1,043 women; age 46 +/- 12 years) from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Survey were recruited in 1995-1996 and restudied ...
Ganne Sudha - - 2008
Elevated systolic blood pressure and increased pulse pressure are important predictors of vascular stiffening (compliance), left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, vascular dementia, and chronic kidney disease. Advances in noninvasive methods that measure arterial stiffness have led to increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction and ...
Hodgson Jonathan M - - 2008
Drinking tea could have a significant impact on public health. Health benefits are believed to be largely due to the presence of high levels of flavonoids. Tea is a rich source of flavonoids, and often the major dietary source. Tea intake and intake of flavonoids found in tea have been ...
Böhm Michael - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria (MAU) is an indicator of impaired renal function and a relevant risk predictor for cardiovascular events. An increased heart rate is closely correlated with increased cardiovascular mortality. The International Survey Evaluating Microalbuminuria Routinely by Cardiologists in Patients with Hypertension (I-SEARCH) investigated 21 050 patients with hypertension and risk ...
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