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Results 251 - 300 of 1595
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Dawood T - - 2009
Arterial hypertension represents a major cardiovascular epidemic in the developed and developing world. Projections out to 2025 suggest that up to 50% of the adult populations of Western countries will meet standard guideline definitions of hypertension and thus require therapeutic intervention both non-pharmacological or pharmacological. Hyper-tension is also a component ...
Midha Tanu - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major contributor to the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Reports suggest that hypertension is rapidly increasing in developing countries like India. Non-communicable diseases are likely to overshadow infectious diseases in the coming years and pose a heavy strain on health budgets in our country. ...
Peralta Carmen A - - 2010
Vascular abnormalities may exist before clinical hypertension. Using Poisson regression, the authors studied the association of coronary artery calcium (CAC), common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), aortic distensibility, and large and small arterial elasticity with incident hypertension among 2,512 normotensive US adults free of cardiovascular disease. Incidence rate ratios for incident ...
Peters Mike J L - - 2010
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of heart failure and vascular events. Small increases in circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with an increased risk of a cardiovascular event, and high levels signal left ventricular dysfunction. Data on the effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha(TNFalpha) ...
Pimenta Eduardo - - 2010
The term prehypertension was coined in 1939 in the context of early studies that linked high blood pressure recorded during physical examination for life insurance purposes to subsequent morbidity and mortality. These studies demonstrated that individuals with blood pressure >120/80 mmHg, but <140/90 mmHg--the accepted value for the lower limit ...
Lurbe Empar - - 2009
Cardiovascular complications occurring in adults find their roots in risk factors operating early in life. Among the factors influencing cardiovascular risk, blood pressure values in children represent an important measurable marker of the level of potential cardiovascular risk later in life because the levels are both the cause and the ...
Kjeldsen S E - - 2010
Although angiotensin receptor blockers have different receptor binding properties no comparative studies with cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points have been performed within this class of drugs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are blood pressure independent CVD-risk differences between losartan and candesartan treatment in ...
Tan Jiao-Rong - - 2010
Prehypertension is a risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the association between prehypertension and atherosclerosis in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the impact of prehypertension on atherosclerosis in T2DM. Patients (n=930) with T2DM were recruited for the ...
Nesbitt Shawna D - - 2009
Three important principles have emerged from recent epidemiologic and clinical studies in hypertension. First, patients with hypertension most often have other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. Second, hypertension remains grossly undertreated. Third, at blood pressure levels once considered "high-normal," early organ damage may already be taking place ...
Kalaitzidis Rigas G - - 2009
Hypertension is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD have significant morbidity (ie, increased risk of CVD) and progression to end-stage renal disease. Increase in albuminuria over time to levels greater than 300 mg/d, in spite of blood pressure being at ...
Kagiyama Shuntaro - - 2009
Hypertension is one of the greatest risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but its contribution to cardiovascular mortality weakens with aging. We have previously demonstrated that at the age of 80, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not correlated with increased mortality in Japan. However, we did not examine in detail ...
Di Rienzo Marco - - 2009
The cardiovascular system is composed of a variety of specialized subsystems that interact with each other under the influence of internal and external inputs, including central commands, reflex mechanisms, and humoral factors. The concomitant action of all these subsystems produces continuous adjustments in the cardiovascular variables (e.g., heart rate, heart ...
Eguchi Kazuo K Department of Cardiology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Nasushiobara, Japan. - - 2009
It has not been established whether nocturnal nondipping of heart rate (HR) predicts future cardiovascular disease (CVD). We performed this study to test the hypothesis that nocturnal nondipping of HR predicts the risk of incident CVD independent of nocturnal blood pressure dipping pattern. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in ...
Gu Qiuping - - 2010
Clinical trials have provided convincing evidence that blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the association of hypertension treatment, control, and BP indexes with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among US adults with hypertension. Persons ...
Kappagoda C Tissa - - 2009
Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) was a placebo-controlled trial undertaken on "apparently healthy" subjects selected primarily on the basis of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations >or=2.0 mg/L. JUPITER showed that rosuvastatin reduced the incidence of cardiac events compared to a control group. ...
He Jiang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major global-health challenge because of its high prevalence and concomitant risks of cardiovascular disease. We estimated premature deaths attributable to increased blood pressure in China. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study in a nationally representative sample of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older. ...
Korhonen P??ivi E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an established risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), but the prevalence of this condition in hypertensive patients without comorbidities is unknown. METHODS: In this study, we assess the prevalence and factors associated with PAD, and the usefulness of ankle-brachial index (ABI) in evaluating cardiovascular risk in ...
Hampole Chetan V - - 2009
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a widely available biomarker, independently predicts adverse outcomes in left-sided heart failure. The relation between RDW and death in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is unknown. In a prospective study of 162 consecutive patients with PH, RDW was recorded during initial diagnostic right-sided cardiac catheterization, and ...
Pontier Dominique - - 2010
On oceanic islands, nest site availability can be an important factor regulating seabird population dynamics. The potential for birds to secure a nest to reproduce can be an important component of their life histories. The dates at which different seabird species arrive at colonies to breed will have important consequences ...
Resnick Barbara - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is particularly high among African American (AA) older adults, and these individuals are least likely to have access to CVD prevention activities. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of People Reducing Risk and Improving Strength through ...
Chazot Charles - - 2009
Hypertension prevalence is high in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Among several possible mechanisms leading to hypertension in chronic kidney disease, the most important is the positive balance of sodium and accumulation of extracellular fluid causing cardiovascular remodeling. Hypertension may provoke de novo left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac failure ...
Kurzius-Spencer Margaret - - 2009
The objective of this study was to assess tracheobronchial protease inhibitor concentrations longitudinally and determine whether initial concentrations predict subsequent lung injury and mortality in intubated burn victims. Tracheobronchial suction fluid was collected every 2 hours for 36 hours. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), and cell ...
Panoulas Vasileios F - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even though hypertension (HT) is highly prevalent in RA, the extent of target organ damage (TOD) caused by it remains unknown. Inflammation and sympathetic overdrive may also associate with TOD. We investigated the prevalence and associations of TOD ...
Sawada Takahisa - - 2009
The objective was to assess the add-on effect of valsartan on top of the conventional treatment for high-risk hypertension in terms of the morbidity and mortality. The KYOTO HEART Study was of a multicentre, Prospective Randomised Open Blinded Endpoint (PROBE) design, and the primary endpoint was a composite of fatal ...
Boulware L Ebony - - 2009
Patients' views of their risk for the development or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are poorly characterized. To assess perceived risk and concern regarding CKD development or progression among high-risk patients seen in primary care, identify predictors of perceptions, and correlate perceptions with adherence to high blood pressure management. ...
Lorenzo Carlos - - 2009
Prehypertension increases mortality risk. Pulse pressure is also associated with increased mortality. Nevertheless, the impact of pulse pressure on the relationship between prehypertension and mortality is not known in individuals who are free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cox regression analysis was used to examine mortality risk among 3,632 (97.0%) ...
Rudic R Daniel RD Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1120 15th St., Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2009
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. The "silent" rise of blood pressure that occurs over time is largely asymptomatic. However, its impact is deafening-causing and exacerbating cardiovascular disease, end-organ damage, and death. The present article addresses recent observations from human and animal studies that provide ...
Kauhanen L L Department of Public Health, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. - - 2010
Previous research has suggested that dehydration in infancy may lead to high blood pressure in later life because of sodium retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poor hygiene of the child, poor social and poor housing conditions at home and diarrhoea in childhood as ...
McCabe Marita P - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has examined costs associated with progressive neurological illnesses, but has not examined predictors of economic pressure, or quality of life (QOL). The aim of the current study was to examine the predictors of both economic pressure and QOL among people with a range of progressive neurological illness. ...
Estes Maurice G MG - - 2009
Urbanization has been correlated with hypertension (HTN) in developing countries undergoing rapid economic and environmental transitions. We examined the relationships among living environment (urban, suburban, and rural), day/night land surface temperatures (LST), and blood pressure in selected regions from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. ...
James David - - 2009
Participant socio-demographic characteristics and referral reason were investigated in relation to completion and health outcomes in a Primary Care Physical Activity Referral Scheme using a prospective population-based longitudinal design. Participants (n = 1735) were recruited over a 2-year period. A three-stage binary logistic regression analysis identified the factors associated with ...
Lee Dong-Hyeon - - 2009
The early morning blood pressure surge (EMBPS) has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) parameters and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Patients (n=346) never-treated for essential hypertension with no other cardiovascular risk factors, ...
Nussinovitch Udi - - 2009
Sudden death accounts for up to 43% of all deaths in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD). The classic features of FD, namely, autonomic dysfunction, high blood pressure, and blood pressure labiality, are all risk factors for cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Myocardial remodeling and hypertrophy are independent risk factors for arrhythmias, ...
Kokubo Yoshihiro - - 2009
The guidelines of the Joint National Committee 7 from the USA on hypertension have unified the normal and high-normal blood pressure categories into a single entity termed ;prehypertension'. In contrast, The European Guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2007 considered ;prehypertensive' to be divided into normal and high-normal blood ...
O'Seaghdha Conall M - - 2009
Chronic kidney disease is a major worldwide public health problem that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Studies from the Asia-Pacific region have reported some of the highest chronic kidney disease prevalence rates in the world, but access to dialysis is limited in many countries, making it imperative to identify high-risk ...
Völzke Henry - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: There is current controversy on the association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypertension. Data from cohort studies have not been available yet. The present study was designed to longitudinally investigate possible associations of subclinical hyperthyroidism with blood pressure, pulse pressure and the risk of hypertension. METHODS: We used data from ...
Vimala Avadaiammal - - 2009
To determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for hypertension and prehypertensive state in Trivandrum City of Kerala (South India) using Joint National Committee (JNC) VII criteria, a team of trained fourth year medical students conducted a 10% random household survey in certain wards of the City. Households were selected ...
Julius Stevo - - 2009
Tachycardia is a strong predictor of both hypertension and excessive cardiovascular risk. This association is robust and prevails after multivariate adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors. Despite the strong evidence, various guidelines do not list tachycardia as a risk factor because of unwarranted assumption that tachycardia is only a marker ...
Babisch Wolfgang - - 2009
Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Under conditions of chronic noise stress the cardiovascular system may adversely be affected. Epidemiological noise studies regarding the relationship between aircraft noise and cardiovascular effects have been carried out on adults and on children focussing on ...
Tucker Murray G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Falls amongst older people have been linked to reduced postural stability and slowed movement responses. The objective of this study was to examine differences in postural stability and the speed of response between young adults, low fall-risk older adults, and high fall-risk older adults during voluntary postural sway movements. ...
Chen Zhen-Yu - - 2009
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that elevated blood pressure is one of the major risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). A close association between blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases is well established if systolic/diastolic blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg. In recent years, nutraceuticals and ...
Badaruddoza - - 2009
Based on anthropometric data, this study aims to detect cardiovascular risk factor and familial aggregation of blood pressure in a specific community in India. A total of 1096 adult individuals, constituting 350 families in a scheduled caste community in Punjab, India, was surveyed for blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse pressure ...
Fagard Robert H - - 2009
Four dipping categories have been described, based on the night-day blood pressure ratio from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure recordings: extreme dippers (night-day blood pressure ratio < or = 0.8), dippers (0.8 < ratio < or = 0.9), nondippers (0.9 < ratio < or = 1.0) and reverse dippers (ratio > ...
Grassi Guido - - 2009
One major element of novelty of the 2007 European guidelines on hypertension refers to the concept of risk categorization, with the aim of obtaining a more precise definition of the hypertensive patient. This has lead to identification of different categories of cardiovascular risk, from the low to the very high. ...
Desir Gary V - - 2009
The renalase pathway is a previously unrecognized mechanism for regulating cardiac function and blood pressure. In this pathway, renalase, a novel secreted amine oxidase that is inactive at baseline, is rapidly turned on ( ~ 10 fold increase) by either a modest increase in blood pressure or by brief surges ...
Moscardo Elena - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to describe an optimised neurobehavioural observation battery in the beagle dog and to demonstrate that it can be used for an integrated assessment of cardiovascular and neurobehavioural functions within a single Safety Pharmacology study. METHODS: A standardised and detailed observation battery was established ...
Cuspidi Cesare - - 2009
The clinical value of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a cardinal manifestation of hypertensive organ damage, in predicting cardiovascular (CV) events, independently of blood pressure (BP) and other accompanying risk factors, has been widely documented and its role in CV stratification indisputability recognized. Although the examination of the fundus oculi provides ...
Lam Carolyn S P - - 2009
In contrast to the wealth of data on isolated systolic hypertension involving the systemic circulation in the elderly, much less is known about age-related change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and its prognostic impact in the general population. We sought to define the relationship between PASP and age, to ...
Ruilope Luis M - - 2009
The need to prevent the development of renal damage and its associated increase in cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established. Early intervention to maintain strict blood pressure control and to prevent the development of microalbuminuria is mandatory and will constitute the primary aim of intervention ...
Safar Michel E - - 2009
This article discusses the following: (1) factors modulating central and peripheral SBP and PP in hypertensive subjects; (2) mechanisms enhancing PP variations in this population; (3) Analysis of pulsatile arterial hemodynamics as predictors of CV risk; and (4) Pulsatile hemodynamics and strategies lowering CV risk in the treatment of hypertension.
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