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Minai Omar A - - 2009
The correlates and consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are poorly understood. Patients undergoing pulmonary artery catheterization within 6 months of an overnight polysomnography showing OSA were included in the present analysis. A total of 83 patients with complete data were analyzed (no PH, n ...
Hill Kevin D - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To compare two methods of pulmonary arterial pressure measurement in children with shunt-dependent pulmonary blood flow. BACKGROUND: In children with shunt-dependent pulmonary blood flow, direct assessment of pulmonary arterial pressure requires passage of a catheter across the shunt. This can be technically difficult and dangerous. Use of the pulmonary ...
Rimoldi Stefano F - - 2009
Flash pulmonary edema (FPE) is a general clinical term used to describe a particularly dramatic form of acute decompensated heart failure. Well-established risk factors for heart failure such as hypertension, coronary ischemia, valvular heart disease, and diastolic dysfunction are associated with acute decompensated heart failure as well as with FPE. ...
Nogami Munenobu - - 2009
PURPOSE: To compare the utility of phase contrast MR imaging (PC-MRI) for assessment of pulmonary flow and pressure estimation with that of right heart catheterization and echocardiography (cardiac US) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with suspected PAH underwent PC-MRI, cardiac US, and ...
Chemla Denis - - 2009
This hemodynamic study documented the accuracy and precision of six empirical formulas relating mean (mPAP), systolic (sPAP), and diastolic (dPAP) pulmonary artery pressures in children with congenital heart disease. Fluid-filled PAPs of 61 children (age, 26 +/- 40 months) were analyzed over an mPAP range of 7 to 74 mmHg. ...
Lakshminrusimha Satyan - - 2009
The effect of oxygen concentration on lowering pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during resuscitation in a model of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is not known. PPHN was induced in fetal lambs by ductal ligation 9 d before delivery. After delivery by cesarean section, resuscitation of PPHN lambs with ...
Persson Bj??rn P - - 2009
The vasoconstrictive and proinflammatory peptide endothelin 1 (ET-1) is highly involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis and associated lung injury. Systemic administration of ET-receptor antagonists has been beneficial in experimental pulmonary hypertension. We wanted to study the effects of inhaled tezosentan, a dual endothelin-receptor antagonist on endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension, deterioration ...
West John B - - 2009
Two opposing selective pressures have shaped the evolution of the structure of the blood-gas barrier in air breathing vertebrates. The first pressure, which has been recognized for 100 years, is to facilitate diffusive gas exchange. This requires the barrier to be extremely thin and have a large area. The second ...
Siklódy Claudia Herrera - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation using a balloon-mounted cryoablation system is a new technology for the percutaneous treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Complete PV occlusion during balloon ablation has been shown to predict successful electrical isolation. The aim of this study was to correlate mechanical PV occlusion with changes in ...
Ilsar Rahn - - 2010
Left heart disease and pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) both lead to raised pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) but differ in pathophysiology, prognosis and treatment. There are currently no criteria for diagnosing PVD in the presence of left heart disease. We therefore studied the relationship between PAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ...
Torre-Amione Guillermo - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic congestive heart failure posses a significant risk of morbidity and death after heart transplantation. Isolated observations suggest that chronic ventricular unloading may lead to normalization of pulmonary pressures and thus render a patient likely to be a heart transplant candidate. METHODS: This study is ...
Dernaika Tarek A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Nonselective systemic vasodilators worsen ventilation perfusion (V/Q) matching and gas exchange in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhaled iloprost has the potential to act preferentially in ventilated regions of the lung, thereby reducing pulmonary hypertension (PH) while alveolar ventilation is still maintained. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute ...
Mitrovic Veselin - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Blocking the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism with adenosine A1 receptor antagonists seems to improve diuresis and sodium excretion without compromising the glomerular filtration rate in patients with heart failure. However, the direct cardiac effects of this compound class have not been investigated to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 111 ...
Minniti Caterina P - - 2009
Pulmonary Hypertension is a serious complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), with high morbidity and mortality. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor elevated in SCD, acts through the ET receptors (ETR), ETR-A and ETR-B. Bosentan and ambrisentan are ETR blockers used in primary pulmonary hypertension. We report on the use of ...
Galetke Wolfgang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Lung elasticity can be assessed by pulmonary compliance using the esophageal pressure method, but this technique is invasive and time-consuming. Impulse oscillometry has been established as a non-invasive method to describe mechanical properties of the respiratory system and preliminary data suggest that it may be used as a marker ...
Kamath Sandeep A - - 2009
Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive modality that uses changes in impedance across the thorax to assess hemodynamic parameters, including cardiac output (CO). The utility of ICG in patients hospitalized with heart failure is uncertain. The BioImpedance CardioGraphy in Advanced Heart Failure study was a prospective substudy of the Evaluation ...
Peták Ferenc - - 2009
Since alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics may lead to airway hyperreactivity, the consequences of individual changes in pulmonary blood flow (Qp) and capillary pressure (Pc) on lung responsiveness were investigated. During maintenance of a steady-state Pc of 5, 10, or 15 mmHg (groups 1-3), acute increases of Qp were generated in ...
Isaacs David - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To identify and measure the coronary sinus (CS) in patients with and without pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) using chest computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Using a 4-channel GE LightSpeed CT scanner, nongated axial chest CT images were obtained after intravenous injection of contrast material. Catheterization of the right side of ...
Yamazato Yoriko - - 2009
In spite of recent advancements in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, successful control has yet to be accomplished. The abundant presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the lungs and its impressive effect in the prevention of acute lung injury led us to test the hypothesis that pulmonary overexpression of ...
Dham Niti - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with adverse outcomes in adults with sickle-cell disease (SCD), but its importance in children is less clear. The aim of this study was to define the incidence and causes of PH in pediatric patients with SCD. Children with SCD (n = 310) and matched controls ...
Roehl Anna B - - 2009
Large animal models for acute pulmonary hypertension (PHT) show distinct differences between species and underlying mechanisms. Two embolic procedures and continuous infusion of a stable thromboxane A(2) analogue (U46619) were explored for their ability to induce PHT and their effects on right ventricular function and pulmonary and systemic circulation in ...
Soucek Miroslav - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure is characterized by high mortality, frequent hospitalization, and reduced quality of life. Patients with severe heart failure are often in very poor physical condition, they are unable to take part in the usual exercise programs, and therefore need an individual approach. HYPOTHESIS: To assess the systemic ...
Ceridon Maile - - 2009
Pulmonary congestion is a hallmark feature of heart failure and is a major reason for hospital admissions in this patient population. Heart failure patients often demonstrate restrictive and obstructive pulmonary function abnormalities; however, the mechanisms of these changes remain controversial. It has been suggested that the bronchial circulation may play ...
Lapp Harald - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Cinaciguat (BAY 58-2667) is the first of a new class of soluble guanylate cyclase activators in clinical development for acute decompensated heart failure. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic effects, safety, and tolerability of intravenous cinaciguat in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > or ...
Pachón Marta - - 2009
We report on a case of acute non-cardiogenic negative-pressure pulmonary edema developed during an ablation procedure of an accessory pathway in a patient with no structural heart disease. That potentially serious complication has not been previously reported during an interventional cardiology procedure.
Bronicki Ronald A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To highlight and review the physiology and pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in the critically ill pediatric patient. DATA SOURCE: A MEDLINE-based literature source. OUTLINE OF REVIEW: This review is divided into two sections: 1) The physiologic basis of cardiopulmonary interaction, and 2) critical clinical conditions in which cardiac and/or ...
Lamia Bouchra - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Weaning-induced pulmonary edema is a cause of weaning failure in high-risk patients. The diagnosis may require pulmonary artery catheterization to demonstrate increased pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) during weaning. Transthoracic echocardiography can estimate left ventricular filling pressures using early (E) and late (A) peak diastolic velocities measured with Doppler ...
Chapman T H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is of benefit to selected patients with pulmonary hypertension due to parenchymal lung or cardiac disease. We present data from patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension, comparing their right heart catheter results and six minute walking distance to time on treatment. METHODS: 25 patients with symptomatic secondary pulmonary hypertension ...
Sahin M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and echocardiographic findings in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). METHODS: Thirty (8 male, 22 female, mean age 47.4+/-10.5 yr) consecutive patients with euthyroid HT and 30 (9 male, 21 female, mean age 46.4+/-10.7 yr) healthy ...
Bernal V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assessed the correlation of N-terminal natriuretic peptide type B (NT-proBNP) with echocardiographic and hemodynamic indexes of right ventricular (RV) function and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of portopulmonary hypertension. METHODS: All patients underwent liver transplantation ...
Halpern Scott D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is typically distinguished from pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) by documenting a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) <or= 15 mm Hg. However, PCWP has uncertain utility in establishing PAH. We sought to determine the calibration, discrimination, and diagnostic accuracy of PCWP, using simultaneously measured left ventricular ...
Bonderman D - - 2009
The presence of PH in patients who suffer from CHF is common and predicts a poor outcome. However, precise definitions for PH associated with left heart disease, or 'out-of-proportion' PH as well as standardised vasodilator testing protocols are lacking. Moreover, apart from single-centre observations no large-scale trial to date has ...
Sanz Javier - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate indexes of pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using same-day cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and right heart catheterization (RHC). BACKGROUND: Pulmonary artery stiffness is increased in the presence of PH, although the relationship to PH severity has not been fully ...
Xu X-Q - - 2009
High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and ...
Müller Helmut M - - 2009
The degree of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is a crucial clinical parameter. Cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary transit time (PTT) can be ascertained by a number of radiological methods. A close functional relationship between CO, PTT and PVR would facilitate non-invasive PVR measurements. One-hundred and fifty-one measurements were made ...
Robbins Ivan M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) is a well-described cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with left heart disease associated with elevated left heart filling pressure. PVH results from a number of processes, including left-sided valvular disease, constrictive pericardial disease, restrictive cardiomyopathies, and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. PVH in ...
Revel Marie-Pierre - - 2009
PURPOSE: To evaluate, by using electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (CT), parameters such as right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) systolic shortening and myocardial thickness and right pulmonary artery (RPA) distensibility, reported to be abnormal at echocardiography and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Fisher Micah R - - 2009
RATIONALE: Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is recommended for screening for the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, some recent studies have suggested that Doppler echocardiographic pulmonary artery pressure estimates may frequently be inaccurate. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the accuracy of Doppler echocardiography for estimating pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac output. METHODS: We conducted ...
Kostrubiec Maciej - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: In acute pulmonary embolism (APE) the increase of pulmonary vascular resistance depends on the thromboli load and potentially on the pulmonary bed contraction caused by neurohormonal reaction. Plasma levels of endothelin were reported to be elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, there are only a few studies assessing endothelin ...
Eyjolfsson Atli - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Retransfusion of the patient's own blood during surgery is used to reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion. It has however been found that this blood contains lipid particles, which form emboli in different organs if the blood is retransfused on the arterial side. In this study, we tested ...
Tripathi Mukesh - - 2009
The state of vasoplegia in immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass period is characterized by severe hypotension, supranormal cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and resistance to vasoconstrictors. We could successfully use induced mild hypothermia to increase SVR, and could avoid very high doses of nor-epinephrine (>0.3 mcg/kg/min) in the background of ...
Papaioannou Vasilios - - 2009
Negative-pressure pulmonary edema is a well-known complication of an acute upper airway obstruction, which may rarely present as acute alveolar hemorrhage in cases of severe capillary stress failure. Hemorrhage from the central airways has also been reported as a rare manifestation of acute tracheobronchial injury, associated with severe disruption of ...
Luks Andrew M - - 2009
With the increasing popularity of adventure travel and mountain activities, it is likely that many high altitude travelers will have underlying medical problems and approach clinicians for advice about ensuring a safe sojourn. Patients with underlying pulmonary hypertension are one group who warrants significant concern during high altitude travel, because ...
Chesler Naomi C - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is initially a disease of the small, peripheral resistance arteries. Changes in these vessels are best assessed by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure at several levels of flow to generate multi-point pressure-flow curves. This approach is superior to the traditional single-point measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ...
Jyothula Soma - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the hemodynamic manifestation of various pathological processes that result in elevated pulmonary artery pressures (PAP). The National Institutes of Health Registry defined pulmonary arterial hypertension as the mean PAP of more than 25 mm Hg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure equal ...
Casey David B - - 2009
Recent studies show that pulmonary vasodilator responses to nitrite are enhanced by hypoxia. However, the mechanism by which nitrite is converted to vasoactive nitric oxide (NO) is uncertain. In the present study, intravenous injections of sodium nitrite decreased pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and increased cardiac output. The decreases in ...
Xu Da - - 2009
We developed a technique to continuously (i.e., automatically) monitor cardiac output (CO) and left atrial pressure (LAP) by mathematical analysis of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) waveform. The technique is unique to the few previous related techniques in that it jointly estimates the two hemodynamic variables and analyzes the PAP ...
Hsieh Ming-Hui - - 2008
After two consecutive patients underwent hysteroscopy that was complicated by pulmonary edema, the pneumatically inflated pressure cuff machine was checked and found that the pressure gauge was in error, with actual pressure being twice that of the recorded number. High irrigation pressures with a seemingly normal amount of irrigation fluid ...
Sargent Paul - - 2008
A 42-year-old right-handed man with major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and hypertension received 7 treatments of right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy, with the only complications being elevated blood pressure up to 180/120 mm Hg and agitation upon awakening. During eighth treatment, he experienced blood pressures as high as ...
Bouissou Antoine - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of dopamine on systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and systemic blood flow (SBF) (estimated with the superior vena cava [SVC] flow) in preterm infants with hypotension and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). STUDY DESIGN: Clinical and echocardiographic variables were measured before and 2 hours after starting dopamine ...
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