Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1138
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Talke Pekka - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Alpha-2B adrenoceptor is the vasoconstrictive subtype in the mouse. Human alpha2B-AR deletion (D) allele has been associated with loss of short-term agonist-promoted receptor desensitization, which may lead to increased vasoconstriction on alpha2 activation. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that alpha2B-adrenoceptor activation induces enhanced vasoconstriction ...
Neumeister Alexander - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: alpha2-Adrenoreceptors restrain sympathetic nervous outflows and inhibit release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves. In-frame deletion of the alpha2C-adrenoreceptor subtype (alpha2CDel322-325) increases the risk of congestive heart failure. Increased delivery of catecholamines to cardiovascular receptors might explain this increased risk. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy African-Americans genotyped for alpha2-adrenoreceptor subtype polymorphisms underwent ...
Andersen Gitte - - 2005
PGC-1alpha is a coactivator of numerous transcription factors and is expressed in tissues with high energy demands and abundant in mitochondria. It is induced in the myocardium on fasting and physical exercise, and cardiac-specific overexpression stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. The common Gly482Ser polymorphism of PGC-1alpha has previously shown association ...
Davey Smith George - - 2005
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) has repeatedly been associated with blood pressure and prevalent and incident hypertension, but whether a causal link exists is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the cross-sectional relations of CRP to systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and prevalent hypertension in a representative sample of >3500 British ...
Winker R - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and substantial increases in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high while standing. Several features of the syndrome, including the tachycardia, tremulousness, and exaggerated norepinephrine have been considered potentially due to ...
Turner Stephen T - - 2005
We measured 366 microsatellite markers genome-wide to search for loci contributing to subcortical white matter ischemic damage (leukoariosis) and brain atrophy in 488 non-Hispanic white subjects (193 men, 295 women; mean age+/-SD=64.1+/-7.7 years; 79% hypertensive) from 223 sibships recruited through > or =2 members with essential hypertension diagnosed before age ...
Bianchi Giuseppe - - 2005
Adducin is a heterodymeric cytoskeleton protein, the 3 subunits of which are encoded by genes (ADD1, ADD2, ADD3) mapping to 3 different chromosomes. A long series of parallel studies in the Milan hypertensive rat strain model of hypertension and humans indicated that an altered adducin function may cause hypertension through ...
Gouni-Berthold Ioanna - - 2005
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The Pro12Ala and the 4a/b polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and the endothelial nitric oxide-synthase (eNOS) genes, respectively, have been associated with hypertension in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between these polymorphisms and hypertension ...
Williams Tracy A - - 2005
The renal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta HSD2) enzyme inactivates 11-hydroxy steroids in the kidney, thereby protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding 11beta HSD2 (HSD11B2) result in overstimulation of the MR and cause salt-sensitive hypertension. We have investigated the role ...
Ander Sarah - - 2005
The efficiency of gene therapy as a pretreatment for saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts can be improved by increasing the transport of vector into the tunica media. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing transmural pressure on vector delivery depth in human saphenous vein ...
Delmonico Matthew J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of angiotensinogen (AGT) A-20C, M235 T, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) A1166C genotypes on resting blood pressure (BP) response to strength training (ST) in older men and women. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study with retrospective genotyping. SETTING: University of Maryland Exercise Physiology Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: ...
SMITH, KATHLEEN LOUISE
Left ventricular hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in adults. Left ventricular (LV) mass varies substantially among individuals, and several studies suggest that genetic factors make a significant contribution to the observed variability in LV mass. However, to date, the specific polymorphisms that may ...
Gu C Charles - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Function of the renin-angiotensin system is important to human hypertension, but its genetic etiology remains elusive. We set out to examine a hypothesis that multiple genetic variants in the system act together in blood pressure regulation, via intermediate phenotypes such as blood pressure reactivity. METHODS: A sample of 531 ...
Ge D - - 2005
Summary Several recent studies have linked human chromosome 1p to essential hypertension (EH) or blood pressure (BP) levels. In an independent population of 148 hypertensive families from China we tested these findings. Thirty highly informative microsatellite markers spanning about 284 cM were genotyped. Qualitative linkage analysis was conducted using non-parametric ...
Mettimano M - - 2005
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major determinant of heart damage. Scientific evidence suggests the influence of genetic factors, but these have yet to be completely clarified. This study investigates a possible relationship between LVH and two chemokine receptor (CCR) gene polymorphisms: CCR5delta32 and CCR264I. Essential hypertensive out-patients (n=118, grade ...
Mourad J-J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure (PP), a marker of cyclic strain on the arterial wall, is a significant predictor of cardiovascular (CV) risk, particularly regarding the incidence of coronary arterial stenosis. Genes related to haemostatic and/or fibrinolytic factors are consistently influenced in vitro by mechanical strain. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present ...
He Hong - - 2005
BACKGROUND: About 15-37% of the adult population worldwide suffers from hypertension. Hypertension is responsible for one-third of all global deaths. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the most important characteristics of hypertension target organ damage and is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Therefore, effective regression of ...
Yu Yunxian - - 2005
The molecular mechanisms underlying essential hypertension are not fully elucidated. Although Benazepril is being widely used in antihypertensive medication, the agent is efficacious in only a portion of hypertensive patients. To evaluate the interaction of alpha-adducin gene Gly460Trp and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphisms in regard to baseline ...
Tanaka Chihiro - - 2005
It is known that increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-6 gene on the blood pressure regulation and progression of atherosclerosis ...
Zoccali Carmine - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: I review recent knowledge on the interference of neuropeptide Y with energy balance and cardiovascular and renal disease and on the central regulation of bone mass. RECENT FINDINGS: Although neuropeptide Y is mainly seen as a vasoconstrictor, rats overexpressing the neuropeptide Y gene show reduced blood pressure ...
Kurland Lisa - - 2005
Hypertension is prevalent, affecting approx 20--25% of the adult population in the Western world. Primary hypertension is a multifactorial, complex disorder where many genes and genetic variants are assumed to interact with environmental factors in order to produce the specific blood pressure level for a given individual. Family and twin ...
Snyder Eric M - - 2005
Renal control of Na(+) regulation is a critical component to blood pressure regulation. It has recently been suggested that the beta-2 adrenergic receptor plays a role in blood pressure regulation possibly via renal epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). In the kidneys, gain of function mutations of the ENaC leads to increased ...
Holliday Robin - - 2005
In a protected environment, humans have the longest lifespan of all primates. However, during the emergence of Homo sapiens from pre-hominids, the expectation of life at birth would have been quite low. On the basis of reasonable assumptions, an average expectation of life of less than 20 years is sufficient ...
Djurić Tamara - - 2005
The incidence of hypertension is increasing and it is more common in man than in women. Up to date, MMP-3 5A/6A polymorphism has been associated with artery stiffening and elevated blood pressure, whereas results considering association of endothelial NOS (eNOS) G894 T polymorphism with hypertension are controversial. The aim of ...
Dolan Ciara - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The recessive disorder trimethylaminuria is caused by defects in the FMO3 gene, and may be associated with hypertension. We investigated whether common polymorphisms of the FMO3 gene confer an increased risk for elevated blood pressure and/or essential hypertension. METHODS: FMO3 genotypes (E158K, V257M, E308G) were determined in 387 healthy ...
Campanaro Stefano - - 2005
Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface with an average depth of 3800 m and a pressure of 38 MPa, thus a large part of the biosphere is occupied by high pressure environments. Piezophilic (pressure-loving) organisms are adapted to deep-sea life and grow optimally at pressures higher than 0.1 ...
Klintschar Michael M Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Franzosenweg 1, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany. - - 2005
TH01 is a tetrameric short tandem repeat locus located in intron 01 of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene. The tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines like noradrenaline or adrenaline, which are pivotal in the regulation of blood ...
Redon J J Hypertension Clinic, Hospital Clinico, University of Valencia, Spain. - - 2005
This study analyzed the relationship between four renin-angiotensin system (RAS) gene polymorphisms and the response to blood pressure lowering and development of microalbuminuria in 206 patients with essential hypertension treated once daily for 12 months with telmisartan 80 mg. Seated cuff blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were measured ...
Chakravarty P - - 2005
The possibility of obtaining tolbutamide polymorphs was investigated using the solvents acetonitrile and 1-octanol. Tolbutamide is an oral hypoglycemic agent that exists in four polymorphic forms. Characterization of the various polymorphs was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy and dissolution ...
Renner Wilfried - - 2005
Angiotensinogen and its cleaved forms angiotensin I and angiotensin II are important regulators of blood pressure. The gene for angiotensinogen (AGT) carries two common polymorphisms, T207M and M268T (previously described as T174M and M235T). To investigate the role of haplotypes formed by these polymorphisms for angiotensinogen levels we examined blood ...
Ho Herbert - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that the presence of a CYP3A5*1 allele is associated with increases in blood pressure in 2 studies of subjects with a total of 683 participants. The first study involving 271 subjects was part of a longitudinal study conducted at Indiana University Medical Center that consisted of ...
Supowit Scott C - - 2005
Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a potent vasodilator neuropeptide that is localized in perivascular sensory nerves. To determine whether alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide possesses protective activity against hypertension-induced end organ damage, hypertension was induced in alpha-calcitonin gene-related/calcitonin peptide knockout and wild-type mice by uninephrectomy, deoxycorticosteroid administration, and 0.9% saline drinking water. These ...
Robinson M - - 2004
Genetic analysis of hypertension has yielded inconsistent results, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions regarding the impact of specific variants on blood pressure regulation. Among the most studied of the candidate genes for blood pressure regulation is angiotensinogen (AGT), but as with other candidate loci associations with blood pressure ...
Liljedahl Ulrika - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine whether the change in left ventricular (LV) mass in response to antihypertensive treatment could be predicted by multivariate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes reflecting pathways likely to be involved in blood pressure control. METHODS: Patients with mild to moderate primary ...
Schut Anna F C - - 2004
AIMS: Cardiac angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity is influenced by the ACE I/D polymorphism. Evidence suggests that the DD-genotype may be a risk factor for cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, especially in hypertensive subjects. We assessed the relation between the ACE I/D polymorphism and the risk of incident heart failure ...
Wojciechowska Wiktoria - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II and aldosterone, generated by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), respectively, not only regulate sodium and water homeostasis, but also influence vascular remodeling in response to high blood pressure. In the European Project on Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH), we therefore investigated whether the ACE I/D ...
Tripodi Grazia - - 2004
Genetic variants of alpha adducin (ADD1) taken alone or in interaction with those of beta (ADD2) and gamma (ADD3) subunits have been associated with primary hypertension in humans and in Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats. In this study, we report the dissection of the individual contribution of each rat Add gene ...
Kumar Ratan - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: People who visit high altitude are exposed to a stressful environment, and many of them suffer from altitude-induced conditions, including high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We investigated the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the possible association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism in the development ...
La Rosée Karl - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Recently, the Arg389Gly beta1-adrenoceptor (beta1AR) gene polymorphism has been detected. The Arg variant exhibited increased responsiveness to agonist-induced stimulation in vitro. Functional studies in isolated human atrial muscle strips and in-vivo studies revealed contradictory results regarding the functional relevance of this polymorphism. We sought to characterize the functional consequences ...
Mitchell Anna - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We used the orally available endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist darusentan to characterize interactions between the major blood pressure-regulating systems in healthy men. Mediators of the endothelin system, the sympathetic nervous system, and the renin-angiotensin system act via G protein-coupled receptors with a possible involvement of the G-protein beta3 ...
Iaccarino Guido - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac and vascular remodeling occur in response to hypertension. Genetic background appears to modify the development of target organ damage (TOD). We evaluated the impact on hypertension-associated TOD of a highly polymorphic gene with elevated significance for the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the beta2AR gene. METHODS: We recruited ...
Gardier Stéphany - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of the AC polymorphism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AGTR1) with blood pressure and central arterial stiffness in a population of hypertensive patients referred to hospital for further work-up. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five patients, referred to our department from April 1998 to ...
Dong Yanbin - - 2004
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasconstrictor peptide implicated in development of essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. To evaluate the impact of genetic variability of the ET-1 gene on progression of blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular mass (LVM), we conducted individual growth curve modeling for 537 European American and ...
Super Maurice - - 2004
Individuals homozygous for the autosomal recessive disorder CF are known to have low blood pressure, thought to be caused by greatly increased sweat salt loss. We examined whether carriers of the CF gene also have low blood pressure. Our pilot studies had suggested an effect limited to females, leading to ...
Chen Wei - - 2004
Impaired endothelial function caused by decreased NO production plays a pathophysiologic role in essential hypertension. Although cross-sectional data are available on the association between endothelial NO synthase gene polymorphisms and hypertension, whether the gene variants and their haplotypes affect the long-term cumulative burden and trend of blood pressure since childhood ...
Vittitow Jason - - 2004
Physiological pressure inside the eye is maintained by a resistance mechanism provided by the trabecular meshwork tissue. In most cases, prolonged, elevated pressure leads to an eye pathology characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, optic nerve damage, and non-remedial blindness. We are investigating the regulation of trabecular meshwork genes ...
Barbato Antonio - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aldosterone synthase gene (CYP1B2) locus is a candidate region involved in the development of hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the C-344T CYP1B2 polymorphism, plasma aldosterone, renin activity and blood pressure in a multi-ethnic population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study of 1313 middle-aged men and women (456 white, ...
Tivesten Asa - - 2004
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with abnormal vascular reactivity and development of atherosclerosis. GH treatment in GH deficient states restores systemic vascular resistance, arterial compliance, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation, and may reverse markers of early atherosclerosis. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In ...
Ismail Muhammad - - 2004
Several studies have demonstrated the importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study sought to determine the association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and essential hypertension in young Pakistanis. The frequency of the ACE I/D polymorphism was established by a comparative cross-sectional ...
Liljedahl Ulrika - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia has been associated with hypertension. The present study explored if polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins in lipid metabolism could be used as predictors for the individual response to antihypertensive treatment. METHODS: Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes related to lipid metabolism were analysed by a microarray based ...
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