Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1338
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Ruilope Luis M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blocker, has been shown to improve multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients. This analysis assessed the impact of rimonabant on blood pressure in the pooled population from four large trials with similar design - the Rimonabant-In-Obesity (RIO) programme. METHODS: ...
Puri Mala - - 2008
In this study, 167 obese persons were recruited (45 African Americans, 122 Caribbean Hispanic persons), with a mean age of 14.6+/-2.1 years, a mean body mass index (BMI) of 38+/-7.5 kg/m(2), and mean BMI Z-score of 2.47+/-0.36; 31 nonobese youth were recruited as controls (7 African Americans, 24 Caribbean Hispanic ...
Gil Tae Young - - 2008
Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) are noninvasive markers of early arterial wall alteration and are more widely used in adult clinical research. We investigated whether IMT and PWV are useful predictors of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive adolescents. Fifteen hypertensive adolescents (13-18 yr old, systolic BP > ...
Rosner B - - 2008
Blood pressure in children has consistently been related to adult blood pressure, with implications for long-term prevention of cardiovascular disease. The epidemic of obesity in children has resulted in corresponding increases in childhood blood pressure. In this paper, the authors develop norms for childhood blood pressure among normal-weight children (body ...
Obidike, E O; ;
Objective: To determine if there is a correlation between blood pressure and anthropometry in children of Igbo ethnicity. Subjects, Materials and Methods: One thousand, six hundred and thirty-four boys and 1669 girls were studied. Their ages ranged from 6 to 14 years. Their blood pressures, weights and heights were measured. ...
Lurbe Empar - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between insulin resistance and the ambulatory blood pressure components in obese children and adolescents. Eighty-seven overweight and obese white children and adolescents of both sexes, of European origin from 6 to 18 years of age (mean age: 10.9+/-2.7 years), ...
Knerr Ina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Arterial blood pressure was followed in 868 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 6.0-19.9 years in 95 centers in Germany and Austria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: European blood pressure reference data for 28,043 children and adolescents were used with respect to age and sex. Data were stratified into three ...
Aristizabal Dagnovar - - 2008
The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and hypertension is frequently observed in overweight patients; however, population studies have not confirmed an independent association. A population study was conducted to assess whether differences in body mass index and levels of insulinemia modify cardiovascular hemodynamics and arterial pressure. In all, 322 healthy adults underwent ...
Good David - - 2008
Controversy exists regarding the amount of risk caused by obesity, but there is general consensus that it is associated with many serious disorders, mostly cardiovascular and neoplastic. Obesity is clearly associated with hypertension, ventricular remodeling with subsequent congestive heart failure, sleep-disordered breathing, and sudden death. The physiologic alterations associated with ...
Moore Thomas J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The dietary habits of Americans are creating serious health concerns, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even some types of cancer. While considerable attention has been focused on calorie reduction and weight loss, approaches are needed that will not only help the population reduce calorie intake but also ...
Pang Wenyue - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the status of overweight and obesity in a Chinese rural adult population and describe relationships between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure according to JNC-7. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2004-2006, used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample. A total of ...
Driziene Zaneta - - 2008
To define 24-h characteristics of arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescent girls and boys; to determine gender-related differences of blood pressure, its circadian pattern. The 24-h blood pressure was monitored hourly in healthy girls (n=22, without no account for the menstrual cycle phase) and boys (n=22). Additionally, blood pressure of ...
Buck Marcia L - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety, effectiveness, and dosing of dexmedetomidine in intensive care infants and children who require sedation, and the rationale for patient selection. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Eleven-bed pediatric intensive care unit in a university-affiliated children's hospital. PATIENTS: Seventeen infants and children who received dexmedetomidine consecutively ...
Hammer Gregory B - - 2008
ABSTRACT: Fenoldopam mesylate, a selective dopamine1-receptor agonist, is used by intravenous infusion to treat hypertension in adults. Fenoldopam is not approved by the FDA for use in children; reports describing its use in pediatrics are limited. In a multi-institutional, placebo controlled, double-blind, multi-dose trial we determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) and ...
Cappuccio Francesco P - - 2008
Blood pressure is directly and causally associated with body mass index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, the relationship may vary across BMI in populations of African origin. We compared the relationship between blood pressure and BMI in populations of African origin, using 13 samples from Africa, the Caribbean, the United ...
Adedoyin Rufus A - - 2008
Studies on cardiovascular risks in relation to anthropometric factors are limited in Sub-Sahara Africa. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between anthropometric parameters and blood pressure; and to evaluate body mass index (BMI) across the range of underweight and obesity as a primary risk factor of ...
Ejike Chukwunonso E C C - - 2008
The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to ...
Robinson Monique R MR Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research (OCMR), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. - - 2008
Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and ...
Maggio Albane B R - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To measure resting and ambulatory systemic blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular mass (LVM) in prepubertal obese and lean children and to determine their relationships. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study including 44 obese and 22 lean prepubertal children (mean age 8.8 +/- 1.5 years). We measured casual and 24-hour ambulatory ...
Török Katalin - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the circadian rhythm of blood pressure pattern in obese children, and to investigate if the lack of normal diurnal rhythm of blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: 73 obese children (body weight [mean+/-SD]: ...
Bonello M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Achieving optimal dry body weight in hemodialysis is challenging. Clinical assessment alone is inadequate, and methods such as bioimpedance monitoring may be impractical for every patient treatment. Continuous blood volume monitoring, blood pressure and heart rate variability inform clinical decision-making, but integrated use of multiple methodologies to achieve dry ...
Rao Shobha - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To examine the importance of somatic disproportion rather than absolute values of leg height and trunk height for predicting risk of high blood pressure among adolescents. METHODS: Adolescent girls (9-16 years old) from high (HSE) and low socio-economic (LSE) classes were examined (n = 1036 and n = 1040, ...
Kramer Michael S MS Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, PQ, Canada. - - 2007
The evidence that breastfeeding protects against obesity and a variety of chronic diseases comes almost entirely from observational studies, which have a potential for bias due to confounding, selection bias, and selective publication. We assessed whether an intervention designed to promote exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding affects children's height, weight, adiposity, ...
Oberg Sara S Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2007
African Americans (AAs) not only have higher blood-pressure levels, but also an increased risk of low weight at birth, compared with European Americans (EAs). In light of fetal programming theories, it has been suggested that ethnic differences in blood pressure originate in utero. However, most previous studies in biethnic samples ...
Banerjee Robin - - 2008
Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and ...
Francischetti Emilio A - - 2007
Adiponectin is a major adipocytokine and has been considered as an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension. Most studies on the subject have been restricted to biracial (white-black) and Asian groups. The present report examined whether adiponectin affects blood pressure in a sample of untreated obese Brazilians of multiethnic origin. ...
Nakashima Eiji - - 2007
Annual medical examinations were conducted during adolescence for the in utero clinical study sample subjects exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Systolic blood pressure and several anthropometric measurements were recorded during these examinations. For 1014 persons exposed in utero, two types of longitudinal analyses were performed, ...
Sinha Manish D - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review briefly highlights origins of hypertension with emphasis on the influences of gestation, birth weight, salt intake, and adiposity. We focus on the role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and the assessment of comorbidity and target organ change in hypertensive children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Low ...
Bitigen Atila - - 2007
The authors investigated the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype and left ventricular functions in an obese population and compared their findings with controls. Ninety-six obese patients and 50 controls were enrolled. Obesity was subgrouped into mild (body mass index [BMI] 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), moderate (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m(2)), and significant (BMI ...
Covelli Maureen McCormick - - 2007
Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with increased blood pressure and the development of cardiovascular disease including hypertension. Elevated blood pressure, cortisol, and hyperresponsiveness during physiologic stress may function as hypertension biological markers. We examined the association of blood pressure and cortisol levels during induced physiologic stress with LBW ...
Del-Rio-Navarro Blanca E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We undertook this study to establish the prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and high glucose and triglyceride levels in school-age children from Mexico City, as well as to determine how overweight and obesity are related to the other risk factors. METHODS: The study was a ...
Schiel Ralf - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents contribute to the development of overweight and obesity in adulthood and subsequent cardiovascular disease. It was the aim of the trial to assess vascular status and associations with cardiovascular risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-one overweight or obese children and adolescents (age ...
Sheffer Rivka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Reports from the last decade suggest an epidemic of overweight and obesity in Western countries. Since obesity has been associated with increased blood pressure, we aimed to describe the secular trends in overweight and obesity and blood pressure among Israeli working adults. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in ...
Yano Yuichiro - - 2007
The goal of this study was to examine the association between adiponectin and low-grade albuminuria in nondiabetic persons and whether it differed between obese and nonobese individuals. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was assessed by overnight collection in 157 participants. Overall, as anticipated, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose levels ...
Ruiz Jonatan R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between anthropometric measurements of total and central adiposity and blood pressure in school-aged children, and to study whether these associations are modified by the levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, skinfold thickness and waist circumference were measured in 873 ...
Lambert Elisabeth - - 2007
Hypertension in normal-weight and obese individuals is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Measurement of spillover of the sympathetic transmitter, norepinephrine, to plasma indicates that the regional pattern of sympathetic activation in the 2 "variants" of essential hypertension differs, excluding the heart in obesity-related hypertension. Whether sympathetic nerve ...
Knauss Christine - - 2007
Sociocultural factors that underpin gender differences in body dissatisfaction have not frequently been explored. We examined the relative contribution of internalization of media body ideals and perceived pressure to achieve this ideal in explaining body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls. A sample of 819 boys and 791 girls completed ...
Gilardini L - - 2008
We investigated in a young Italian obese population, the relationship between ambulatory BP (ABP) and several pathophysiological factors linking obesity to hypertension. A total of 89 obese children and adolescents underwent a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and an oral glucose tolerance test. The circulating levels of insulin, lipids, uric ...
Hansen Matthew L ML School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2007
Pediatric hypertension is increasing in prevalence with the pediatric obesity epidemic. Diagnosis of hypertension in children is complicated because normal and abnormal blood pressure values vary with age, sex, and height and are therefore difficult to remember. To determine the frequency of undiagnosed hypertension and prehypertension and to identify patient ...
Rundle Andrew - - 2007
The purpose of this study is to investigate the construct validity of the Harvard Alumni Activity Survey (HAAS) in an urban, lower income population. Data were collected from 192 smokers enrolled in an antioxidant micronutrient trial. Activity data were compared to body mass index (BMI), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure. ...
Barker David J P DJ Heart Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, USA. - - 2007
We previously reported that in 2003 people from the Helsinki birth cohort whose blood pressures were measured, 2 different paths of growth preceded the development of hypertension. People already diagnosed with hypertension were small at birth but of average body size at age 11 years. People newly diagnosed with hypertension ...
Agirbasli M - - 2008
Patterns of cardiovascular risk factors in populations are not static over time. We examined trends in body mass index (BMI), parental smoking and blood pressure over a 15-year period in Turkish children aged 15-17 years. Two cross-sectional studies were performed in secondary schools in Turkey in 1989-1990 and 2004-2005. Study ...
Haddy Theresa B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hypertension as a late effect following childhood and adolescent cancer has received little attention. Since obesity, a known risk factor for hypertension, is increased following some childhood cancers, it seems likely that significant numbers of survivors would have hypertension. PROCEDURES: The records of patients seen in the Long Term ...
Saha Indranil - - 2007
A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1081 adolescents to assess the relationship of adolescent blood pressure with weight, height and BMI in Chetla, Kolkata; data collection was done with a predesigned schedule along with recording of anthropometric measurements and blood pressure. Mean, correlation coefficient was used for statistical ...
Mir Sevgi - - 2007
In this article, we will describe the presence of metabolic syndrome and its components in a group of hypertensive and obese adolescents. The study presented here was conducted on 20 patients (10 boys) presented with complaints of obesity and hypertension who were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. In 20 patients who ...
Franco Maria C P - - 2007
Leptin, homocysteine (Hcy), and C-reactive protein are risk factors potentially useful in predicting future cardiac events. These plasma biomarkers may participate in the regulation of cardiovascular function through an NO-dependent mechanism. Our purpose was to investigate whether alterations in C-reactive protein, Hcy, leptin, and NO are present in small-for-gestational-age children ...
Daniels Stephen R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Adolescent obesity is a major public health problem. Treatment options in addition to behavioral therapy could include pharmacotherapy with sibutramine. OBJECTIVES: Concerns regarding increases in blood pressure and heart rate after sibutramine treatment in some adult patients precipitated the present analysis, which evaluated the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine plus ...
Hemachandra Anusha H - - 2007
A physiologic predisposition toward hypertension is theorized to result from the combination of intrauterine growth restriction followed by rapid catch-up growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of birth weight and weight gain during childhood on the risk for high blood pressure in childhood and to ...
Scurry W Cooper WC - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to introduce temporal bone encephalocele (TBE) to the differential diagnosis of persistent middle ear effusion, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea, or chronic otitis media in obese adults and to demonstrate the basic pathophysiologic principles of morbid obesity as it may lead to the cascade of increased intra-abdominal pressure, ...
Ibhazehiebo K - - 2007
Hypertension, and the effect of graded exercise on blood pressure (BP), in 60 obese non-athletic young medical students (40 females and 20 males) with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 were studied. The subjects were in the age range of 18-22 years with mean age of 20.30 +/-1.32 years. ...
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