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da Silva Alexandre A - - 2009
Obesity is recognized as a major health problem throughout the world. Excess weight is a major cause of increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension and greatly increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and end-stage renal disease. Although the mechanisms by which obesity raises blood pressure are ...
Urbina Elaine M - - 2009
Adults with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk for stroke and myocardial infarction. Increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and stiffness are associated with these adverse outcomes. We compared carotid arteries in youth who were lean, were obese, or had T2DM. Carotid ultrasound for cIMT measurement ...
Siddiqui Imran Akhtar - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine metabolic dysfunction closely associated with obesity, which predisposes to pregnancy complications. PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5-10% of the population. It is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism with clinical manifestations of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and acne. Obese females are at ...
Liao Chien-Chang - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of blood pressure elevation with body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol levels in children who screened positive for proteinuria, glucosuria, and/or hamaturia. STUDY DESIGN: From 1992 to 2000, a mass urine screening program was conducted annually for nearly 3,000,000 students aged 6 to 18 ...
Gonçalves Torres Márcia Regina Simas - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence has suggested obesity as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. However, the temporal relation between body mass index (BMI) and early renal dysfunction is unknown. This study aimed at evaluating whether longitudinal variations in BMI would reflect on changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ...
Lurbe Empar - - 2009
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of obesity and low birth weight on both office and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values, as well as on aortic-derived parameters in youths. A total of 422 white youths, from 10 to 18 years of age, were included. Subjects were ...
Kaelber David C - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to create a tool to screen more easily for children and adolescents who might have hypertension or prehypertension. METHODS: We took the existing tables from The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents, which contain hundreds of ...
Frezza Eldo E - - 2009
Obesity is related to multiple comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and sleep apnea. Comorbidities burden the health care system, such that in the United States, 6% to 8% of health care costs are related to obesity. Obesity-induced hypertension has multiple potential etiologic pathways, the most well established being increased renal ...
Reisin Efrain E Section of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. - - 2009
The increasing prevalence of obesity in the industrialized world is causing an alarming epidemic. Almost 70% of American adults are overweight or obese. The link between increasing body weight and hypertension is well established. Obesity hypertension through metabolic, endocrinic, and systemic hemodynamic alteration causes structural vascular and cardiac adaptations that ...
Asayama Kei - - 2009
Masked hypertension has been proven to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct associations of obesity-related anthropometric indices, including waist circumference, with masked hypertension. Participants in this population-based survey included 395 residents (> or = 35 years) of ...
Varela J Esteban - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic increases in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the IAP and the number of obesity-related co-morbidities. METHODS: A total of 63 morbidly obese patients who were undergoing bariatric surgery had their IAP measured intraoperatively while ...
Steier J J Chest Unit, King's College London School of Medicine, Denmark Hill, London, UK. - - 2009
The load imposed on ventilation by increased body mass contributes to the respiratory symptoms caused by obesity. A study was conducted to quantify ventilatory load and respiratory drive in obesity in both the upright and supine postures. Resting breathing when seated and supine was studied in 30 obese subjects (mean ...
Pedersen Jan Bech - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity defined as BMI > 40 is a growing problem. It is primarily treated with diet, lifestyle changes, and medicine. However, at present, surgery remains the only effective option for the management. METHODS: Seventeen patients were studied 2 months after laparoscopic gastric banding. The aims were to evaluate ...
Gamborg Michael - - 2009
The inverse associations between birth weight and later adverse health outcomes and the positive associations between adult body size and poor health imply that increases in relative body size between birth and adulthood may be undesirable. In this paper, the authors describe life course path analysis, a method that can ...
Neuhauser Hannelore K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing interest in the epidemiology of paediatric hypertension, data on how often blood pressure in children and adolescents already exceeds adult thresholds for optimal blood pressure are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of higher-than-optimal and hypertensive blood pressure values according to ...
Flores-Huerta Samuel - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem affecting even children and yet little is known about its role as a determinant of high blood pressure in this age group. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the relationship between the increment of body mass ...
Silva Eliana A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of abdominal fat and insulin resistance on arterial hypertension of non-obese women. METHODS: Thirty-five non-obese women (NO), age 35-68 years were studied, and divided into two groups according to the presence of hypertension (BP >or= 140 x 90 mmHg) (HT = hypertensive; NT = normotensive). ...
Rao Shobha - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: In view of the fact that height differences between socio-economic groups are apparent early in childhood, it is of interest to examine whether skeletal growth is reflective of the social class gradient in CVD risk. The present study examined blood pressure levels, adiposity and growth of adolescent boys from ...
Chirinos Julio A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Obesity produces various hemodynamic abnormalities that may impact hypertension subtypes. Similarly, the study of hypertension subtypes provides important information regarding the relative importance of hemodynamic abnormalities contributing to obesity-related hypertension. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of adults enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (n = ...
Lodish Maya B - - 2009
CONTEXT: Hypertension (HTN) has been reported in up to 60% of children with Cushing syndrome (CS), but its course, side effects, and potential differences among various causes of CS have not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure blood pressure in pediatric patients with CS ...
Sánchez-Zamorano Luisa María - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure and body mass index among adolescents. METHODS: A 14-month period cross-sectional study was carried out among 2387 adolescents attending public schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico between 2005 and 2007. We measured blood pressure during four visits, obtaining elevated blood pressure ...
Marras Andrea Raffaele - - 2009
Our aim in this part of the Sardinian Hypertensive Adolescents Research Programme, also known as the SHARP study, was to use longitudinal screening over a period of 3 years to search for any relationship between hypertension and excessive weight in a number of Southern Italian students. We also sought to ...
Karatela Rubina A - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to assess the interrelationship of obesity with plasma homocysteine levels as well as vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Sixty-five hypertensive and sixty-five normotensive patients were studied. Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid, lipid parameters, blood pressure, ...
Krzyzaniak Alicja - - 2009
The objective of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific reference ranges for blood pressure in a large national database on blood pressure levels throughout childhood and adolescence in young Poles. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in 2002-2005 in the representative sampling sites, selected randomly from the entire ...
- - 2009
Several physiological changes affecting physical fitness occur in humans whenever they are exposed to extremes of environments such as heat, cold and high altitude (HA). The present study was undertaken to evaluate effect of stay in desert and HA on physical fitness and body composition of physically active individuals. Study ...
Foering Kristen - - 2009
PURPOSE: High pressures are important in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, particularly in hemodialysis access. Although many operators rely on commercially available inflators, small syringes can deliver high pressures, which might make inflators unnecessary. Recently introduced polycarbonate (PC) syringes may allow higher pressure delivery than traditional polypropylene (PP) ones, so the present ...
Karatzi K - - 2009
Obesity is related to office blood pressure (OBP). Important discrepancies exist between OBP and home blood pressure (HBP), providing complementary information for the management of hypertension. The association between obesity and HBP has not been investigated in children. The evidence on the role of obesity in the predominance of systolic ...
Riou Marie-Eve - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between fitness and components of the metabolic syndrome in sedentary men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 39 subjects (34-53 years) were evaluated for fitness (VO(2max)) and anthropometric, metabolic, and skeletal muscle phenotypes. VO(2max) was assessed on a bicycle ergometer whereas other variables were obtained from an oral ...
Stray-Pedersen Marit - - 2009
To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and ...
Kontchou Laure Monthe - - 2009
AIMS: To verify the variations of blood pressure in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and to correlate the blood pressure with familial history of essential hypertension. METHODS: We measured blood pressure in 49 prepubertal nephrotic children, 17 females and 32 males, in the first week of oedema, and after ...
Krzych Lukasz J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate daily profile of blood pressure deteriorates the clinical outcome of hypertension and increases distant cardiovascular risk. The problem is important, especially in children and adolescents in whom early intervention helps to prevent complications of hypertension such as left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertensive retinopathy. OBJECTIVES: To assess circadian blood ...
Tesfaye Fikru - - 2009
The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis ...
Reistetter Timothy - - 2009
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity (UE) weight bearing on UE impairment functional performance of persons with acquired brain injury (BI). A quasi-experimental design was used to examine a convenience sample of 99 persons with acquired BI and 22 without BI (WBI) living ...
Bogaert Yolanda E - - 2009
The rapid rise in the incidence and prevalence of obesity and the concomitant increase in the incidence and prevalence of hypertension have fueled investigation into the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The genetic background that predisposes obese individuals to hypertension is being elucidated, and the importance of ...
Asserhøj Marie - - 2009
Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children. Danish mothers (n = 122) ...
Miyai N - - 2009
Measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is recognized as a simple and practical method for assessing arterial stiffness. We determined whether the baPWV of adolescents is affected by obesity and its associated metabolic risk variables. A cross-sectional sample of 754 apparently healthy adolescents (383 men and 371 women), aged ...
Hinojosa Marcelo W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a well-recognized and treatable risk factor for coronary heart disease and is one of the most common comorbidities associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical outcome of a cohort of patients with documented hypertension who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass. METHODS: Ninety-five ...
Brunani Amelia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obese patients have myocardial structural and functional alterations related to insulin resistance. HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer agent, on cardiac morphometry and functioning. METHODS: In 2 groups of sex- and age-matched, nondiabetic, obese patients (5 men and 7 ...
Plank Christian - - 2008
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for the development of hypertension in later life. Insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone (GH) have the potential to improve metabolic syndrome after IUGR in adult animals. The objective of the present study was to examine whether transient GH treatment of ...
Lande Marc B MB Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 777, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2008
Adult hypertension is independently associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels, after controlling for obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine, with a nationally representative sample of children, whether the relationship between elevated blood pressure and C-reactive protein levels may be evident before adulthood. ...
Bixler Edward O EO Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Sleep Research and Treatment Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. - - 2008
The current criteria for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children are not based on a clinically relevant outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of blood pressure with SDB in a random sample of the local elementary school children (kindergarten through grade 5) using a 2-phased strategy. ...
Strufaldi Maria Wany L - - 2009
Several studies have reported data supporting the idea that an impaired intrauterine environment that deprives the fetus of optimal nutrient delivery results in the predisposition of the fetus to experience cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction in later life. However, contradictory data still exist. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of ...
Salvadori Marina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Childhood overweight and obesity may result in premature onset of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension. Rural populations in North America may be at increased risk for overweight. We evaluated whether overweight and obesity were associated with prehypertension and hypertension in a well-characterized population of children in rural Canada. ...
Lenfant Claude - - 2008
Evidence supporting the association of normal and pathologically elevated blood pressure with low birth weight is presented and discussed in this article because of the overwhelming global prevalence of hypertension and its impact on individuals and nations. The findings provide strong impetus for the medical and public health communities to ...
Munkhaugen John - - 2008
The secular weight increase in European and US adolescents and the increasing use of oscillometric devices pose a problem to decide on normative blood pressure levels. We studied how biological and statistical aspects influence standards, and suggest new Northern Europe reference tables. All adolescents of Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway, aged 13-18 ...
Silventoinen Karri K Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, - - 2008
Some studies have suggested that increased blood pressure has a stronger effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lean persons than in obese persons, although this is not a universal finding. Given the inconsistency of this result, we tested it using a large population-based cohort data set. Systolic ...
Crawford Stephen O - - 2008
The mechanism linking obesity with its downstream complications is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that insufficient oxidative capacity plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and, perhaps, hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured lactate, a marker of the gap between energy expenditure and oxidative capacity, in ...
Batty G D GD MRC Social & Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, UK. - - 2009
It has recently been hypothesised that acute dehydration in early childhood may "programme" increased blood pressure via salt retention. We examined whether there was an association between episodes of diarrhoea (a proxy for acute dehydration) and later measured blood pressure. In the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study (Brazil), parents/carers reported ...
Zhou Ziqiang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and blood pressure is well documented and a series of obesity indices are used as risk factors or indicators of blood pressure and/or the presence of hypertension. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore and determine which obesity index is the best ...
Ben-Shlomo Yoav - - 2008
There is a consistent inverse association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure; however, few studies have been able to examine the immediate postnatal period. We have examined whether accelerated postnatal growth predicts adult systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We followed up participants from the Barry Caerphilly Growth Study. Blood ...
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