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Results 251 - 300 of 1441
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Schmidt Gunter N - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Different analytical concepts were introduced to quantify the changes of the electroencephalogram. The Datex-Ohmeda S/5 Entropy Module (Datex-Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium Corp., Helsinki, Finland) was the first commercial monitor based on the entropy generating two indices, the state entropy (SE) and the response entropy (RE). The aim of the current ...
Crystal George J - - 2004
PURPOSE: The present study tested the hypothesis that the anesthetic technique will influence the changes in regional blood flow (RBF) during intraoperative cardiac tamponade. METHODS: Twenty-four dogs were divided into three equal groups: Group I, anesthesia was maintained with ketamine (25 mg.kg(-1).hr(-1)); Group II, with fentanyl and midazolam (F-M; 10 ...
Pandit Jaideep J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The effects of different low-dose volatile agents in blunting the acute hypoxic ventilatory response (AHVR) are variable. Arousal (due to audiovisual stimulation) may prevent isoflurane-induced blunting of AHVR. The purpose of this study was to assess whether this was also the case for halothane. The authors also assessed the ...
Peña James R - - 2005
We evaluated the effect of the inhalant anesthetic isoflurane and the injectable combination of anesthetics ketamine/inactin on cardiac function by measuring left ventricular (LV) pressure in situ during control conditions and during beta-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO). The control heart rate (HR) and the maximal rate of contraction were significantly ...
Shin Hye-Won - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the depth of anesthesia affects the change in the bispectral index (BIS) caused by iv epinephrine during propofol anesthesia. METHODS: Forty women undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery received a propofol target controlled infusion (TCI) to maintain a modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) score of 2 ...
Shiga Toshiya - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine whether prophylactic, atomized lidocaine blunts hyperdynamic responses and catecholamine release after an abrupt increase in volatile anesthetic administration. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 22 ASA physical status I adult patients scheduled for elective surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to the ...
Charbit Beny - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although oxytocin, a uterotonic agent, may cause short-term vasodilation that results in severe hypotension, it is still routinely given as an intravenous bolus injection during surgical suction curettage. Two reported cases of ventricular tachycardia after oxytocin bolus in patients with long QT interval syndrome led us to assess the ...
Praetel Claudia - - 2004
Abnormally increased physiologic deadspace volume (Vd(phys)), consisting of alveolar deadspace volume and airway deadspace volume, is one of several causative factors predisposing to compromised arterial blood gas exchange. We compared the effects of two methods of general anesthesia on Vd(phys) when combined with positive pressure ventilation (PPV): total IV anesthesia ...
Cistola Alexis M - - 2004
Tiletamine (12.5 mg), zolazepam (12.5 mg), ketamine (20 mg), and xylazine (5 mg) (TKX; 0.25 ml, IM) combination was evaluated as an anesthetic in 22 male and 67 female adult feral cats undergoing sterilization at high-volume sterilization clinics. Cats were not intubated and breathed room air. Oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), mean ...
Fung, Parry Pak To; ...
Phenylephrine is a drug used at British Columbia Women's Hospital, Vancouver British Columbia to treat maternal hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia for Cesarean Section. Hypotension can cause serious fetus hypoxia, therefore maternal blood pressure must be kept above a minimum level. Phenylephrine dosage is mainly determined in a heuristic manner ...
Hannon James D - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Depression of myocardial contractility as a result of isoflurane appears to be greater in myocardial hypertrophy, and the cellular basis for this difference in susceptibility is not clear. In this study we examined the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on contractility and intracellular calcium in an animal model of ...
Nishiyama T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: During general anesthesia, hypnotic components have been monitored with electroencephalogram. The bispectral index is derived from a cortical electroencephalogram, but the A-line ARX index is the electroencephalographic response to auditory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes of the A-line ARX index and the bispectral ...
Lin Hui-Chu - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic effects of rapid IV administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in awake and halothane-anesthetized horses. DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: 6 adult horses. PROCEDURES: Horses received IV infusion of 5 L of a balanced electrolyte solution with and without 1 g/kg (0.45 g/lb) of 10% ...
Weber Frank - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Autoregressive modeling with exogenous input of middle latency auditory evoked potentials (A-Line autoregressive index [AAI]) has been proposed for monitoring depth of anesthesia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the AAI during induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil in pediatric patients. ...
Greene Stephen A - - 2004
The study reported here was done to determine the relationship between anesthesia depth and bispectral index (BIS) in stimulated pigs. Isoflurane minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined using the tail-clamp method in 16 Yorkshire/Landrace-cross pigs with mean+/-SEM weight of 27.7+/-1.76 kg. One week later, BIS, ECG, heart rate, arterial blood ...
Carrasco-Jiménez María S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships among various techniques for monitoring anesthetic depth in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery. ANIMALS: 10 dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs were medicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM), buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg, IM), and atropine (0.04 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses were ...
Piccione Giuseppe - - 2004
The homeostatic control of physiological processes is affected by a variety of temporal programs, such as circadian rhythms, estrous cycles, and circannual rhythms. The existence of circaseptan rhythms (endogenous rhythms with the duration of a week) has been postulated but not properly verified. In this study, we compared plasma concentration ...
Sun Hsiao Lun - - 2004
The decrease of arterial blood pressure and body temperature after epidural or spinal anesthesia is thought to be the result of sympathetic block, which could cause pooling and redistribution of blood into the lower extremities. Studies have demonstrated that leg wrapping with elastic bandages may reduce the incidence of hypotension ...
Mattson Sima F - - 2004
Spontaneous ventilation during positive pressure ventilation was observed in a 4-year-old DSH cat maintained under general anesthesia with isoflurane delivered with a nonrebreathing system. This was accompanied by an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. On investigation, neither an inadequate plane of anesthesia, nor hypoxemia, nor hyperthermia was present. ...
Almeida D E - - 2004
The objective of this study was to determine intraocular pressure (IOP) and cardiac changes in normocapnic dogs maintained under controlled ventilation and anesthetized using sevoflurane or desflurane. Sixteen healthy adult mixed-breed dogs, seven males and nine females, weighing 10-15 kg were used. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of ...
Pasternak Jeffrey J - - 2004
Patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery may experience hypertensive episodes during the intranasal injection of vasoconstrictor-supplemented local anesthetics or emergence from general anesthesia. The present research characterized the blood pressure responses during transsphenoidal surgery and tested the hypothesis that the underlying pituitary disease influences the incidence and magnitude of the blood ...
Lee Ki-Young - - 2004
Volatile anesthetics alter the arterial baroreflex (BRX) but its mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was designed to determine the effect of 1 and 2 minimal alveolar concentrations (MAC) of enflurane on the BRX parameters in unanesthetized brain stem-intact and decerebrate rats. Under enflurane anesthesia, the femoral artery and both ...
Soares Joao Henrique N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of epidural administration of xylazine hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MAC(ISAO)) and cardiopulmonary system in anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS: 6 clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen after randomly being assigned to receive 1 of the following 4 treatments: ...
MacPhail Catriona M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sevoflurane on cardiac energetic and hemodynamic parameters in ferrets. ANIMALS: 7 healthy domesticated ferrets. PROCEDURE: Sevoflurane was used as the sole anesthetic agent for general anesthesia in ferrets. Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed to permit instrumentation. Myocardial blood flow was determined ...
Freye E - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hitherto, neither desflurane nor sevoflurane, with similar physicochemical properties, have been compared with regard to their effects on the central nervous system. We compared the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on electrical cortical activity and sensory transmission at two anaesthetic concentrations in patients undergoing hysterectomy. METHODS: The ...
Pettifer Glenn R - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether moderate hypothermia during anesthesia significantly affects the serum concentration of transdermally delivered fentanyl and whether halothane or isoflurane affect these concentrations. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized cross-over experimental trial. ANIMALS: Six mature, healthy Beagles (three males, three females) weighing 10.6 +/- 0.43 kg. METHODS: A 50-microg hour(-1) fentanyl ...
Holmström Anders - - 2004
Desflurane and sevoflurane may have advantages over isoflurane in neuroanesthesia, but this is still under debate. A porcine model with experimental intracranial hypertension was used for paired comparison of desflurane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane with respect to the effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance (CVR), and intracranial pressure (ICP). ...
Martín-Cancho María F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bispectral index (BIS) values in pigs during anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane-fentanyl or propofol-fentanyl as a predictor of changes in hemodynamic parameters and duration of recovery from anesthesia. ANIMALS: 12 pigs. PROCEDURE: Pigs were randomly allocated to undergo 1 of 2 anesthetic regimens. Anesthesia was induced with propofol ...
Höhne Claudia - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelin-A receptor blockade (ETAB) impairs hemodynamic and hormonal regulation compared with controls and angiotensin II receptor blockade (AT1B) during hypotensive hemorrhage in dogs under isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. METHODS: Six dogs were studied in four protocols: (1) control experiments (controls); (2) ...
Turan A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aminophylline on BIS as well as clinical recovery in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane. METHODS: Sixty patients with status of ASA I-II scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled in this study. Anesthesia was induced by 2 mg kg(-1) ...
Yamashita Soichiro - - 2004
The precise mechanism of tourniquet-induced arterial blood pressure increase is unknown. We determined the effect of preoperative oral dextromethorphan (DM) on arterial blood pressure and heart rate changes during tourniquet inflation in knee cruciate ligament reconstruction patients under general anesthesia. Patients in the DM group (n = 38) received oral ...
Kaye Alan - - 2004
We compared the effects of desflurane and isoflurane on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (LCSFP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in patients anesthetized with desflurane or isoflurane undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial mass lesions. Additionally, emergence from anesthesia was examined to determine if neurologic function could be ...
Martinek Robert M - - 2004
PURPOSE: To present a case of asystole during spinal anesthesia that responded to atropine and ondansetron and to discuss the possible pathophysiology with special emphasis on the Bezold-Jarisch reflex and the role of 5-HT3 receptors in mediating bradycardia and sympathoinhibition. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 50-yr-old, 97-kg, healthy male presented for elective ...
Hu Guochang - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with isoflurane or sevoflurane can protect the heart against neutrophil-induced contractile dysfunction. METHODS: Studies were conducted in buffer-perfused and paced isolated rat hearts. Left ventricular developed pressure served as an index of contractility. Pretreatment consisted of administration of 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration ...
Barter L S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of an inhaled anaesthetic describes its potency as a general anaesthetic. Individuals vary in their sensitivity to anaesthetics and we sought to determine whether an individual animal's sensitivity to inhaled anaesthetics would be maintained across different agents. METHODS: Six female mongrel cats, age 2 ...
Hecker K E - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is a traditional index of the hypnotic potency of an inhalational anaesthetic. To investigate the anaesthetic as well as the unwanted effects of xenon (Xe) in a swine model, it is useful to know MAC(Xe). METHODS: The study was performed using ten swine (weight ...
Picker O - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to clarify the role of endothelin in arterial pressure regulation during anaesthesia with increasing concentrations of sevoflurane (1-3 MAC) and compare it with those of vasopressin and angiotensin. METHODS: After an awake control period, on different days, six dogs underwent each of the following ...
Takahashi Shunji - - 2004
We conducted this study to determine the interaction of MCI-154, 6-[4-(4'-pyridylamino)phenyl]-4,5-dihydro-3(2H)-pyridazinone hydrochloride, a calcium sensitizer, and isoflurane on myocardial contractility as well as systemic and coronary hemodynamics in chronically instrumented dogs after pharmacological autonomic nervous system activity blockade. MCI-154 increased heart rate and left ventricular function with no change in ...
Ilbäck N G - - 2003
Cardiovascular effects of xylazine have not been studied with telemetry in dogs. In the present study, the effects on cardiovascular parameters after intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 2.0 mg/kg xylazine were studied via telemetry in unrestrained dogs. Telemetry transmitters were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) with a pressure catheter in the femoral artery. ...
Vesely A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation should speed up elimination of volatile anaesthetic agents from the body, but hyperventilation usually results in hypocapnia. We compared recovery from isoflurane anaesthesia in patients allowed to recover with assisted spontaneous ventilation (control) and those treated with isocapnic hyperpnoea. METHODS: Fourteen patients were studied after approximately 1 h ...
Weiss Markus - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of nitrous oxide on automated air tonometry in the clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With approval of the Hospital Ethical Committee and after obtaining informed parental consent, an 8-F tonometry catheter was inserted orogastrically in ten children aged one to three years scheduled for elective ...
Homi H Mayumi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics provide protection in experimental models of global cerebral ischemia. To date, all models evaluated have included profound systemic arterial hypotension as a component of the ischemic insult. This study was designed to determine if isoflurane protection persists in a global insult devoid of hypotension. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice ...
Otto Klaus A - - 2003
The effects of surgical stimuli on haemodynamic and electroencephalographic (EEG) variables were determined in 25 adult ewes undergoing an experimental orthopaedic procedure in isoflurane anaesthesia. Data were recorded after 15 min of constant end-tidal concentration of approximately 2.2% isoflurane (SS: steady state=baseline), during skin disinfection (DIS), incision (INC), drilling of ...
Ito Shinobu - - 2003
To evaluate the effects of compression atelectasis on the composition of pulmonary secretions in anesthetized horses, cytological and biochemical examinations were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids obtained from both dependent and independent lung regions. Six horses were anesthetized with isoflurane and oxygen for 120 min, and were positioned in ...
Sponheim S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane has been a commonly used agent for neuroanesthesia, but newer agents, sevoflurane and desflurane, have a quicker onset and shorter emergence from anesthesia and are increasingly preferred for general pediatric anesthesia. But their effects on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), especially in pediatric patients with ...
Dyer Robert A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There are no randomized studies on neonatal outcome after spinal versus general anesthesia for cesarean delivery in preeclamptic patients with a nonreassuring fetal heart trace. This study examined both markers of neonatal hypoxia and maternal hemodynamics. METHODS: Seventy patients were randomized to general (n = 35) or spinal anesthesia ...
Muir William W WW - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of constant rate infusion of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination on end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ET-Iso) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane and monitor depth of anesthesia by use of the bispectral index (BIS). ANIMALS: 6 adult dogs. PROCEDURE: Each ...
Haelewyn B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We studied the potential neuroprotective effects of halothane and desflurane, compared with the awake state, on infarct size following 2 h of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and 22 h of reperfusion. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized with desflurane or halothane, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Mean arterial ...
Wilson-Smith E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide have intrinsic cerebral vasodilatory activity. To determine the effects of nitrous oxide on cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide (CCO(2)R) during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (V(mca)) was measured over a range of end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations (E'(CO(2))), using transcranial Doppler ...
Eberhart Leopold H J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Controlled hypotension is used to improve surgical conditions during microscopic and endoscopic sinus surgery. New short-acting anesthetics such as propofol and remifentanil allow exact control of intraoperative blood pressure and thus might be valuable tools to improve intraoperative conditions for the otorhinolaryngological surgeon. Intravenous anesthesia was compared with traditional ...
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