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Results 701 - 750 of 1445
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Keegan R D - - 1995
Cardiovascular effects of epidurally administered morphine, a morphine-xylazine combination, and saline solution (control) during isoflurane-maintained anesthesia were assessed in 6 healthy dogs. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane in O2 and was maintained at 2.0% end-tidal isoflurane concentration. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at 35 to 45 mm of Hg. ...
Dwyer R - - 1995
Twenty-three patients undergoing Caesarean section received either 0.5% halothane or 0.8% isoflurane to supplement nitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia. We studied the rate of uptake of the agents by the mother and fetus by measuring partial pressures in maternal arterial (Pa) and fetal umbilical venous (Puv) blood. Mean induction-delivery interval did not ...
Slinger P - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Because maintaining arterial oxygenation (PaO2) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) can be a clinical problem, it is useful to be aware of factors that influence PaO2 in this situation and are under the control of the anesthesiologist. It is unknown whether, among the commonly used volatile anesthetic agents, one is ...
Kinoshita H - - 1995
High concentrations of inhaled isoflurane can increase heart rate and/or arterial pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fentanyl has a prophylactic effect on the isoflurane-induced circulatory response in adult patients. Thirty patients due to undergo elective surgery were randomly allocated to one of three groups of ...
Lennon P F - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The extent to which isoflurane anesthesia alters systemic vascular regulation has received considerable attention. In contrast, the pulmonary vascular effects of isoflurane have not been elucidated. Our initial objective was to investigate the net effect of isoflurane on the baseline left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow (LPQ) relation compared with values ...
Hadzic A - - 1995
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of epinephrine-containing local anesthetic solutions in pre-eclampsia is controversial. While epinephrine in local anesthetic solutions has been used without complications in this setting, a hypertensive reaction remains a concern among many clinicians. METHODS: An epidural anesthetic containing epinephrine was administered to a hypertensive parturient for ...
Kanaya N - - 1995
We have examined the effects of inhalation anaesthetics on indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, as an index of hepatic function, in patients undergoing elective surgery. Recently, a new method has been developed to measure in real-time the disappearance rate of ICG from plasma. This method eliminates the multiple sampling and delay ...
Jones S C - - 1995
Cycling of various cerebral metabolic substances, arterial vascular diameter, and flow has been noted by many workers at a frequency near 0.1 Hz. Suspicion that this phenomenon is dependent on the type of anesthesia led us to investigate the occurrence of cerebral blood flow (CBF) cycling with different anesthetics. Fifteen ...
Tanaka M - - 1995
When continuous epidural anesthesia is combined with general anesthesia, the only objective sign of intravascular migration of the epidural catheter are the increments of heart rate (HR) or arterial blood pressure after a local anesthetic test dose containing epinephrine. However, the efficacy of a simulated intravenous (IV) test dose in ...
Wagner A E - - 1995
Seven horses, which were part of an investigation of the effect of endotoxin administration on vascular reactivity, were anesthetized on two separate occasions for surgical excision of 4-cm sections of palmar digital artery and vein. On the first occasion, the horses were given an infusion of 1 L 0.9% NaCl ...
Tendillo F J - - 1995
To determine cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of lidocaine, alfentanil, and xylazine in pigs anesthetized with isoflurane, 18 healthy Landrace-Large White pigs were studied (six for each drug). General anesthesia was induced with isoflurane in O2 and maintained with 1% to 1.2% end-tidal ISO, ensuring presence of a pain response before ...
Manning M - - 1995
A foal with azotemia, acidemia, and electrolyte abnormalities was diagnosed with uroperitoneum. The foal was anesthetized with isoflurane, and throughout the 4 hours of anesthesia and abdominal surgery, its mean arterial pressure ranged between 45 and 65 mm Hg. The foal developed a myopathy postoperatively and died 24 hours after ...
Farber N E - - 1995
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of halothane on arterial pressure after central nervous system (CNS) pressor site stimulation in anesthetized cats, cats rendered unconscious by midcollicular transection, and conscious cats. METHODS: Two anesthetized groups and two nonanesthetized groups were used. Cats were anesthetized with either alpha-chloralose and urethane or ...
Zbinden A M - - 1995
Arterial pressure is still one of the most important measures in estimating the required dose of inhaled anaesthetics. It is measured easily and reacts rapidly which makes it suitable as a variable for feedback control of depth of anaesthesia. Fuzzy logic, a novel approach to feedback control, was used to ...
Rodrigo C - - 1995
Since Gardner first used arteriotomy during anesthesia to improve visibility in the surgical field, various techniques and pharmacological agents have been tried for the same purpose. With reports documenting the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome through blood transfusions, prevention of homologous blood transfusions during surgery has also become a ...
Sarner J B - - 1995
BACKGROUND: For pediatric patients, sevoflurane may be an alternative to halothane, the anesthetic agent used most commonly for inhalational induction. The induction, maintenance, and emergence characteristics were studied in 120 unpremedicated children 1-12 yr of age randomly assigned to receive one of three anesthesia regimens: sevoflurane with oxygen (group S), ...
Eger E I EI - - 1995
The lower solubilities of desflurane and sevoflurane provide a clear advantage over older potent agents, permitting more precise control over the delivery of anesthesia and more rapid recovery from anesthesia. Other pharmacological properties of these two agents at concentrations of 1 MAC or less differ little from those of older ...
Katoh T - - 1994
This study was conducted to assess the effect of sevoflurane on lung resistance and compliance, and its responsiveness to histamine. We studied eight dogs to compare the effect of sevoflurane, isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane on bronchoconstriction caused by histamine. Baseline values of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic pulmonary compliance (Cdyn) ...
Liu J - - 1994
Neither lipophilicity nor vapor pressure of larger n-alkanes appear to correlate with their anesthetizing partial pressures in inspired gas. Such results suggest that the Meyer-Overton hypothesis and Ferguson's rule may not apply to these compounds. An alternative explanation might be that a large difference in inspired-to-arterial partial pressure exists, i.e., ...
Yamada T - - 1994
The effects of volatile anesthetics on active (ventricular relaxation) and passive (chamber stiffness) indices of diastolic function and on left ventricular filling rates in dogs were studied to determine how these agents affect left ventricular diastolic performance. Thirty-five mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to receive sevoflurane, isoflurane, enflurane, or halothane. ...
Dunlop C I - - 1994
An adult 3,500-kg female African elephant was anesthetized 3 times for treatment of subcutaneous fistulas over the lateral aspect of each cubitus (anesthesia 1 and 2) and for repair of a fractured tusk (anesthesia 3). Lateral recumbency and anesthesia were achieved with etorphine (anesthesia 1 and 2) or etorphine and ...
Antognini J F - - 1994
Over the 38-28 degrees C range, changes in minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) parallel changes in lipid solubility of the anesthetics studied. We hypothesized that there would be minimal change in N2OMAC, since N2O lipid solubility is relatively unaltered by temperature changes. We determined N2OMAC in rats using a hyperbaric ...
Kim H K - - 1994
The relationship between intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure during sevoflurane or halothane anesthesia was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits after cryogenic brain injury. Fourteen rabbits were randomized to be anesthetized with 1.5 MAC of sevoflurane or halothane in oxygen. All animals were paralyzed with pancuronium, and mechanically ventilated. ...
Atkinson J B - - 1994
Isoflurane has been administered via the oxygenator of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit to provide anesthesia and prevent hemodynamic instability during surgical repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A comparison of a series of patients treated with isoflurane demonstrates that there is less fluctuation in heart rate and blood pressure ...
Kawasaki T - - 1994
Effective arterial elastance (Ea) and left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees) are used as indices of cardiac afterload and cardiac contractility, respectively. We compared the effects of two volatile anesthetics, halothane and isoflurane, on ventriculoarterial coupling using an index of Ea/Ees in 20 mongrel dogs. Ees was obtained using a single-beat ...
Marroum P J - - 1994
A specific, sensitive, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for acepromazine, with analytic sensitivity as low as 5 ng/ml of plasma, and electrochemical detection with an oxidation potential of 0.7 V, was used to study the pharmacokinetics of acepromazine given at a dosage of 0.15 mg/kg of body weight in horses. ...
Lysko G S - - 1994
The anesthetic potency of racemic isoflurane and the optically pure stereoisomers was examined in rats. The (+) isomer was 53% more potent than the (-) isomer (minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) = 1.06 +/- 0.07% vs. 1.62 +/- 0.02%, P < 0.05). MAC for racemic isoflurane was 1.32 +/- 0.03%. Both ...
Canet J - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane has been said to be more ventilatory depressant than halothane. However, data for comparing the respiratory effects of halothane and isoflurane in humans are insufficient at this time. The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the nature of the central, as opposed to peripheral, ...
Curro T G - - 1994
The use of butorphanol as an analgesic in a psittacine species was evaluated by determining its isoflurane-sparing effects. The Effective Dose 50 (ED50) of isoflurane was determined using a bracketing technique based on the purposeful movement elicited by pressure applied to a digit with a hemostat. The ED50 of isoflurane ...
Palmisano B W - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Infants may be more sensitive than adults to myocardial depression by potent inhalation anesthetics. Most studies of cardiovascular effects of inhalation agents in infants are performed in vivo with multiple factors producing the observed effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if newborns are more sensitive than ...
Rolly G - - 1994
When using the closed-circuit PhysioFlex apparatus for ventilating patients with an O2/air mixture during total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for gynecologic laparoscopy, we noticed that the built-in infrared analyzer indicated unexpected values for halothane. In 10 ASA grade I or II patients, the breathing gases were analyzed at the end of ...
Devcic A - - 1994
BACKGROUND: The alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, alters hemodynamics by diminishing sympathetic and/or augmenting parasympathetic neurogenic tone to the heart and peripheral vasculature. However, the specific actions of dexmedetomidine on baroreceptor function are unknown. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine baroreceptor function during an anesthetic state produced by ...
Liu J - - 1994
Anesthetic potencies (minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC]) of perfluoroalkanes from perfluoromethane to perfluorooctane were assessed in male rats to determine whether a cutoff in anesthetic effect (i.e., an absence of any anesthetic effect) exists for the larger compounds in this series. Although hyperbaric measurements suggested a MAC of 38.9 +/- ...
Haas S B - - 1994
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism are serious complications following hip and knee replacement surgery. Both surgical procedures have significantly high postoperative rates of DVT. In total hip replacement, the rate of proximal thrombi tends to be higher. However, total knee replacement produces a high rate of calf thrombi ...
Moore M A - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Large (0.5-1.0 MAC), rapid increases of desflurane to concentrations greater than 5% can transiently increase heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), sympathetic nerve activity, and plasma epinephrine concentration. We tested the hypothesis that small (1% = 0.14 MAC), rapid increases of desflurane concentration to greater than 5% do ...
Graf B M - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics alter membrane channel proteins. It is controversial whether they act by nonspecifically perturbing lipid membranes or by directly binding to amphiphilic and usually stereoselective regions on channel macromolecules. Biologically relevant receptors are usually stereoselective. The stereochemical effect of isoflurane and desflurane can be used as a pharmacologic ...
Pagel P S - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics depress left ventricular contractile function by altering voltage-dependent slow calcium (Ca2+) channel activity in the sarcolemmal membrane. This investigation examined the left ventricular systolic and diastolic mechanical effects of the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine and agonist Bay k 8644 (Bay k) in dogs in the conscious ...
Sigurdsson G H - - 1994
A patient with a history of coronary artery diseases developed new ST segment depressions in the ECG registration during a low dose (0.7%) isoflurane anaesthesia that was combined with a continuous thoracic epidural analgesia. Simultaneously a small decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was noted. During the next 5 ...
Singh R - - 1994
Halothane as an anaesthetic was evaluated in 12 adult camels, thiopentone being used as an induction agent. In six camels, clinical signs and haematological and blood biochemical changes were investigated while in other six haemodynamic, acid base and blood gas changes were monitored. The dose of thiopentone required to ensure ...
Hikasa Y - - 1994
The effect of sevoflurane-oxygen anesthesia at surgical depth on clinically important features was evaluated in spontaneously breathing cattle given atropine-guaifenesin-thiopental. The mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 2.0% for 75 min maintenance. Recovery from anesthesia was extremely rapid and smooth. Heart rate increased and arterial pressure was higher ...
Weiskopf R B - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Increases in desflurane and isoflurane concentrations can transiently increase arterial blood pressure or heart rate or both during induction of anesthesia. The current study tested the hypothesis that a rapid increase of desflurane concentration in humans increases sympathetic activity and hormonal variables and heart rate and arterial blood pressure ...
Trop M - - 1994
Mean arterial blood pressure was measured in anesthetized rats. The duration that the rats were under anesthesia with ether or methohexital was brief, and the animals were allowed to awaken early after injury. Three hemodynamic measurements were compared: (1) lowest mean arterial blood pressure, (2) duration at lowest mean arterial ...
Dyess D L - - 1994
This study was designed to determine whether a pregnant sow could be maintained under conditions of prolonged general anesthesia in order to provide access to prematurely delivered piglets for purposes of acute experimentation. Fifteen time-dated pregnant (90% of gestation) sows were preanesthetized with intramuscular xylazine (Rompun Mobay Pharmaceutical, Shawnee, KS)/ketamine ...
Schindler I - - 1994
Patients scheduled for maxillofacial surgery were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane (n = 22) or nitroglycerin (n = 18) in order to induce hypotension. Surgeons, blinded for the actual level of blood pressure and the technique used for inducing hypotension, were asked to rate operating conditions on a scale from ...
Wallin C J - - 1994
In the present human study we evaluated a newly developed double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of cardiac output (Q), central blood volume (CBV), and extravascular lung water (EVLW) by using indocyanine green and heavy water (2H2O) as indicators. Eighteen cardiopulmonary healthy patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were studied. A ...
Kharasch E D - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Fluorinated ether anesthetic hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are mediated by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidative metabolism. Metabolism of the volatile anesthetic enflurane to inorganic fluoride ion by human liver microsomes in vitro is catalyzed predominantly by the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP2E1. This investigation tested the hypothesis that P450 2E1 is also the ...
Tsutsui T - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct a closed-loop blood pressure control system using fuzzy logic during enflurane anesthesia. METHODS: Direct systolic blood pressure (SBP), the input variable, was assessed by a special fuzzy-logic membership function--that is, a triangulate continuum of grades between 0 and 1. We also ...
Nishino T - - 1994
We investigated the effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on the activity of 43 tracheobronchial slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs) and 16 rapidly adapting irritant receptors (RARs) in 5 anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated dogs. The 43 SARs were classified into 2 subtypes: (i) 17 low-threshold SARs with an ...
Matthews N S - - 1994
All 43 horses anaesthetised for colic surgery were premedicated with xylazine or diazepam. Anaesthesia was induced with guaifenesin and ketamine, horses were placed in dorsal recumbency and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Haemoglobin saturation readings (SpO2) were taken with a pulse oximeter and compared with ...
Navarro R - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Anesthetics can alter the dose of exogenously administered epinephrine that causes cardiac arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that in humans anesthetized with sevoflurane, the arrhythmic response to epinephrine is not different from the response in humans anesthetized with isoflurane. METHODS: We determined the ...
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