Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1445
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Whitehair K J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of inhalation anesthetic agents on the response of horses to 3 hours of hypoxemia. DESIGN: Controlled crossover study. ANIMALS: Five healthy adult horses. PROCEDURE: Horses were anesthetized twice: once with halothane, and once with isoflurane in O2. Anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency. ...
Gormley W P - - 1996
This study was designed to investigate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on the sympathetic activity after a rapid increase in desflurane concentration. Twenty ASA grade I and II patients, were allocated randomly to a control group (C) and a lidocaine group (L). After induction of anesthesia with intravenous propofol 2 ...
Stekiel T A - - 1996
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the inhibitory effect of inhaled halothane and isoflurane on acute hypercapnia-induced responses of capacitance-regulating veins and related cardiovascular variables in response to sequential 40-s periods of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% inspired CO2 (FICO2). Measurements were made in normoxic alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rabbits ...
Lennon P F - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism whereby gas exchange is improved through the diversion of blood flow away from poorly oxygenated regions of the lung. The effect of isoflurane anesthesia on HPV is unclear. Using a chronically instrumented canine model, it was hypothesized that isoflurane anesthesia would ...
Wagner A E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hemodynamic responses of halothane-anesthetized horses undergoing surgical procedures depended on anesthetic induction protocols used, and to determine whether hemodynamic responses to surgical manipulation could be detected. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study without controls. ANIMALS: 36 clinically normal horses. PROCEDURE: Horses were allotted to 5 groups according to ...
Hayes E S - - 1996
The effects of halothane and isoflurane on ventricular intracellular action potentials recorded in situ in pentobarbital anesthetized rats were studied. Halothane (0.5, 1 and 2 vol.%) and isoflurane (0.75, 1.5 and 3 vol.%) did not have identical effects on rat epicardial action potentials recorded by floating microelectrodes. However, over the ...
Mori N - - 1996
This study examined induction and recovery times and respiratory and cardiovascular changes during induction and recovery in paediatric patients undergoing anaesthesia under spontaneous respiration induced with sevoflurane (S group, n = 10) and halothane (H group, n = 9) at 2.4 MAC. FET/FI increased more rapidly, the incidence of breath ...
Liu S S - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Epidural anesthesia is sometimes initiated during general anesthesia, yet few data exist concerning efficacy of epinephrine-containing test doses. METHODS: Thirty-six patients were randomized to receive either 0.5 MAC isoflurane, 1 MAC isoflurane, or 0.5 MAC each (1 MAC total) of isoflurane and nitrous oxide. Each subject received intravenous saline ...
Harper R M - - 1996
We examined scattered-light changes in a rostral ventral medullary surface (VMS) area from five goats after blood pressure challenges during waking and halothane anesthesia. Reflected 660-nm images were digitized at 1/s after baseline; intravenous saline; 5, 10, or 15 micrograms/kg phenylephrine administration; or sodium nitroprusside infusion sufficient to lower blood ...
Ryhänen J M - - 1996
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiovascular effects of two local anesthetic agent solutions containing 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (LE) and 3% prilocaine with 0.54 microgram/ml felypressine (PF) used separately and in combination were observed. We made 38 separate monitoring sessions (30 minutes each) with healthy voluntary dental students. Participants were monitored ...
Skeehan T M - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Despite its widespread use, little is known about sevoflurane's physiologic effects. The direct myocardial effects of sevoflurane were compared with both halothane and isoflurane. DESIGN: Administration of minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) fractions of anesthetic (0 to 3.0) was systematically varied to decrease the possibility of time-related effects on measured ...
Hwang F - - 1995
The accuracy and stability of caffeine and halothane concentrations in liquid Krebs medium were examined. Caffeine-Krebs Ringer's solution in incremental concentrations from 0.25 to 10 mM (N = 8 for each concentration) was serially assayed over a three-year period. Storage was at 4 degrees C. For serial testing of halothane ...
Sundeman H - - 1995
The influence of desflurane (DES) and isoflurane (ISO) on the intestinal vasculature was investigated in normoventilated cats (n = 10) during basal chloralose anesthesia (control). We measured heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and intestinal blood flow (optical drop flowmetry). Intestinal vascular resistance (IVR) was derived. To avoid changes in ...
Tetzlaff J E - - 1995
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the majority of elective lumbar spine surgical procedures are performed under general anesthesia, successful use of spinal and epidural anesthesia has been reported. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of baricity on the performance of spinal anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: The study ...
Malan T P TP - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is a new inhalational anesthetic with desirable clinical properties. In some clinical situations, an understanding of the detailed cardiovascular properties of an anesthetic is important, so the authors evaluated the hemodynamic effects of sevoflurane in healthy volunteers not undergoing surgery. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects were randomized to receive sevoflurane, ...
Hirvonen E A - - 1995
More prolonged gynecological laparoscopic operations are being performed in recent years, and a steeper head-down position is required. The early reports of hemodynamic changes during gynecologic laparoscopy are conflicting, and the effects of anesthesia, head-down tilt and pneumoperitoneum have not been clearly separated. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring was carried out in ...
Sollevi A - - 1995
This study primarily examined the effect of three endtidal isoflurane concentrations (0.2, 1.0 and 1.4%) on the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), as well as the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR), in 18 women (ASA I) who were all in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Capnography was used, together ...
Campbell C - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic effects and emergence times of anaesthesia with sevoflurane with those of isoflurane when the agents were administered with nitrous oxide to adult patients (ASA I and II) undergoing surgery of at least an hour in duration. Fifty patients were randomly ...
Simpson J I - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the effects of isoflurane and nitroprusside on spinal cord ischemia when they are used to control proximal hypertension during thoracic aortic cross-clamping (TACC). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded experimental study. SETTING: Laboratory and animal research facility. PARTICIPANTS: Adult mongrel dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Two groups of ...
Baraka A - - 1995
The hemodynamic effects of isoflurane were studied in 30 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, and receiving high dose of fentanyl (40 micrograms/kg). In 15 patients, isoflurane 2% was administered for ten minutes before sternotomy, while the same concentration of isoflurane was administered in the other 15 patients after sternotomy ...
Drummond J C - - 1995
An investigation was performed to compare the cerebral protective properties of etomidate, isoflurane, and thiopental. In separate groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats, etomidate, isoflurane, or thiopental was administered to achieve and maintain burst-suppression of the electroencephalogram (3-5 bursts/min) for the duration of the experiment. A fourth group received 1.2 minimal ...
Riley E T - - 1995
This study was designed to determine whether preoperative administration of 6% hetastarch decreases the incidence and severity of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Forty nonlaboring ASA class I and II women having nonurgent cesarean sections were randomized to receive either 500 mL of 6% hetastarch plus 1 L ...
Lunn D V - - 1995
The Ohmeda Universal PAC drawover apparatus, a modification of an earlier series of vapour-specific vaporizers, was assessed with regard to its output under varying gas flows and temperatures and its clinical usage with isoflurane and enflurane. The device tended to over-deliver vapour, particularly at low flows and at high temperatures. ...
Weiskopf R B - - 1995
Desflurane (difluoromethyl-1-fluoro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl ether [I-653]) was introduced into clinical practice in 1992. The present review summarises the current state of knowledge of the cardiovascular effects of desflurane, with emphasis on investigations published in the past 2 years, and compares desflurane's effects with those of isoflurane, and where available, sevoflurane. Desflurane produces ...
Hirose M - - 1995
We investigated the influence of aging on the relationship between arterial pressure and skin temperature as a simple and indirect indicator of cutaneous blood flow. Sole and palm skin temperatures, sublingual temperature, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and the anesthetic level as determined by cold discrimination, were measured ...
Muir W W - - 1995
The haemodynamic effects of milrinone hydrochloride were determined in halothane-anaesthetised horses. Six healthy adult horses were anaesthetised with guaifenesin and thiamylal and maintained with halothane in oxygen (end-tidal halothane concentration of 1.15%). Baseline haemodynamic data were recorded after a 45 min stabilisation period. All 6 horses received a single loading ...
Pollard J - - 1995
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypotension after induction of spinal anesthesia remains a common and a potentially serious complication despite acute expansion of intravascular volume. The current study evaluated the role of leg wrapping as an adjunct to acute volume expansion. METHODS: Twenty-four men undergoing elective urologic procedures were randomly assigned to ...
Neely K A - - 1995
PURPOSE: General anesthesia reduces systemic blood pressure and, thus, ocular perfusion pressure (at constant intraocular pressure). Whether this reduction in ocular perfusion pressure produces retinal hypoxia is unknown. To answer this question, the authors measured inner retinal oxygen tension in cats under general enflurane anesthesia at three clinically relevant levels ...
Shibata K - - 1995
Hypoxia is a critical and sometimes fatal complication of anesthesia. Since there is little information on the cardiovascular response to hypoxia during epidural anesthesia, we assessed the effects of epidural anesthesia on the cardiovascular response to hypoxia and on survival in dogs. We randomly assigned 36 mongrel dogs to one ...
Nakaigawa Y - - 1995
It is not known how sevoflurane affects the cardiac conduction system. We compared the effects of halothane, isoflurance, and sevoflurane on specialized atrioventricular (AV) conduction times in eight pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. AV conduction times with three inhaled anesthetics at end-tidal concentrations of 1 and 2 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC), were ...
Hettrick D A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Systemic vascular resistance (the ratio of mean aortic pressure [AP] and mean aortic blood flow [AQ]) does not completely describe left ventricular (LV) afterload because of the phasic nature of pressure and blood flow. Aortic input impedance (Zin) is an established experimental description of LV afterload that incorporates the ...
Ebert T J - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane and desflurane are new volatile anesthetics with low blood solubilities that confer properties of rapid anesthetic induction and emergence. Desflurane has been associated with neurocirculatory excitation after the rapid increase in inspired concentrations. The current study evaluated and compared the sympathetic and hemodynamic responses associated with the administration ...
Gill R - - 1995
Patients with sepsis often require anaesthesia for surgical procedures. Anaesthesia can be unpredictable and the most haemodynamically stable agents are used. No data are available for the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) requirements in such patients or in animal models of sepsis. We have characterized the effect of sepsis on the ...
Gambling D R - - 1995
This randomized study compared sevoflurane 1% and isoflurane 0.5% in terms of maternal and neonatal outcomes. In addition, neonatal outcome in both groups was compared with a cohort of patients delivered by cesarean birth using spinal anesthesia. Fifty-five patients presenting for elective cesarean birth under general anesthesia were randomly assigned ...
Devchand D - - 1995
The uptake of enflurane at a constant end-expired concentration of 2% in oxygen was studied in 38 patients, ASA 1 or 2, undergoing elective orthopaedic procedures. The anaesthetic was administered using a computer-controlled closed circle system. Following an initial 4 min period during which the expired concentration of enflurane was ...
Bennett J A - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the control of hemodynamic response to surgical stimulus of desflurane to that of isoflurane. DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. SETTING: Operating room of a major U.S. teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 59 ASA status I, II, and III patients 18 to 80 years of age and were undergoing orthopedic ...
Atallah M M - - 1995
The effect of anesthetics on hemodynamic variables (HV) has been clarified, but ambiguity existed concerning their effect on oxygenation variables (OV). Radical cystectomy provided a clinical setting for studying the effect of anesthetics on perioperative HV and OV. Patients subjected to radical cystectomy (n = 33) were assigned through balanced ...
Park K W - - 1995
Isoflurane induces endothelium-dependent constriction of rabbit coronary resistance arteries in vitro. This effect is inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. To determine whether thromboxane or oxygen-derived free radicals, a byproduct in the cyclooxygenase pathway, mediate this effect, subepicardial coronary arterioles (103 +/- 21 mu) from New Zealand White rabbits were ...
Murr R - - 1995
The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of various anesthetics on the formation of brain edema resulting from a focal cryogenic lesion. Thirty rabbits (six per group) were anesthetized with isoflurane (1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC] 2.1 vol%), fentanyl (bolus 5 micrograms/kg; infusion rate 1.0-0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1), ...
Greene S A - - 1995
The cardiovascular effects following epidural injection of xylazine or isotonic saline during isoflurane anesthesia were assessed in six healthy dogs. Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane in O2 and maintained at 2.0% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at 35 to 45 mm Hg. The dorsal pedal artery was ...
Takahata O - - 1995
We studied the effect of sevoflurane on ischaemic myocardium in terms of myocardial energy and carbohydrate metabolism. Mongrel dogs were anaesthetized initially with sodium pentobarbitone, and then inhaled sevoflurane at 0% (0 MAC), 2.4% (1.0 MAC) or 4.7% (2.0 MAC) of inspired concentration for 60 min. Ischaemia was then induced ...
Nakashima K - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Reductions in cerebral metabolic rate may increase the brain's tolerance of ischemia. However, outcome studies suggest that reductions in cerebral metabolic rate produced by anesthetics and by hypothermia may not be equally efficacious. To examine this question, we measured the effects of hypothermia, pentobarbital, and isoflurane on the cerebral ...
Liu J - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of end-tidal anesthetic gas monitoring with respect to intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery times. DESIGN: Randomized blinded study. SETTING: Operating rooms at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 120 ASA I and II patients receiving general anesthesia maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O). INTERVENTIONS: ...
Epstein R H - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare vital signs and the speed of induction and emergence with sevoflurane versus halothane in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, open study. SETTING: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. PATIENTS: 40 unpremedicated ASA Physical Status I and II children age 9 months to 16 years undergoing elective inpatient otorhinolaryngologic ...
Stekiel T A - - 1995
We measured the effects of inhaled isoflurane on hypoxemia-induced changes in the diameter of small mesenteric (capacitance-regulating) veins, sympathetic efferent neural activity, heart rate, and arterial blood pressure. Simultaneous changes in these dependent variables were measured in situ in response to 40-s periods of sequentially administered 10%, 5%, 2.5%, and ...
Day T K - - 1995
One hundred sixty horses were anesthetized with xylazine, guaifenesin, thiamylal, and halothane for elective soft tissue and orthopedic procedures. Horses were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 40): Horses positioned in lateral (LRG1; n = 20) or dorsal (DRG1; n = 20) recumbency breathed spontaneously ...
Johannesson G P - - 1995
Sevoflurane, a new volatile anesthetic agent, is of great potential interest in pediatric anesthesia. Its use for ENT surgery in children was compared with halothane in this study. Altogether 40 children participated in the investigation. In 18 (median age 4.2 years), halothane was used. The remainder (median age 4.0 years) ...
Hirano M - - 1995
We studied the effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on coronary hemodynamics in relation to myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Dogs were anesthetized with pentobarbital and fentanyl and received isoflurane or sevoflurane. An electromagnetic flow probe and a pair of piezoelectric crystals were placed on the left circumflex coronary artery (CX) ...
Stevens R A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Spinal and epidural injection of local anesthetics are used to produce sympathetic block to diagnose and treat certain chronic pain syndromes. It is not clear whether either form of regional anesthesia produces a complete sympathetic block. Spinal anesthesia using tetracaine has been reported to produce a decrease in plasma ...
Muzi M - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Desflurane anesthesia has been associated with heart rate (HR) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) responses that differ from those during isoflurane anesthesia. Whether these differences might be due to better preservation by desflurane of the baroreceptor reflex control of HR or SNA in humans was examined. METHODS: Baroreflex sensitivity ...
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