Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1441
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Rödig G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the dose-related effects of desflurane and isoflurane on systemic vascular resistance during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Randomized, prospective trial. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty consenting patients, 65 years of age or older, scheduled for elective coronary artery surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were ...
Hendrickx J F - - 1997
Although theoretical models predict uptake of inhaled anesthetics during closed-circuit anesthesia (CCA), clinical data for most anesthetics are conflicting or non-existent. In addition, the effects of patient characteristics and mode of ventilation on anesthetic uptake are unclear. Forty-one ASA physical status I or II adult patients undergoing a variety of ...
Aadahl P - - 1997
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of regional anesthesia for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). METHODS: Since February 1995, 21 patients (17 men and 4 women; median age 67 years, range 49 to 80) have been treated with endovascular technique for true infrarenal AAA using Mialhe Stentor bifurcated grafts. ...
Kern C - - 1997
We studied the haemodynamic changes during induction of anaesthesia in 50 ASA I and II children (1-12 yrs) undergoing minor elective surgery. The patients were randomly divided into two groups to receive either halothane (n = 25) or sevoflurane (n = 25) in a mixture of O2 and N2O (40:60) ...
VanGheluwe J - - 1997
The intrapulpal injection is commonly used when conventional anesthetic techniques fail during endodontic procedures. OBJECTIVES: This was a double-blind clinical study conducted to determine whether anesthetic solution was related to an effective intrapulpal injection. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-five intrapulpal injections were given, all with back-pressure and either saline solution or anesthetic ...
Sharma S K - - 1997
This study was designed to compare the efficacy of 6% hetastarch to that of crystalloid administration in reducing the incidence and severity of hypotension during spinal anesthesia. Forty ASA grade I patients scheduled for postpartum tubal ligations under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either 500 mL of hetastarch ...
Aneman A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation and isoflurane anesthesia may opposingly affect the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems. This study was performed to elucidate the modulatory effects of isoflurane anesthesia on the neurohumoral and cardiovascular responses to PEEP. METHODS: Renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous activity were investigated in mechanically ventilated, normovolemic, ...
Still J - - 1996
Anaesthesia was induced in horses (n = 6) with a mixture of thiopentone and guaiphenesin and maintained by mechanical ventilation with a mixture of oxygen, air and isoflurane. Inspiratory and end-expiratory concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and isoflurane were measured. Electrocardiography was used to evaluate heart rate and rhythm. Mean ...
Hettrick D A - - 1996
The effects of volatile anesthetics on arterial mechanical properties in vivo are incompletely understood. The present investigation tested the hypothesis that isoflurane and halothane cause differential actions on the mechanical characteristics of the aorta in barbiturate-anesthetized dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic blood pressure, blood flow, and diameter. Aortic distensibility ...
Reid C W - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intravenous propofol-alfentanil anesthesia provides superior arterial oxygenation (Pao2) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) compared with isoflurane inhalation anesthesia. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty adults having either thoracoscopic pulmonary surgery or esophageal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received either propofol-alfentanil infusion anesthesia or ...
Singh S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of glycopyrrolate (GLY) in preventing the decrease in cardiac index (CI) usually caused by xylazine (XYL)/ketamine (KET)-induced anesthesia in horses. ANIMALS: 6 healthy horses. PROCEDURE: Horses were treated with saline solution or 2.5 micrograms of GLY/kg of body weight, administered i.v. 15 minutes later, XYL ...
Chassard D - - 1996
We have studied the effects of volatile anaesthetics on lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) tone in three groups of eight pigs allocated randomly to receive end-tidal concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MAC of desflurane, isoflurane or halothane for 15 min. LOS and oesophageal barrier pressures (BrP = LOSP - gastric ...
Townsend H S - - 1996
The pneumatic tourniquet produces ischemic changes in limbs. The effects of tourniquet release on systemic blood pressure and metabolic parameters were studied in 11 adult patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased rapidly after the release of the tourniquet, becoming significant at 3 min ...
Talke P - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Rapid emergence from anesthesia makes desflurane an attractive choice as an anesthetic for patients having neurosurgery. However, the data on the effect of desflurane on intracranial pressure in humans are still limited and inconclusive. The authors hypothesized that isoflurane and desflurane increase intracranial pressure compared with propofol. METHODS: Anesthesia ...
Deryck Y L - - 1996
Vascular effects of general anesthesia are usually described by changes in vascular resistance, which assumes a linear pressure-flow relationship passing through the zero-flow zero-pressure point, and neglects the pulsatile properties of the circulation. We compared the systemic vascular effects of isoflurane versus propofol anesthesia by measurements of aortic pressure-flow relationships, ...
Frugière A - - 1996
The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is part of the vasomotor centre which controls the cardiovascular system and may therefore be critical to the genesis of postoperative hypertension. This area is probably a common site of termination of different inputs involved in the baroreflex. It contains at least two classes of ...
Muzi M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Three strategies were employed to better define the afferent site(s) at which desflurane initiates its neurocirculatory activation. METHODS: Young (aged 19-28 yr) healthy volunteers were employed in three separate studies. Monitoring included electrocardiography, radial artery blood pressure, and direct recordings of sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle blood vessels by ...
Grundmann U - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Anaesthesia in patients with ischaemic heart disease may cause adverse haemodynamic reactions. This investigation compares the cardiovascular effects of equipotent concentrations of desflurane and isoflurane in 30 patients (ASA III) with coronary artery disease before surgical stimulation. METHODS: After standardised induction of anaesthesia with etomidate, fentanyl and pancuronium and ...
Kerr C L - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate sedation with intravenous xylazine (1.1 mg/kg bodyweight [BW]) versus intravenous romifidine (100 micrograms/kg BW) followed by induction of anesthesia with intravenous diazepam (0.04 mg/kg BW) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg BW). Twelve healthy horses were used in a blinded, randomized, cross-over ...
Marano G - - 1996
We investigated the effects of isoflurane on the rabbit cardiovascular system at several end-tidal concentrations. Furthermore, because isoflurane has been reported to produce tachycardia while reducing sympathetic nervous activity and baroreflex function, we evaluated whether the chronotropic effects of isoflurane could be due to a vagal withdrawal. ECG, mean arterial ...
Inada T - - 1996
PURPOSE: To investigate changes of cerebral arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) induced by surgical incision and to determine carbon dioxide (CO2) reactivity of the cerebral circulation during sevoflurane and isoflurane anaesthesia. METHODS: Twenty-one ASA 1-2 patients undergoing elective surgery for supratentorial tumours were randomly allocated to receive either 1.3 MAC ...
Urzua J - - 1996
The aim of the study was to compare three anaesthetic agents in patients with ejection fraction below 0.40 subjected to coronary revascularization surgery. Twenty five elective coronary surgical patients with ejection fraction below 0.40 were prospectively studied. Premedication was pethidine 1 mg/kg and induction was fentanyl 0.03 mg/kg and pancuronium ...
Cho S - - 1996
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sevoflurane with and without nitrous oxide on human middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow velocity, cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity, and autoregulation compared with the awake state using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. METHODS: In 14 patients, the time-mean middle cerebral artery flow velocity ...
Jellish W S - - 1996
General or regional anesthesia may be used for lumbar laminectomy. To determine whether one method is superior, 122 patients were randomly assigned to receive either a standard general anesthetic (GA) or spinal anesthesia (SA) supplemented with intravenous (IV) propofol sedation. Data from the intraoperative period through hospital discharge were collected ...
Urmey W F - - 1996
The application of digital pressure above the injection site during interscalene block has been advocated to prevent cephalad spread of local anesthetic. In prior studies, radiographs taken immediately after interscalene injection of radiographic contrast have supported this concept. However, the clinical efficacy of digital pressure has not been previously tested. ...
Hoerauf K H - - 1996
We have compared exposure to isoflurane while using the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during anaesthesia under positive pressure ventilation with exposure while using tracheal intubation. Trace concentrations of isoflurane were measured directly using a highly sensitive photoacoustic infrared spectrometer (Bruel and Kjaer 1302, Denmark) during general anaesthesia in 20 eye ...
Lowe D - - 1996
BACKGROUND: This investigation examined the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on quantitative indices of left ventricular afterload derived from aortic input impedance (Zin) interpreted using a three-element Windkessel model. METHODS: After Animal Care Committee approval, dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented for measurement of systemic hemodynamics including aortic blood ...
Liu S S - - 1996
The efficacy of an epinephrine test dose during epidural and combined epidural-general anesthesia is unknown. Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive 2% lidocaine at either a high (25 mL) or low (12 mL) thoracic level of epidural anesthesia followed by general anesthesia with 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration nitrous oxide ...
Gregorini P - - 1996
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate possible differences between the maximum, minimum, and mean value over each epoch, or the instantaneous value at the end of the interval, when recording physiological data at 1-minute intervals. METHODS: The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate derived from the radial pulse (PULSE), end-tidal ...
Ganjoo P - - 1996
Arterial blood pressure and heart rate changes after afferent somatic sensory nerve stimulation are termed the "somatosympathetic reflex" (SSR). Inhibition of the SSR may partially represent an antinociceptive action. This investigation examined the actions of the volatile anesthetic, desflurane, on the SSR evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation. Rats anesthetized with ...
Casati A - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The depressant activity on sympathetic tone of subarachnoid anesthetic block is well known. The aim of this study was to compare cardiovascular response to an incremental dose of subarachnoid anesthesia administered through a small-bore microcatheter with the response to single-dose spinal anesthesia. METHODS: The 26 ASA I ...
Dahan A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: At low dose, the halogenated anesthetic agents halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane depress the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia in humans. In the current study, the influence of subanesthetic desflurane (0.1 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) on the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response was assessed in healthy volunteers during normocapnia and hypercapnia. ...
Clarke K W - - 1996
The cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane at end tidal concentrations of 10.3, 12.9 and 15.5 per cent during either spontaneous or artificial ventilation were studied in five beagle dogs. Desflurane anaesthesia resulted in tachycardia and a decrease in arterial blood pressure which were not significantly related to the end tidal desflurane ...
Gaynor J S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of IV administration of fluids on PCV, serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations, and systolic arterial pressure in healthy anesthetized dogs undergoing elective surgical procedures. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS: 70 clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs received i.v. administration of 0, 5, 10, ...
Oxorn D - - 1996
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of isoflurane on left ventricular diastolic function, as assessed by Doppler echocardiography. METHODS: Ten patients with normal cardiovascular function were enrolled. Doppler measurements of mitral inflow velocities, and pulmonary venous blood flow velocities were measured preoperatively (transthoracic echocardiography), and intraoperatively (transesophageal echocardiography) at isoflurane MAC ...
Schmidt C - - 1996
For the evaluation of the hemodynamic interaction between the natural heart and an assist device, a reversible pharmacological model based on the channel blocker Verapamil under hyperkalemia, was developed for deterioration of left ventricular function. Four calves weighing 70-90 kg underwent standard implantation for left atrioaortal assist (BioMedicus, BP-80), pump ...
Rooke G A - - 1996
In patients without significant cardiovascular disease, the hemodynamic effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane are similar; however, the hemodynamic effects of sevoflurane in patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease are unknown. To examine the effects of sevoflurane in comparison to isoflurane in this high-risk population, 214 patients scheduled for elective ...
Okamoto H - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The inhalation of high concentrations of isoflurane has been reported to increase the heart rate and the concentration of serum catecholamines. Although the precise mechanisms for the sympathetic activation of isoflurane have yet to be clearly elucidated, they are considered to possibly originate from the stimulation of airway sensory ...
Muzi M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Rapid increases in the inspired concentration of desflurane have been associated with sympathetic activation, tachycardia, hypertension, and in select cases, myocardial ischemia. The current study examined the effects of the rate of change of the desflurane concentration on the sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to desflurane and sought to determine ...
Seeman-Lodding H - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological control of blood pressure is usually indicated during aortic cross-clamping (AXC). The aim of this study was to analyze the modulation by isoflurane (ISO), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and milrinone (MIL) of the systemic circulatory responses to a standardized infra-renal AXC. METHODS: Chloralose-anaesthetized pigs were exposed to AXC at ...
Yun E - - 1996
Although changes in pulmonary function in parturients are documented, little is known about effects of regional anesthesia on these changes. This study was undertaken to determine if two local anesthetics, often used for epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery, have different effects on pulmonary function testing. Nineteen ASA physical status I ...
Aida H - - 1996
The effects of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane on hemodynamic, pulmonary and blood chemistry variables were measured during spontaneous and controlled ventilation in healthy horses. Sevoflurane was the only anesthetic drug administered to the horses. In a dose-dependent manner, sevoflurane significantly decreased (P < .05) ...
Jamali S - - 1996
In many studies reporting an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) after opioid administration, concomitant decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) have been observed. Autoregulatory cerebral vasodilation may therefore have been a factor in the CSFP increases. We tested the hypothesis that increases in CSFP after bolus injection of opioids ...
McMurphy R M - - 1996
This study was performed to determine the cardiovascular responses to isoflurane in euthyroid and hypothyroid dogs. Four healthy mixed-breed dogs were studied prior to thyroidectomy (PRE), 6 months after thyroidectomy (HYP), and after 2 months of oral supplementation with 1-thyroxine (SUP). Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (SV), ...
McMurphy R M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of 2 anesthetic planes of desflurane (DES) during spontaneous ventilation (SV) and controlled ventilation (CV) in cats. DESIGN: Repeated Latin square. ANIMALS: Eight healthy adult cats. PROCEDURE: Each cat received 1.3 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of DES and 1.7 MAC of DES ...
Sloan M H - - 1996
Because of its nonpungent odor and low blood-gas solubility coefficient, sevoflurane might be an ideal drug for single-breath inhaled induction of anesthesia. Fifty ASA grade I-III ambulatory surgical patients (18-76 yr old) received a single-breath induction with either 5.0% sevoflurane or 5.0% isoflurane (randomized) in a 1:1 N2O/O2 mixture. Anesthesia ...
Whitehair K J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of inhalation anesthetic agents on the response of horses to 3 hours of hypoxemia. DESIGN: Controlled crossover study. ANIMALS: Five healthy adult horses. PROCEDURE: Horses were anesthetized twice: once with halothane, and once with isoflurane in O2. Anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency. ...
Gormley W P - - 1996
This study was designed to investigate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on the sympathetic activity after a rapid increase in desflurane concentration. Twenty ASA grade I and II patients, were allocated randomly to a control group (C) and a lidocaine group (L). After induction of anesthesia with intravenous propofol 2 ...
Stekiel T A - - 1996
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the inhibitory effect of inhaled halothane and isoflurane on acute hypercapnia-induced responses of capacitance-regulating veins and related cardiovascular variables in response to sequential 40-s periods of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% inspired CO2 (FICO2). Measurements were made in normoxic alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rabbits ...
Lennon P F - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism whereby gas exchange is improved through the diversion of blood flow away from poorly oxygenated regions of the lung. The effect of isoflurane anesthesia on HPV is unclear. Using a chronically instrumented canine model, it was hypothesized that isoflurane anesthesia would ...
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