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Mapleson W W - - 1998
A spreadsheet model of a circle breathing system and a 70-kg anaesthetised 'standard man' has been used to simulate the first 20 min of low-flow anaesthesia with halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane in oxygen. It is shown that, with the fresh-gas flow set initially equal to the total ventilation ...
Rosenberg J M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of neurogenic control on adrenal secretion in a canine model of high spinal anesthesia and cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, acute intensive study. SETTING: University intensive care laboratory. SUBJECTS: Nineteen healthy, anesthetized, mongrel dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Cardiac arrest was induced in 11 spinally anesthetized dogs and ...
Chen T L TL Department of Anesthesia, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, - - 1998
The new inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane would be expected to provide a rapid emergence from anesthesia due to its low blood/gas partition coefficient. In this study, we compared the hemodynamic effects, speed and quality of emergence, in ASA class I-II Chinese adult surgical patients receiving either sevoflurane or isoflurane anesthesia. Eighty ...
Gueugniaud P Y - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In paediatric healthy patients and in real peroperative conditions, the cardiovascular effects of isoflurane have been poorly described. METHODS: We have evaluated the myocardial effects of 1% end-expired concentration (EEC) of isoflurane in 25 healthy infants or small children undergoing superficial surgical therapy for small burns with a continuous ...
Taylor P M - - 1998
The study investigated the stimulus to pituitary-adrenocortical activity (PACA) during halothane anaesthesia. Groups of six sheep were anaesthetized with thiopentone/halothane (TH group), acepromazine/thiopentone/halothane (ATH group) or pentobarbitone (P group). Dobutamine was infused in the TH and ATH groups to prevent hypotension (0.3-1.4 micrograms/kg/min) and in the P group at 0.05 ...
McKinney M S - - 1998
We have studied the cardiovascular effects of equipotent concentrations of halothane or isoflurane, with or without 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen, in 80 patients, aged 60 yr or more, during 20 min of stable equipotent anaesthesia. Non-invasive measurement techniques were used, with suprasternal Doppler ultrasonography for estimating cardiac output. Both ...
Hodgson D S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia induced and maintained with isoflurane (ISO) in cats. ANIMALS: 8 healthy cats between 1 and 5 years old. PROCEDURE: Anesthesia was induced with ISO in oxygen. Two anesthetic depths were maintained in each cat; mean alveolar concentrations (MAC) were 1.3 and 2.0 ...
Marietta D R - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiovascular stability during carotid endarterectomy in groups managed either with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) or endotracheal intubation. DESIGN: Randomized, retrospective, blinded study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 61 ASA physical status II, III, and IV unpremedicated adult males scheduled for carotid endarterectomy. INTERVENTIONS: Following standardized anesthetic technique, ...
Marco Derighetti,Christian W. Frei,Marcel ...
A mathematical model derived from physiological considerations for the combined effects of anesthetic gas and surgical stimulation on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is proposed. A rough validation is done by comparing clinical MAP responses to responses of the model to a relatively well defined stimulus. Keywords--- physiological modeling, pain ...
Stowe D F - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane protects against reperfusion injury in isolated hearts when given before, during, and initially after hypoxia or ischemia and aids in preconditioning hearts if given before ischemia. The aims of the current study were to determine if isoflurane is cardioprotective during 1-day, severe hypothermic perfusion and if a mechanism ...
Matson A M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Pituitary-adrenal secretion during induced hypotension for middle-ear surgery has received little attention. Previous work failed to differentiate the effects of induced hypotension from surgical stimulation. We have undertaken a preliminary study examining the effects of hypotension, achieved with labetalol or isoflurane, on pituitary-adrenal secretion before, during and after middle-ear ...
Bufalari A - - 1998
Cardiovascular, pulmonary, and quantitative electroencephalographic parameters were assessed in 12 anesthetized dogs to determine the compatibility of the injectable anesthetic propofol with halothane and isoflurane. No cases of apnea were observed during induction of anesthesia. An adequate level of anesthesia was established in each protocol as judged by both the ...
Moya F - - 1998
Safety in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section is achieved by strict adherence to the cardinal principles of proper evaluation and selection of patients, the use of prophylactic vasopressors, preanesthetic establishment of a reliable intravenous channel, small doses of the local anesthetic, close monitoring and maintenance of systolic blood pressure above ...
Mamiya K - - 1998
We measured the arterial blood pressure and percutaneous O2 saturation (SpO2) in 39 elderly patients (age range, 70-89 years) who underwent cataract surgery under local anesthesia. Nineteen patients showed a 20% or greater increase in the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) measured every minute in the operating room compared to the ...
Tobias J D - - 1998
The physical properties of sevoflurane suggest that it may be a suitable agent for controlled hypotension. With its low blood:gas partition coefficient of 0.69, it has a rapid onset of action making it easy to rapidly control blood pressure. The current report outlines preliminary experience with sevoflurane for controlled hypotension ...
Weil A B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a low dose of atropine is associated with decreased requirement for cardiovascular supportive treatment in horses given detomidine prior to maintenance of general anesthesia with halothane. ANIMALS: 3 groups of 10 healthy horses. PROCEDURE: Detomidine (20 micrograms/kg of body weight, i.m.) was administered to all 30 ...
Otto K A - - 1997
Cardiopulmonary and acid-base variables recorded during long-term balanced anesthesia lasting between 12.5 and 16.9 h were evaluated retrospectively in 15 healthy foxhounds that underwent experimental bulla osteotomy with implantation of hearing aids. After premedication with propionylpromazine (0.11 +/- 0.02 mg/kg of body weight) and L-methadone (0.71 +/- 0.06 mg/kg) intravenously ...
Tayefeh F F Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0648, - - 1997
To better characterize alterations in autonomic function associated with prolonged anesthesia, we tested the hypothesis that the time-dependent effects of sevoflurane and desflurane differ. We studied seven male volunteers, each anesthetized for 8 h with 1.25 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration desflurane on one study day and with 8 h sevoflurane ...
Pascoe P J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether administration of opioids to anesthetized cats induced less cardiovascular depression than that induced by an equivalent amount of anesthetic alone, and to measure endocrine responses to a noxious stimulus. ANIMALS: 6 healthy female cats. PROCEDURE: Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane and was maintained for 60 minutes ...
Einarsson S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The first goal of anaesthetic recovery is return of the patient's ability to independently maintain respiratory and circulatory functions. Nitrous oxide remains popular due to minor effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However, diffusion hypoxaemia can occur during recovery and there is a potential advantage of providing the ...
Martin D D - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to determine the hemodynamic effects of epidural ketamine administered during isoflurane anesthesia in dogs. Prospective, single-dose trial. Six healthy dogs (five males, one female) weighing 25.3 +/- 3.88 kg. Once anesthesia was induced, dogs were maintained at 1.5 times the predetermined, individual minimum alveolar ...
Martinez E A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in isoflurane- and halothane-anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs given buprenorphine (16 micrograms/kg of body weight, i.v.) or isovolumetric 5% dextrose solution during anesthesia with isoflurane or halothane. PROCEDURE: Each dog was anesthetized 4 times, with a minimum of 10 ...
Hikasa Y - - 1997
The cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane (mean, 2.6, 3.8-3.9 and 5.2 per cent) were compared with those of halothane (1.2, 1.8 and 2.4 per cent), enflurane (2.4, 3.6 and 4.8 per cent) and isoflurane (1.6, 2.4 and 3.2-3.3 per cent) at end-tidal concentrations equivalent to 1, 1.5 and 2 minimal alveolar ...
Fassoulaki A - - 1997
We examined the effect of nitrous oxide (N2O) administration on the level of sensory block produced by intrathecal lidocaine in patients undergoing transurethral procedures. Twenty minutes after subarachnoid injection of 100 mg (5%) hyperbaric lidocaine, the level of block to pressure sensation was assessed. After establishing the baseline sensory block, ...
Rödig G - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Airway irritation was hypothesized to trigger the transient cardiovascular stimulation associated with desflurane. The authors administered desflurane during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thus avoiding airway contact, and compared the effects of rapid increases of desflurane to 1.5 MAC on systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and catecholamine response to those of ...
Hoffman W E - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Desflurane anesthesia can produce cerebral metabolic depression and increase cerebral blood flow. We evaluated the effect of desflurane on brain tissue oxygen pressure (PO2), carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) and pH during neurosurgery. METHODS: Following a craniotomy, the dura was opened and a Paratrend 7 sensor, which measures PO2, PCO2, ...
Friedman M J - - 1997
This article describes a new computerized local anesthetic injection system for pain control. The core technology of this system is the microprocessor-controlled delivery of anesthetic solution at a constant pressure and controlled volume, regardless of encountered variations in tissue resistance. This fine-tuned, high suffusion flow rate of anesthetic provides a ...
Nishiyama T - - 1997
PURPOSE: During nicardipine induced hypotension, different inhalational anaesthetics may have different effects on haemodynamic variables, sympathetic function and drug metabolism. Therefore, the haemodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine were studied in the presence of the three inhalation anaesthetics enflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. METHODS: Thirty patients scheduled for neurosurgery were randomly ...
Doherty T J - - 1997
The effect of i.v. acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt), butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg bwt) and a combination of acepromazine and butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined in 7 mixed-breed ponies. Ventilation was controlled, and blood pressure and temperature were maintained within normal limits. Following the determination of baseline MAC, ...
Habre W - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is a new volatile anesthetic agent that may be a useful alternative to halothane for anesthesia in children. However, there is insufficient information about its effects on respiratory mechanics, particularly in the presence of constrictor stimuli. METHODS: Eighteen piglets had anesthesia induced and maintained with either pentobarbital (control: ...
Gaynor J S - - 1997
Twenty-four Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) from 12 litters were anesthetized with either inhaled sevoflurane or isoflurane. With 7% delivered sevoflurane and 5% delivered isoflurane, time to loss of righting reflex (mean +/- SE) with sevoflurane (1.9 +/- 0.1 min) was significantly shorter compared with isoflurane (2.6 +/- 0.1 min). During ...
Takeda S - - 1997
PURPOSE: The investigational agent, KRN2391, is a potassium channel opener with a nitrate moiety which possesses potent vasodilatory action. We compared the haemodynamic effect of KRN2391. Induced hypotension with those of nicardipine. METHODS: Sixteen dogs were anaesthetized with isoflurane 1.3% in oxygen (1 MAC). After the baseline period. mean arterial ...
Dyson D H - - 1997
Severe hypotension was produced in 8 dogs during halothane anesthesia. Three monitors detecting respiratory rate, Doppler signal and pulse rate were compared to direct blood pressure measurements. Deep anesthesia was most consistently detected using the respiratory monitor. The signal fade of the Doppler device was best at detecting hypotension from ...
Bailey J M - - 1997
The length of anesthetic administration influences the rate at which concentrations of anesthetics decrease after their discontinuation. This is true for both intravenous (I.V.) and inhaled anesthetics. This has been explored in detail for I.V. anesthetics using computer simulation to calculate context-sensitive half-times (the time needed for a 50% decrease ...
Artru A A - - 1997
This study examined the concentration-related effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on cerebral physiology and plasma inorganic fluoride concentrations. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (Vmca), intracranial pressure (ICP), electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, and jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation were measured, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and estimated cerebral vascular resistance (CVRe) were ...
Nakajima Y - - 1997
Isoflurane is an appropriate anesthetic for neuroanesthesia. We evaluated whether the effect of sevoflurane is similar to that of isoflurane or halothane on brain energy metabolism after cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Wistar rats (n = 21) were divided into three groups: isoflurane-, sevoflurane-, or halothane-treated. ...
De Mulder P A - - 1997
Effects are reported of an anesthetic protocol involving use of predetermined intravenous (i.v.)-administered drug doses during acute experimental procedures in vagotomized, New Zealand White rabbits with open thorax (n = 20) in a nonsurvival study. After induction of anesthesia by intramuscular (i.m.) administration of ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg of body ...
Mutoh T - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane (Sevo), compared with halothane (Hal), enflurane (Enf), and isoflurane (Iso). ANIMALS: 24 healthy Beagles, randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 dogs each. PROCEDURE: Dogs under spontaneous ventilation were anesthetized with Sevo, Hal, Enf, or Iso. After minimum elveolar concentration (MAC) of each ...
Takahashi K - - 1997
We studied the effects of halothane versus isoflurane on the phosphoenergetic state and intracellular pH (pHi) of the rat liver using in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy during and after hemorrhagic shock. Seventeen rats were anesthetized with 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration of halothane or isoflurane. The mean ...
da Silva J M - - 1997
Intermittent injection of liquid anaesthetic into a closed breathing system is particularly suitable in countries with limited resources. A method of calculating appropriate times and magnitudes of the injected doses was described by Lowe but the method has never been assessed rigorously. Such an assessment was the purpose of this ...
Stevens R A - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal anesthesia to high thoracic dermatomes is alleged to result in almost complete block of all sympathetic efferent nerves. To examine the degree of sympathectomy during spinal anesthesia, the sympathetic response to a cold pressor test (CPT) applied to unblocked dermatomes before and during spinal anesthesia was ...
Piriou V - - 1997
In common with halogenated anaesthetics, nicorandil, a new KATP channel opener, has been shown to have cardioprotective and vasodilator effects. Recent studies have also suggested that the vasodilator and protective effects of halogenated anaesthetics are mediated partly via KATP channel opening. This study examined the effects of concurrent administration of ...
Nakayama Y - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the negative inotropic effects of isoflurane are incompletely understood. One suggested mechanism is that isoflurane may decrease Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins. If so, more free calcium would be needed to activate contractile proteins to the same degree, which would impose a greater requirement for myocardial ...
Reich D L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative blood pressure lability may be related to risk factors, hypovolemia, light anesthesia, and morbid outcomes, but the measurements of lability in previous studies have been limited by imprecise and infrequent data collection methods. Computerized intraoperative data acquisition systems have provided an opportunity to readdress the issue of intraoperative ...
Ghabash M - - 1997
Forty-four male patients undergoing herniorrhaphy under spinal anesthesia were allocated to 2 groups. Group I had 15 ml/kg of lactated ringer intravenously as prehydartion for prevention of spinal induced hypotension. Group 11 had the trendelenbourg position to 30 degrees for 2 minutes and the legs wrapped with elastic Esmarch bandage ...
Goto T - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Xenon, an inert gas with anesthetic properties (minimum alveolar concentration [MAC] = 71%), has an extremely low blood:gas partition coefficient (0.14). Therefore, we predicted that xenon would provide more rapid emergence from anesthesia than does N2O+isoflurane or N2O+sevoflurane of equivalent MAC. METHODS: Thirty American Society of Anesthsiologists class I ...
Wang B W BW Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Municipal Ho Ping Hospital, Taiwan, - - 1997
Hypertonic saline improves organ perfusion and patient survival during hemorrhagic shock because it expands plasma volume and increases tissue oxygenation. Its beneficial results have been reported in patients suffering from hypotension during spinal anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence between prehydration with 3% hypertonic saline ...
Hoerauf K - - 1997
We have compared occupational exposure to isoflurane and desflurane during cardiopulmonary bypass, with and without a scavenging system at the membrane oxygenator outlet. Trace concentrations of volatile anaesthetics were measured by a direct reading instrument in 40 elective heart surgery procedures. Measurements were obtained in the breathing zones of the ...
Rolf N - - 1997
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myocardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial ...
Marano G - - 1997
The effects of isoflurane versus halothane on cardiac contractility were evaluated by two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography in rabbits. The relationship between the left ventricular end-systolic wall stress (LVESWS) and the velocity of heart rate corrected circumferential fibre shortening (Vcfc) was used. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular pressure and ...
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