Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1212
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Stecco R - - 2003
Oxytocin is released in response to teasing during both estrus and diestrus in mares, and at least during estrus, teasing results in an increase in electromyographic activity in the uterus. Exogenous oxytocin causes an increase in intrauterine pressure and prior studies have shown that this response is correlated to the ...
Mahieu-Caputo D - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if systemic hypertension occurs in fetuses with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study in a tertiary care centre in 23 pregnant women with TTTS. Polyhydramnios stuck twin sequence occurred at a median gestational age of 22 weeks (range 15-27). Biventricular myocardial hypertrophy ...
Desai Mina - - 2003
Lambs exposed in utero to maternal hypertonicity demonstrate plasma hypertonicity and arterial hypertension. To determine whether hypertonicity is due to an altered osmoregulatory set point, we examined arginine-vasopressin and cardiovascular responses to hypertonic saline infusion in these offspring. Study lambs [dehydrated (Dehy)] were exposed to maternal hypernatremia (8-10 mEq/liter increase; ...
Dowdle Mark A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the Koala air-charged coupled catheter (Clinical Innovations, Inc., Murray, Utah) for monitoring intrauterine pressure (IUP) during active labor with an electronic pressure transducer-tip catheter, Intran Plus (Utah Medical Products, Midvale, Utah). STUDY DESIGN: Simultaneous recordings with Koala and Intran catheters bound together at their tips were made ...
Lumbers Eugenie R - - 2003
Fetal behavior, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were studied 1-3 days after surgery in seven fetal sheep (aged 127-136 days). Five behavioral states were defined from chart recordings of electrocortical (electrocorticographic; ECoG) activity and eye, limb, and breathing movements. Most records were ...
Owens Michelle - - 2003
AIM: To determine if fundal pressure at the time of cesarean delivery increases the amount of transplacental microtransfusion from mother to infant. METHODS: Pregnant women undergoing cesarean delivery were randomized to the standard uterine fundal pressure at the time of hysterotomy versus no fundal pressure. Babies of patients randomized to ...
Kent Jacqueline C - - 2003
We developed a simple, non-invasive method to measure the intramammary pressure (IMP) response in sows during natural milk ejection and after i.v. injections of oxytocin. The teats of sows were cannulated and the amplitude and duration of IMP changes were measured via a pressure transducer linked to a computer. During ...
Sameshima Hiroshi - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether systolic arterial pressure, as predicted from the delay time from the electrocardiogram to pulse oximeter waveform, correlates with directly measured systolic blood pressure. METHODS: Six Japanese Saanen goats at 120-125 days' gestation were used. Experiments were conducted in acutely operated animals under anesthesia. ...
Ma Sheng-Xing - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to examine cardiovascular responses to fourth cerebral ventricle (4V) administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) or an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) in the near-term ovine and to determine whether, during birth, neuronal NOS (nNOS) is induced in noradrenergic A1 neurons in the medial ...
Haak Monique C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to study first-trimester ductus venosus (DV) velocities in relation to cardiac abnormalities. STUDY DESIGN: Ultrasound examination was performed in 85 normal fetuses and 45 fetuses with a nuchal translucency (NT) >95th percentile. Pulsatility index for veins (PIV) and velocity during late diastole (a-V) of the DV ...
Louey S - - 2003
A substantial number of epidemiological studies have shown that small size at birth is associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however these associations have not been found in all studies. In animals, several models have been used to investigate the effects of ...
Ngan Kee W D - - 2003
We have investigated the factors predicting umbilical arterial pH (UA pH) and standard base excess (UA BE) in 337 consecutive elective Caesarean sections performed under spinal anaesthesia. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with UA pH and UA BE as the dependent factors. We found that the significant factors predicting ...
Symonds M E - - 2003
Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placental growth. In sheep, maternal nutrient restriction over the period of rapid placental growth (30-80 days) restricts placentome growth. Then following adequate nutrition up to term (147 days), placental mass is greater in association with ...
Sato Nobukazu - - 2003
We studied the effects of hydralazine, nicardipine, nitroglycerin, and fenoldopam (a dopamine D1-agonist) on isolated human umbilical arteries (HUA) from patients classified as normotensive and with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Umbilical artery rings were contracted with the thromboxane A(2) analog (U46619; 10(-8) M) and then exposed to cumulative concentrations of fenoldopam, ...
Sanhueza Emilia M - - 2003
This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in mediating cardiovascular responses to reduced oxygenation in the late gestation ovine fetus by: (1) comparing the effects on the cardiovascular system of an exogenous infusion of NPY with those elicited by moderate or severe reductions in fetal oxygenation; and (2) ...
Schleussner Ekkehard - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal and fetal side effects of transdermal nitroglycerin and intravenous fenoterol combined with magnesium sulfate in a prospective randomised study. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty pregnant women between 27 and 35 weeks of gestation with preterm labour were treated with either nitroglycerin (0.4-0.8 mg/h) or fenoterol (60 - ...
Papp Zoltán - - 2003
Massive obstetric haemorrhage is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity; abruption of the placenta, placenta praevia and postpartum haemorrhage being the main causes of haemorrhages. A delay in the correction of hypovolaemia, diagnosis and treatment of defective coagulation and/or surgical control of bleeding are the avoidable factors in ...
Posner Lysa P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of both maternal and fetal blood, before and after hemorrhage, and replenishment with Oxyglobin Solution (Biopure Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA), hetastarch or whole blood in pregnant ewes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. ANIMALS: A total of 17 adult Rambouillet ewes at 131 ...
Schröder Hobe J - - 2003
The pressure drop and pressure pulses in the isthmus of the ductus venosus (DV) in fetal sheep have not been measured directly and related to flow. In eight acutely anesthetized fetal sheep, a 3-Fr tip pressure transducer (TP) was inserted from the external jugular into the umbilical vein (UV). Ultrasound ...
Vickers M H - - 2002
The discovery of a link between an adverse in utero environment and the propensity to develop metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult life is one of the most important advances in epidemiological research of recent Years. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that alterations in the fetal environment may have long-term consequences ...
Jaja S I - - 2002
The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation (100 mg/day for 6 weeks) on blood pressure, packed cell volume, irreversibly sickled cells, per cent fetal hemoglobin, hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility was assessed in children suffering from sickle cell anemia. Fifteen children whose ages ranged from 4 to 11 years (7.5 ...
Cooper David W - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In our routine practice, we observed a reduced incidence of fetal acidosis (umbilical artery pH < 7.20) at cesarean delivery during spinal anesthesia when a combination of phenylephrine and ephedrine was used as first line vasopressor therapy, compared with using ephedrine alone. METHODS: The study was randomized and double ...
Fletcher Andrew J W - - 2002
This study investigated the effects on ovine fetal basal cardiovascular and endocrine functions of fetal intravenous dexamethasone treatment, resulting in circulating concentrations that were one-fifth of the values measured clinically in human infants following maternal antenatal glucocorticoid therapy. Between 117-120 days gestation (dGA; term: ca 145 dGA), 26 Welsh Mountain ...
Matsuda Yoshio - - 2002
This study was designed to elucidate the effects of meluadrine tartrate on oxytocin-induced uterine contraction and maternal hemodynamics in unanesthetized, chronically instrumented pregnant goats. After the administration of meluadrine tartrate or ritodrine hydrochloride to pregnant goats, changes in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (AOP), and arterial blood pH and ...
Potter S M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the direct effects of corticosteroids on human umbilical artery resistance, in vitro. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. SAMPLES AND METHODS: Umbilical artery samples were obtained following normal, term deliveries (n = 50) and dissected rings were suspended for isometric recording under physiological conditions. The ...
Fujita Yasuyuki - - 2002
Pulse waveforms of the fetal descending aorta were obtained using an echo-tracking system to clarify the gestational age-related changes and the usefulness for detecting cardiac dysfunction. Peak systolic (PSD) and end diastolic diameter (EDD), pulse amplitude (Amp) and Amp:EDD ratio, calculated from the pulse waveforms, were adopted for analysis. In ...
Hart Roger - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: For more than 100 years, gynecologists have attempted to effect sterilization via a transuterine approach. Our aim was to develop a safe, simple, rapid method of sterilization that could be performed in the outpatient clinic. The authors felt that a tubal screw based on a "self-tapping" screw ...
Stockley P - - 2002
Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by ...
Blake K V - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To relate measures of fetal growth/size other than birth weight with subsequent blood pressure measured on the same individuals within the context of the "fetal origins of adult disease". DESIGN: A prospective cohort study in which measurements of fetal dimensions obtained by serial ultrasound imaging between 18 and ...
Edwards L J - - 2002
It has been proposed that fetal adaptations to intrauterine nutrient deprivation permanently reprogram the cardiovascular system. We investigated the impact of restricted periconceptional nutrition and/or restricted gestational nutrition on fetal arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, rate pressure product, and the fetal BP responses to ANG II and the angiotensin-converting ...
Gangula P R R - - 2002
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is the most potent endogenous vasodilatory peptide, and is involved in the regulation of blood flow to vital organs. We have previously shown that CGRP may be involved in vascular adaptations that occur during pregnancy, and that steroid hormones may be involved in these mechanisms. We ...
Segar Jeffrey L - - 2002
Studies were performed to test the hypothesis that the absence of adrenal glucocorticoids late in gestation alters sympathetic and baroreflex responses before and immediately after birth. Fetal sheep at 130-131 days gestation (term 145 days) were subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy before the normal prepartum increase in plasma cortisol levels. One ...
Nakatsuka Mikiya - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of long-term transdermal administration (range, 4-30 days; mean +/- SD, 11.1+/-7.2 days) of isosorbide dinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, in preeclamptic women. METHODS: We studied uterine and fetoplacental circulation of 12 preeclamptic women with oligohydramnios and an elevated pulsatility index in the uterine arteries. RESULTS: ...
Kind Karen L - - 2002
Small size at birth has been associated with increased blood pressure in adult men and women. In rats, isocaloric protein restriction reduces fetal growth and increases systolic blood pressure in adult offspring. Balanced maternal undernutrition in the rat also increases adult blood pressure, but not consistently. The aim of this ...
Buhimschi Catalin S - - 2002
Nitroglycerin is administered intravenously in acute obstetric emergencies to relax the uterus. However, complications (eg, hypotension, acute uterine bleeding) are frequent, which prompted a search for alternative routes of administration. We hypothesized that the sublingual administration of nitroglycerin would reduce uterine tone and contractility with few complications. Intrauterine pressure was ...
Dodic Miodrag - - 2002
Recent studies have linked fetal exposure to a suboptimal intrauterine environment with adult hypertension. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to see whether cortisol treatment administered to the ewe for 2 days at 27 days of gestation (term approximately 150 days) resulted in high blood pressure in offspring; ...
Joyce Jeffrey M - - 2002
During normal pregnancy, uterine blood flow (UBF) is increased in association with elevations of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Shear stress increases endothelial-derived NO production to reduce vasomotor tone. We hypothesized that decreasing in vivo UBF, and thus shear stress, will decrease NO ...
Clifton Vicki L - - 2002
A number of studies demonstrate that both long-term and short-term exposure to glucocorticoids alters vascular function. We have examined whether the short-term administration of glucocorticoids into the human fetal-placental circulation affects placental arterial pressure and alters vascular responses to vasoconstrictive and vasodilator agents. Single lobules of term human placentae were ...
Wood Charles E - - 2002
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that cardiac receptors tonically inhibit the secretion of renin, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in late-gestation fetal sheep. Eight chronically catheterised fetal sheep between 122 and 134 days gestation were subjected to injection or infusion of saline or 4 % ...
Ayustawati - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the optimum ventricular pacing rate at which the optimal cardiac function can be attained in fetal lambs with complete atrioventricular block. STUDY DESIGN: Complete atrioventricular block was created by cryosurgery in 12 fetal lambs, and the ventricle was paced randomly at rates of ...
Buhimschi Catalin S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between intrauterine pressure and the application of a standardised fundal pressure manoeuvre, and to determine the maternal, fetal and labour characteristics that modulate the relationship. DESIGN: Prospective measurement of intrauterine pressure during the second stage of labour. SETTING: North American university hospital. POPULATION: Forty full-term ...
Breeveld-Dwarkasin V N A - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes in dilatation of the caudal cervix during induced calvings (n = 5). We used ultrasound cervimetry, allowing the continuous recording of the distance between a transmitting and receiving ultrasound crystal, which were implanted opposite to each other on the ...
Yu Ze-Yan - - 2002
The acute and long-term effects of blockade of nitric oxide (NO) production were studied in six chronically catheterised fetal sheep aged from 116 and 118 days; six untreated fetal sheep received injections of saline. Injection of 10 mg (kg maternal body wt)(-1) of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine ...
Shiraishi Hirohiko - - 2002
To evaluate the hemodynamic effect of rapid left atrial pacing on fetal circulation, a fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmia model was made and the aortic pressure, central venous pressure, and left and right ventricular outputs were measured in ten fetal lambs. Under maternal anesthesia, the uterus was opened, and under local anesthesia, ...
Tercanli Sevgi - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Effects of volume preloading during spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section on maternal blood pressure, feto-maternal circulation and fetal outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a pilot study a randomised trial was performed in 22 healthy women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies at 36-40 weeks of gestation undergoing elective caesarean section ...
Koenen S V - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of the intramuscular maternal administration of betamethasone to the pregnant baboon at 0.7 of gestation on fetal blood pressure and heart rate. STUDY DESIGN: We treated pregnant baboons at 0.7 of gestation with intramuscular betamethasone (n = 4), at a weight-adjusted dose equivalent ...
Holcberg Gershon - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine whether oxytocin acts differently on the fetal-placental vascular bed of normal and meconium impregnated placentas. STUDY DESIGN: Isolated placental cotyledons (n=10) were dually perfused with fetal perfusion pressure used as an index of vascular resistance. As perfusion medium we used lactated ...
Ducros Laurent - - 2002
BACKGROUND: During labor, ephedrine is widely used to prevent or to treat maternal arterial hypotension and restore uterine perfusion pressure to avoid intrapartum fetal asphyxia. However, the effects of ephedrine on uterine blood flow have not been studied during uterine contractions. The purpose of the study was to assess the ...
Falkner Bonita - - 2002
According to the concept of "fetal programming," intrauterine conditions that impair fetal growth can program the fetus to express hypertension, as well as other chronic diseases, in later life. A model for the development of hypertension that includes the effect of the intrauterine environment on fetal growth as a mechanistic ...
McElvy Sherrie - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Endothelin-1 is reportedly elevated in preeclampsia, and studies in our laboratory have shown that infusion of endothelin-1 produces increased mean arterial pressure, hemoconcentration, and proteinuria, while decreasing uterine blood flow. If a role in preeclampsia is confirmed for endothelin-1, therapeutic intervention may involve selective endothelin-A receptor blockers. Thus, this ...
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