Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1220
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Anderson Cindy M - - 2006
It is generally accepted that preeclampsia results from reduction in perfusion to the uteroplacental unit leading to maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction. Placental insufficiency creates an environment of fetal undernutriton, predisposing the fetus to the development of adult disease. In this study, we characterized the development and perpetuation of ...
Faber J J - - 2006
Earlier studies suggested that the fetal placental circulation is relatively inert with fetal placental flow increasing or decreasing with perfusion pressure. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that the placenta may not be an unreactive vascular bed. The present study was undertaken to determine if plasma infusion-induced hypertension increased fetal placental flow ...
Sikkel E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fetal anemia and intrauterine transfusion on ventricular shortening fraction. METHODS: The end-diastolic and end-systolic transverse dimensions of the left and right ventricles were obtained using M-mode ultrasonography. The shortening fractions of both ventricles were calculated at three time points: before, immediately after and one ...
Ralphe J Carter - - 2005
Little is known about the chronic adaptations that take place in the fetal heart to allow for increased substrate delivery in response to chronic stress. Because glucose is an important fuel for the fetal cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that myocardial glucose transporters 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4, respectively) are up-regulated ...
Westgate Jenny A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that fetuses from multiple pregnancies who exhibited spontaneous, stable hypoxia would show more rapid development of metabolic acidosis and hypotension during short repeated episodes of umbilical cord occlusion than normoxic singleton or twin fetuses and, if this proved to ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that the oviduct exhibits increased motile activity during cervical buffeting. METHODS: The response of oviductal and uterine pressures to cervix uteri (CU) stimulation was recorded in 16 women (mean age 32.4+/-3.6 years) with normal menstrual history. Pressure measurements, performed by means of saline-perfused catheters introduced ...
Wibbens Bert - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the onset of fetal hypotension during profound asphyxia is reflected by alterations in the ratio between the T height, measured from the level of the PQ interval, and the QRS amplitude (T/QRS ratio) and ST waveform. STUDY DESIGN: Chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep received complete occlusion ...
Chang Eugene Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether N-acetylcysteine attenuates abnormal changes in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure model. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham surgery or the reduced uterine perfusion pressure procedure on day 15 of 22. Reduced uterine perfusion pressure animals were treated with N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) or saline twice ...
Bajcsy Arpád Csaba - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate methods for on-farm measurements of uterine contractility in postpartum dairy cows by comparing data simultaneously recorded by use of 2 intrauterine pressure (IUP) devices and quantified electromyographic (EMG) signals. ANIMALS: 5 cows during the first 48 hours after parturition. PROCEDURE: 2 EMG electrodes were implanted on the ...
Cleary-Goldman Jane - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Labor analgesia with the combined spinal epidural approach has been associated with maternal hypotension and fetal heart rate (FHR) changes. The purpose of this study was to estimate whether prophylactic intramuscular ephedrine before combined spinal epidural prevents these complications. METHODS: In a prospective double blind trial, 100 healthy patients ...
Merhi Zaher O - - 2005
Among the maneuvers that are used in the second stage of labor, uterine fundal pressure is one of the most controversial. The prevalence of its use is unknown. We reviewed the existing literature to assess whether there is justification for the use of fundal pressure in the contemporary management of ...
Figueroa Jorge P JP Center for Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. - - 2005
Epidemiologic studies have yielded controversial information regarding an association between antenatal steroid administration and elevations in arterial blood pressure (BP). The aim of the study was to determine whether antenatal administration of a clinically relevant dose of steroids at a time when fetal nephrogenesis is at its highest results in ...
Ebensperger Germán - - 2005
In this study we looked for additional evidence to support the hypothesis that fetal llama reacts to hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism. We determined fetal llama brain temperature, Na(+) and K(+) channel density and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, we looked to see whether there were signs of cell death in the ...
Anderson Cindy M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure on plasma leptin and placental leptin receptor expression in rats that develop hypertension in the third trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: The ovarian arteries and abdominal aortae of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were constricted ...
Bennet Laura - - 2005
This study examined the hypothesis that repeated episodes of brief but severe hypoxia would not attenuate the chemoreflex-mediated rapid initial fall in fetal heart rate (FHR) and, further, that greater hypoxic stress, as shown by hypotension and metabolic acidosis, would be associated with an enhanced chemoreflex response. Chronically instrumented, near-term ...
Woods Lori L - - 2005
Both maternal glucocorticoid administration and maternal dietary protein or food restriction in pregnancy cause fewer nephrons and hypertension in the adult offspring. The purpose of these studies was to determine the extent to which nutritional factors contribute to programming of offspring hypertension by maternal glucocorticoids. Pregnant rats were treated with ...
Robila Mihaela - - 2005
This study examined the interrelationships among economic pressure, maternal depression, social support, and marital conflict in a sample of 239 mothers in Romania. Data were collected through a school-based survey. Findings indicated that higher levels of economic pressure were associated with higher levels of marital conflict. Economic pressure was also ...
Parker Thomas A - - 2005
Mechanisms that maintain high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and oppose vasodilation in the fetal lung are poorly understood. In fetal lambs, increased pulmonary artery pressure evokes a potent vasoconstriction, suggesting that a myogenic response contributes to high PVR in the fetus. In adult systemic circulations, the arachidonic acid metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic ...
Ross Michael G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: An increased risk of adult hypertension, obesity, and coronary heart disease occurs in low birth weight or intrauterine growth-restricted newborn infants as a result of fetal programming. Human twins represent a natural model of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction because they are significantly smaller at birth than ...
Giussani Dino A - - 2005
In mammals, the mechanisms regulating an increase in fetal arterial blood pressure with advancing gestational age remain unidentified. In all species studied to date, the prepartum increase in fetal plasma cortisol has an important role in the maturation of physiological systems essential for neonatal survival. In the horse, the prepartum ...
Mota-Rojas Daniel - - 2005
Oxytocin is used to induce and control parturition, nevertheless, the increase of uterine contractions decreases blood flow and gaseous exchange through the womb predisposing to intra-partum mortality. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oxytocin on myometrial activity, fetal intrauterine hypoxia and postnatal asphyxia in ...
Welin Anna-Karin - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies show that analysis of the fetal electrocardiographic (FECG) ST waveform at term gives important information on the myocardial response to intrapartum asphyxia. However, it is not known whether the preterm fetus responds in a similar fashion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the FECGST ...
Quaedackers Josine S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a single course of maternally administered dexamethasone on preterm fetal sheep in utero. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING: University laboratory. SAMPLE: Pregnant sheep at 0.7 of gestation. METHODS: Pregnant ewes at 103 days of pregnancy (term = 147 days) were given two intramuscular ...
Heling K S - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of the lung area (on the contralateral side of the hernia) to the head circumference, the lung-to-head ratio (LHR), has been proposed as a reliable tool in the assessment of the prognosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). An LHR < 0.6 has been associated with poor outcome ...
Moss Timothy J M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of maternal or fetal injections of betamethasone on postnatal growth and arterial pressure. STUDY DESIGN: We measured body weight, arterial pressure, and heart rate serially in sheep born after single or repeated maternal or fetal betamethasone injections. At approximately 3.5 years, organ weights were measured. RESULTS: ...
Bajcsy Arpád Csaba - - 2005
A non-invasive, digital technique was used to measure and quantify intrauterine pressure (IUP) changes in early postpartum dairy cows kept under farm conditions in order to document physiological changes in uterine contractility after uncomplicated calvings. In addition, possible relationships between characteristics of uterine contractility and blood ionized calcium (Ca(2+))-concentrations were ...
Gerrits Luella C - - 2005
Moderate hypothermia is consistently neuroprotective after hypoxic-ischemic insults and is the subject of ongoing clinical trials. In pilot studies, we observed rebound seizure activity in one infant during rewarming from a 72-h period of hypothermia. We therefore quantified the development of EEG-defined seizures during rewarming in an experimental paradigm of ...
Anderson Cindy M - - 2005
Evidence continues to implicate reduced placental perfusion as the cause of preeclampsia, initiating a sequence of events leading to altered vascular function and hypertension. The present study was designed to determine the influence of reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) on the responsiveness of uterine arcuate resistance arteries. A condition of ...
Kaplan Peter W - - 2004
Eclampsia continues to be a significant cause of maternal and fetal death throughout the world. Neurologists have a specific role to play in the diagnosis and management of patients who have eclampsia, especially those who have recurrent seizures, raised intracranial pressure, and coma. Postpartum patients may be admitted to a ...
Chiang Gloria - - 2004
BACKGROUND: An elevated peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery, assessed by Doppler ultrasonography, is commonly associated with fetal anemia. Other fetal abnormalities associated with a high middle cerebral artery velocity have rarely been reported. CASE: A fetus with increasing ascites was found to have an elevated middle cerebral ...
Fletcher Andrew J W - - 2005
Structural and functional maturation of a number of fetal organs and physiological systems occurs in the immediate period prior to term, in association with the prepartum increase in fetal plasma cortisol concentration. At present, little is known about how myocardial sensitivity to adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation changes as the ...
Shi Lijun - - 2004
Previous fetal studies have indicated depressor responses of intravenous (i.v.) administration of angiotensin antagonists. However, little is known of central effects of angiotensin blockers on fetal cardiovascular controlling. The cardiovascular effects of central administration of the angiotensin-1 (AT(1)) and angiotensin-2 (AT(2)) receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, were investigated in the ...
Polglase Graeme R - - 2004
During fetal development, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, and, as a result, blood flow through the fetal lungs is low. Although PVR markedly decreases at the time of birth, the factors that regulate pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and PVR before and immediately after birth are not clear. Our aim ...
Sebire N.J. - - 2004
Failure of adequate trophoblastic conversion of maternal spiral arteries is associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In addition to poor oxygen delivery, raised spiral artery resistance reduces placental intervillous pressure. An iterative type computer model was formed by linking an existing model of the fetus and a new nine cotyledon ...
Lotgering Fred K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent a series of five 1-minute total umbilical cord occlusions, intended to induce ischemic preconditioning (IP), affects the physiologic responses to a 10-minute total umbilical cord occlusion (damaging insult [DI]) 1 hour later and provides cardio- and neuroprotection. METHODS: In 14 chronically catheterized late gestation ...
Schmidt M R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Fetal tachycardia often leads to cardiac failure, which in experimental settings can be prevented by direct fetal glucose-insulin administration. In this study, we hypothesize that similar effects can be obtained indirectly by inducing maternal hyperglycemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic indices (dP/dt(max) and tau) of left ventricular function ...
Neri I - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The present report evaluates the effect of acute L-arginine administration on fetal heart variables by a computerized non-stress test (NST) analysis. METHODS: Fifteen pregnant women at 30-34 weeks of gestational age affected by mild to moderate gestational hypertension were enrolled in the study. The study was performed in the ...
Li Xiaotian - - 2004
OBJECTS: Fetal heart rate variability (HRV) is subject to a number of factors, including fetal distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the power spectral distribution of fetal heart rate variability during acute hypoxemia following umbilical artery embolism and to test the hypothesis that the relative proportion of ...
Pardi Giorgio - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fetal-maternal temperature relationship and fetal cardiovascular and metabolic response during maternal hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnant ewes. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted in 9 pregnant ewes, reaching 2 different levels of maternal hypothermia: 24 degrees C to 20 degrees C (deep hypothermia) in group A (5 cases) ...
Olsen L H - - 2004
PURPOSE: We assessed the development of natural voiding function late in gestation and in the immediate postnatal period in a porcine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 7 male fetal minipigs (median age 94 days, 0.88 gestation) and 7 male newborn pigs. In all pigs an ultrasonic probe was ...
Leung Tak Yeung - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To correlate the applied pressure during external cephalic version with the changes in fetal middle cerebral arterial and umbilical arterial flow before and after the procedure. DESIGN: A prospective observational study over a two-year period. SETTING: External cephalic version was performed in a university hospital. POPULATION: Sixty-nine women with ...
Maul H - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to investigate whether the strength of uterine contractions monitored invasively by intrauterine pressure catheter could be determined from transabdominal electromyography (EMG) and to estimate whether EMG is a better predictor of true labor compared to tocodynamometry (TOCO). STUDY DESIGN: Uterine EMG was recorded from the ...
Kwong W Y - - 2004
In response to a recent paper published in Reproductive BioMedicine Online by Walters and Edwards (2003), this study reports the application of a random effects regression analysis for evaluation of integrated data involving maternal and embryo/offspring components. Using this method, it is possible to confirm the conclusions of an earlier ...
Kissler Stefan - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Uterine peristalsis sustains sperm transport and can be detected by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG). This study is the first to be designed to investigate utero-tubal transport function by HSSG and uterine contractility by intrauterine pressure measurement (IUP) consecutively on the same day in the periovulatory phase. METHODS: Twenty-one female subjects (mean ...
Benoussaidh Anissa - - 2004
The rat uterus receives an innervation from the lumbosacral and thoracolumbar segments of the spinal cord. These segments receive descending oxytocinergic projections from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We tested the hypothesis that oxytocin regulates uterine motility through a spinal site of action. Oxytocin was administered in anesthetized female ...
Chellman Gary J - - 2004
A telemetric-based model is presented for evaluation of uterine contractions and preterm labor (PTL) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. The model allows continuous monitoring of electromyography (EMG) and intrauterine pressure (IUP) as indicators of uterine activity. A pressure sensor was implanted into the amnion of pregnant monkeys on gestational day (GD) ...
Smith Richard P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical stimulation is stressful to the ovine fetus, as judged from physiologic changes that are similar to those reported for other stressors (such as hypoxia); whether any stress response could be blocked by clinically used doses of fentanyl; and whether ...
Gopalakrishnan G S - - 2004
The prenatal nutritional environment influences the subsequent risk of hypertension in adulthood. Animal studies have used, generally, the rat as a model species to illustrate the association between maternal nutrient intake and blood pressure in the resulting adult offspring. No study to date has shown programming of adult cardiovascular function ...
Thiruchelvam N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fetal cystometric studies by radiotelemetry are feasible in the fetal lamb, and potentially suitable for chronically monitoring fetal bladder pressures in an experimental fetal model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), as in utero BOO (e.g. caused by posterior urethral valves) results in significant postnatal bladder dysfunction ...
Vinkesteijn A S M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To study the power spectrum distribution of heart rate and umbilical artery flow velocity variability in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency thickness (NT). METHODS: Doppler velocity waveforms were collected from long-lasting (>20 s) umbilical artery recordings in 18 fetuses with increased NT (>3 mm) and 18 normal controls matched ...
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