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Results 201 - 250 of 2038
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Humphreys Benjamin D - - 2009
Blood pressure elevation is likely a pharmacodynamic marker of VEGF signaling pathway (VSP) inhibition and could be useful for optimizing safe and effective VSP inhibitor dosing. Blood pressure rises on the first day of treatment, facilitating design and interpretation of future trials aiming to correlate blood pressure changes with clinical ...
Koschack Janka - - 2010
In cases of insufficiently controlled blood pressure, it is important for practitioners to distinguish between "nonadherence" and "nonresponse" to antihypertensive drug treatment. A reliable and valid adherence measurement based on the patient's self-report may be helpful in daily practice. In a primary care sample with 353 hypertensive patients, we applied ...
Ike S O - - 2010
Hypertension remains the most rapidly rising cardiovascular disease in Africa. This study was designed to evaluate the perception, knowledge and practices of Nigerian hypertensive patients regarding hypertension and lifestyle modification measures. Consecutive hypertensive patients attending the cardiac clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, were recruited. A ...
Maione Ausilia - - 2009
This narrative review focuses on outcomes related to proteinuria in hypertension (HT), and also examines the role of current and future therapeutic strategies. Proteinuria is an independent marker of renal and cardiovascular (CV) disease in hypertensive populations, particularly in high-risk groups such as diabetic patients. Effective blood pressure (BP) control ...
Sica Domenic A - - 2009
Diuretic therapy remains a mainstay of hypertension treatment, either given as monotherapy or used in combination with other antihypertensive compounds. Several issues have complicated the issue of diuretic use with that of class effect being the one that has proven most difficult. Hydrochlorothiazide is a commonly used thiazide diuretic; whereas ...
Moreira Gisela C - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a highly prevalent disease worldwide, constituting one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to evaluate the level of awareness and control of hypertension comparing sex, socioeconomic and educational level, BMI and drug therapy in over 40-year-old patients. ...
Segura Julian - - 2009
This review focuses on the need for combined antihypertensive therapy drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease and the relevance of diuretics. Chronic kidney disease is a high-risk situation characterized by the presence of volume overload-related hypertension, micro/macroalbuminuria and other traditional and nontraditional risk factors. To achieve the blood pressure ...
Basile Jan J Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29401, USA. - - 2009
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for one of every three deaths in the United States. In recent years, a greater understanding of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system's (RAAS) contribution to CVD, particularly in the area of blood pressure regulation, has emerged. Thus, interrupting or blocking the RAAS has become a key component in ...
Goswami Puja P Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, - - 2009
Several studies have identified the presence of altered diurnal blood pressure patterns, specifically elevated nighttime blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease. The lack of nocturnal decline in blood pressure is associated with markers of hypertensive target organ damage and predictive of long-term clinical outcomes. The purpose of this ...
Abraham Ivo - - 2010
Achieving guideline-recommended blood pressure targets is difficult in older adults with hypertension. We completed a subgroup analysis of patients 65 years of age or older enrolled in PREVIEW, a prospective, multicenter, pharmacoepidemiological study of the determinants and outcomes of second-line antihypertensive treatment with valsartan in Belgium. Multilevel modeling was used ...
Ishimitsu Toshihiko - - 2009
To achieve the target blood pressure recommended by the latest guidelines, multiple antihypertensive drugs are needed in most patients. In this study, the efficacy of treatment using an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or a diuretic was compared from multiple perspectives in patients ...
Pilz Stefan - - 2009
Vitamin D deficiency is common and is primarily caused by a lack of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation from reduced sun exposure, and the consequent limiting of vitamin D production in the skin. The vitamin D endocrine system regulates about 3% of the human genome. Observational data support the concept that vitamin ...
Rhoney Denise - - 2009
PURPOSE: Intravenous antihypertensive agents for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are reviewed. SUMMARY: An estimated 500,000 people in the United States experience a hypertensive crisis annually. Hypertensive emergency is associated with significant morbidity in the form of end-organ damage. Rapid controlled reduction of blood pressure (BP) may be necessary to ...
Escobar Carlos - - 2010
The majority of patients with hypertension need at least two antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) objectives. As current European guidelines for the treatment of arterial hypertension recommend, combined therapy is required when monotherapy fails and as a first-line treatment in certain situations, such as subjects at high or ...
Redon Josep - - 2009
A range of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) is available, and analyses suggest there are differences between agents in terms of antihypertensive efficacy and 24-hour blood pressure control.This review assesses the data comparing olmesartan with other ARBs in terms of blood pressure reductions, goal achievement, 24-hour control and speed of ...
De Gaudio A R - - 2009
Arterial hypertension is a very common condition. Cerebral, coronary and renal vessels are mainly affected by the deleterious effect of this condition, and both acute and chronic organ failure may ensue. Exacerbation of underlying pathophysiologic conditions or new precipitating factors can lead to hypertensive crisis, either urgencies or emergencies. During ...
Turner Barbara J - - 2009
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of antihypertensive adherence on blood pressure and barriers to adherence in racially diverse elderly patients. METHODS: Telephone survey of a representative sample of 300 of all 3416 hypertensive patients aged >70 from four urban primary care practices. From electronic records, we calculated subjects' annual mean ...
Stepien Mariusz - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Statins are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The beneficial clinical impact of statins on the cardiovascular system results not only from their lipid-lowering action but also from other effects. Recently, it has been suggested that statins can reduce blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients. AIM: ...
Ram C Venkata S - - 2009
Hypertension is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is present in most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypertension is largely responsible for premature cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients. The pathophysiology of hypertension in ESRD is complex, and multiple mechanisms are likely involved in blood pressure dysregulation ...
Burnier Michel - - 2009
In all actual clinical guidelines, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) belong to the recommended first line antihypertensive drugs to treat essential hypertension. Several recent large clinical trials have confirmed their efficacy not only in lowering blood pressure but also in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with a ...
McEniery Carmel M - - 2009
Recent evidence suggests that central blood pressure is a more important determinant of cardiovascular risk than brachial pressure. Interestingly, antihypertensive drugs exert different effects on brachial and central pressure. Traditional beta-blockers, such as atenolol, appear to have an adverse impact on central pressure, despite lowering brachial pressure. This may help ...
Rhoney Denise - - 2009
PURPOSE: Intravenous antihypertensive agents for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are reviewed. SUMMARY: An estimated 500,000 people in the United States experience a hypertensive crisis annually. Hypertensive emergency is associated with significant morbidity in the form of end-organ damage. Rapid controlled reduction of blood pressure (BP) may be necessary to ...
Arnett Donna K DK University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 55294-0022, USA. - - 2009
Hypertension is a common condition associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the USA only approximately a third of those who are aware of their hypertensive status successfully control their blood pressure. One reason for this is the unpredictable response individuals have to treatment. Clinicians must often rely on ...
Beune E J A J - - 2010
Regular physical activity (PA) can reduce blood pressure, but hypertensive patients in ethnic minority populations are often inactive. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore inhibitors and enablers of PA from the perspective of hypertensive Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and White-Dutch patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In-depth individual interviews with ...
Worster Andrew A Division of Emergency Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2009
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a poorly understood condition with devastating results. Despite the personal and social impact of ICH, modern medicine can offer little hope. Surgery is the longest-standing therapy, but with no demonstrated evidence of positive effect. Reduction of the early hypertension seen with ICH is believed to limit ...
Cicero Arrigo F G - - 2009
Omega-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least a part of this protective effect is mediated by a relatively ...
Kenyon Kenneth W - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To review the safety, efficacy, and pharmacologic characteristics of clevidipine, a new ultra short-acting intravenous antihypertensive agent for the treatment of moderate-to-severe hypertension. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE (1966-March 2009), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-March 2009), and EMBASE (1988-March 2009) using the search terms clevidipine, H324/38, ...
Balu Sanjeev - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Insufficient research about the economic impact of noncompliance with hypertension treatment guidelines has been published to date. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to estimate the following: (1) the prevalence of hypertension in the United States; (2) the proportion of US patients with hypertension who are appropriately and ...
Kennedy Tara J T - - 2009
CONTEXT: Medical trainees demonstrate a reluctance to ask for help unless they believe it is absolutely necessary, a situation which could impact on the safety of patients. This study aimed to develop a theoretical exploration of the pressure on medical trainees to be independent and to generate theory-based approaches to ...
Weber Michael M Division of Cardiology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2009
The benefits of blood pressure control on the risks of major cardiovascular events are well established. In clinical trials conducted in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan has been shown to provide reduction of blood pressure throughout the 24-h dosing interval. Clinical trials have also ...
Fulop Tibor T Internal Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United - - 2009
C-reactive protein is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on C-reactive protein levels is largely unknown. We undertook a cross-sectional study of CRP levels among participants with primary hypertension on single-agent anti-hypertensive therapy in the community-based biracial Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy cohort. Linear regression ...
Simko Fedor - - 2009
The number of well-controlled hypertensives is unacceptably low worldwide. Respecting the circadian variation of blood pressure, nontraditional antihypertensives, and treatment in early stages of hypertension are potential ways to improve hypertension therapy. First, prominent variations in circadian rhythm are characteristic for blood pressure. The revolutionary MAPEC (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring ...
Keating Gillian M - - 2009
Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) [Hyzaar(R)] is a fixed-dose combination of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) losartan and the thiazide diuretic HCTZ. It is indicated for the treatment of hypertension (including as initial therapy in severe hypertension) and for stroke risk reduction in patients with hypertension and left ventricular ...
Thom Simon - - 2009
Changes in the retinal microcirculation are associated with hypertension and predict cardiovascular mortality. There are few data describing the impact of antihypertensive therapy on retinal vascular changes. This substudy of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial compared the effects of an amlodipine-based regimen (373 patients) with an atenolol-based regimen (347 patients) ...
Sano Edson E - - 2010
The Brazilian tropical savanna (Cerrado), encompassing more than 204 million hectares in the central part of the country, is the second richest biome in Brazil in terms of biodiversity and presents high land use pressure. The objective of this study was to map the land cover of the Cerrado biome ...
de la Sierra Alejandro - - 2009
Clinical practice guidelines on the management of hypertension such as the 2007 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines were developed with the objective of allowing a greater number of patients with high blood pressure to be detected and effectively treated. The acceptance of hypertension guidelines and ...
Studer Quint - - 2009
A disconnect often exists between the way external pressures are viewed by senior leaders and middle managers. This disconnect creates a situation where the organization may have difficulty moving quickly in the face of change or responding appropriately to the external environment. Senior leaders can improve performance through efforts aimed ...
Epstein Benjamin J - - 2009
The endothelin system is a pivotal player along the continuum of cardiovascular disease. There is convincing evidence that the system not only exerts a potent pressor effect but also promotes end-organ damage independent from blood pressure changes. The role of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) in the treatment of hypertension is ...
Williams Bryan - - 2009
Hypertension is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and its treatment is a major focus of primary and secondary disease prevention strategies. The treatment of hypertension continues to evolve and the need for guidance on the use of newer screening tools, techniques for blood pressure ...
Fuchs Flávio Danni - - 2009
According to most current international guidelines for hypertension, diuretics are indicated for elderly and black patients, unless they have any of a long list of other preferential indications. These recommendations are mostly based on the results of corporate-sponsored and biased trials, which have unsuccessfully tried to demonstrate the existence of ...
Chalmers John - - 2009
Deciding who to treat should be based on estimation of the total cardiovascular risk, not just the blood pressure (BP), so that patients with established cardiovascular disease or at high risk of cardiovascular disease should have their BP lowered even though it may be in the "normal range". Drug treatment ...
Vij Rajiv - - 2009
Nocturnal hypertension is a common complication of essential and secondary hypertension. Abnormal circadian blood pressure patterns associated with elevated sleep blood pressure include nondipping and reverse dipping, both of which are associated with increased target-organ damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Nocturnal hypertension can be treated with several approaches that include ...
Cai Yiqiang - - 2009
The cytochrome P450-derived 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) has known function that plays opposite roles in blood pressure: prohypertensive and antihypertensive. Liu et al. report that the CYP4F2 transgene, driven under an exogenous promoter, increases 20-HETE production and is associated with increased blood pressure in vivo. This study provides evidence for the ...
Waeber Bernard - - 2009
The early detection of cardiac organ damage in clinical practice is primordial for cardiovascular risk profiling of patients with hypertension. In this respect the determination of microalbuminuria is very appealing because it increasingly appears to be the most cost-effective means to identify cardiovascular and renal complications. Considering the treatment of ...
Karaeren Hayrettin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: It was suggested that knowledge might influence the adherence to treatment in hypertension. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of content of knowledge on medication adherence and knowledge-based predictors of adherence to treatment in hypertensive patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 227 hypertensive patients (70% female;mean age: ...
Peacock W Frank - - 2009
Clevidipine is a new calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine class that is characterized by its ultra-short onset of action, vascular selectivity, small volume of distribution and extremely high clearance that coupled together result in an extremely short half-life of approximately 1 minute therefore permitting a rapid titration to the ...
Karnes Jason H JH Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, PO Box 100486, Gainesville, FL 32610-0486, - - 2009
Blood pressure reduction is associated with significant reduction in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Certain blood pressure-lowering drugs have adverse effects on glucose homeostasis, and have been associated with the development of both prediabetes and diabetes during use. There is controversy over the significance of diabetes that develops during treatment with antihypertensives ...
Viera Anthony J - - 2009
High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure that is apparently difficult to control begins with an ...
Elijovich Fernando - - 2009
Hypertension remains the most prevalent chronic disease in the world, and its adequate treatment results in predictable reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, most hypertensive subjects do not achieve goal blood pressure despite availability of multiple antihypertensive agents with various pharmacological mechanisms of action and relatively few side effects. ...
Pandit Anjali U - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether literacy mediates the association between education, hypertension knowledge and control. METHODS: In-person interviews with a literacy assessment and chart review were conducted with 330 hypertensive patients from six primary care safety net clinics. Mediational analysis was used to test the role of literacy skills in explaining ...
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