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Weir Matthew R - - 2009
Are all beta-blockers alike? This is an important question with the recent controversy surrounding their role as a first-line treatment of hypertension. This class of drugs is heterogeneous. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS)--the presumed main target of beta-blocker activity--is one of the central pathways in the pathophysiology of hypertension, both ...
Bakris George - - 2009
Sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads not only to elevated blood pressure but also to vascular remodeling, microvascular complications, and target organ damage. Although beta-blocking agents, which act directly on the adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, have been used in the treatment of hypertension for almost ...
Papageorgiou Peter C - - 2009
Human 'new pressor protein' (NPP), related to coagulation beta-factor XIIa (beta-FXIIa), potently releases sympathoadrenal catecholamines in bioassay rats, with concurrent elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and heart rate (HR). Elevated plasma NPP/beta-FXIIa levels in hypertensive anephric pediatric patients on hemodialysis associated with fluid status and blood pressure ...
Koudas Vassilis - - 2009
RATIONALE: The human pupil may be a suitable physiological test system for the assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), but pupillometric assessment could be confounded by medication for comorbid hypertension and mood disorders. OBJECTIVES: We examined the profile of the 5HT-2/alpha1/H1 antagonist ketanserin, the 5HT1a agonist buspirone and the beta ...
Cheng Judy W M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Nebivolol is a third-generation beta(1)-selective beta-blocker that is approved for the treatment of hypertension. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the clinical pharmacology of nebivolol and its efficacy and safety profile in clinical studies of hypertension (the US Food and Drug Administration-approved indication) and heart failure (off-label use). METHODS: Pertinent articles ...
Davidsen Einar Skulstad - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: We recently demonstrated reduced exercise capacity in phlebotomy treated genetic haemochromatosis in spite of normal systolic function. The present objective was to investigate diastolic function at rest. DESIGN: Diastolic function was echocardiographically assessed in 132 phlebotomy treated genetic haemochromatosis patients and 50 controls. RESULTS: Patients had higher body mass ...
Baid Smita K - - 2009
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is useful for localizing pheochromocytoma. However, in patients with suspected pheochromocytoma, CT is often canceled or not performed because of the strong belief that intravenous contrast may induce hypertensive crisis. To examine whether intravenous low-osmolar contrast administration during CT induces catecholamine release that increases blood pressure ...
Bhatia Jagdish - - 2009
A prospective study to evaluate the effect of 10% Phenylephrine eye drops on systemic blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive patients. The sample comprised of 55 normotensive patients and 34 hypertensive patients were subjected to 10% Phenylephrine eye drops during routine eye examination. No statistically and clinically significant increase in ...
- - 2009
In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series.PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: an evidence based analysisThe cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ...
- - 2009
In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series.PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: an evidence based analysisThe cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ...
Tabet Rania - - 2008
Prostaglandin analogs are currently the first-line agents in the medical treatment of glaucoma. Frequently, more than one drug is needed to control intraocular pressure. Beta-blockers, topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and alpha-adrenergic agonists are commonly used in addition to prostaglandin analogs. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are more effective in lowering intraocular ...
Kawasaki Takashi - - 2008
The transparent bodies of see-through medaka fish has led to their use as models for in vivo cell and tissue imaging. However, these fish may also prove useful as models for pathological processes. Accumulating reports show that pathology in fish is similar to that in mammals, including humans. In this ...
Bijl M J - - 2009
Several beta-blockers are metabolized by the polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). CYP2D6*4 is the main polymorphism leading to decreased enzyme activity. The clinical significance of impaired elimination of beta-blockers is controversial, and most studies suffer from inclusion of small numbers of poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2D6. In this study, ...
Jo Yusuke - - 2008
We have reported that serum C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation is an independent predictor of lung oxygenation impairment (LOI) after distal type acute aortic dissection (AAD). Systemic activation of the inflammatory system after aortic injury may play a role in the development of LOI. The aim of this study is to ...
Delaney Erin P - - 2008
Hypertensive (HTN) animal models demonstrate lower venous compliance as well as increased venous tone and responsiveness compared with normotensive (NTN) controls. However, the extent to which findings in experimental animals can be extended to humans is unknown. Forearm and calf venous compliance were quantified in 9 NTN (23 +/- 1 ...
Chicón R - - 2008
Cows' milk allergy is the most frequent food allergy in children, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) is a major allergen. Milk-based hypoallergenic ingredients are manufactured by enzymatic hydrolysis, a process that could be improved by the application of high-pressure treatments. This study showed that the treatment of beta-Lg dissolved in buffer with ...
Coenen V A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Reversible changes in subthalamic nucleus (STN) activity, detected by microelectrode recording (MER), are reported in three patients who received an intravenous betablocker, metoprolol, during deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Metoprolol (MP) was given intravenously to reduce blood pressure during surgery. Systolic blood pressure dropped by ...
Harvey Martyn G - - 2008
Recent case reports of successful amelioration of lipid-soluble drug toxidromes with Intralipid infusion have prompted interest in the scope of lipid emulsions as antidotal therapy. Propranolol is a highly lipid-soluble, nonselective beta-blocker with additional local-anaesthetic properties. We explored the hypothesis that propranolol toxicity may be similarly attenuated by Intralipid infusion ...
Shah Sanjiv J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although the fourth heart sound (S4) is thought to be associated with a stiff left ventricle, this association has never been proven. Recently, single-beat estimation of the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR) has been characterized (P = alphaV(beta)), allowing the estimation of EDPVR in larger groups of patients. We ...
Jawa Ali - - 2008
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVE) that may be attenuated by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), unless microalbuminuria persists (PMA). African-Americans (AA) have a higher prevalence of nephropathy with suboptimal response to ACEIs. We studied the effects of beta-blockers addition ...
Mahmud Azra - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting information with regard to the effect of beta-blockers on arterial stiffness and wave reflection. We compared a vasodilating beta-blocker, nebivolol, with atenolol. METHODS: We randomized 40 subjects with untreated hypertension (mean +/- s.e.m. systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 160 +/- 3/98 +/- 1 mm Hg, age ...
Wojciechowski David - - 2008
Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor but most patients remain asymptomatic for many years. Successful therapy not only needs to be effective, it also needs to be well tolerated. beta-blockers are well established as effective antihypertensive agents. However, one major drawback to the currently available beta-blockers, particularly the noncardioselective ...
Kabutoya Tomoyuki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recently, it was reported that high pulse rate (PR), which was measured using by self-measured blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, was associated with cardiovascular risk. However, the predictor of high PR at home in treated hypertensives is unknown. In this study, we studied the predictor of high PR ...
Grauby-Heywang Christine - - 2008
The interaction of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with different lipids has been studied, using Langmuir monolayers kept at constant surface pressure or constant spreading surface. Results show that beta-CD, injected beneath the monolayer, is able to desorb unsaturated palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) under specific experimental conditions. In this last case, SM ...
Segal Scott - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Changes in maternal catecholamines that accompany the onset of labor analgesia include a decrease in epinephrine (EPI) but no change in norepinephrine (NE). Because EPI exerts predominantly beta-adrenergic, and NE predominantly alpha-adrenergic effects in circulating concentrations, we hypothesized that these changes could lead to uterine arteriole vasoconstriction. METHODS: Uterine ...
Karimi Mehran - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: In this research, we sought to determine the association between beta-thalassemia trait and ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA). METHODS: In acase-control study, 148 patients with thromboembolic cerebrovascular events were evaluated for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and beta-thalassemia trait. A total of 156 age- and sex-matched patients with ...
Lujan Heidi L - - 2008
We recently documented sex differences in the susceptibility to reperfusion-induced sustained ventricular tachycardia and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in conscious rats. However, the effect of sex on ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade is under-investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that gonadal hormones influence the ventricular arrhythmia threshold (VAT) induced ...
Masoli Osvaldo - - 2008
This aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypertension and to determine the usefulness of nebivolol, a selective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, as a potential treatment for endothelial dysfunction. Of 176 patients with stage I hypertension, 36 patients (20%), the majority of ...
Mierzwa M - - 2008
The primary alpha and the secondary Johari-Goldstein (JG) beta relaxations of supercooled glass-forming neat epoxy resin and 2-picoline in mixture with tristyrene are monitored by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy at ambient pressure and elevated pressures. For different combinations of pressure and temperature that maintain the alpha-relaxation time constant, the frequency ...
de Nigris Filomena - - 2008
Nebivolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker (BB) currently used for the treatment of hypertension. It has mild vasodilating properties attributed to its interaction with the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway, a property not shared by other BBs. Carvedilol is a nonselective ss-adrenergic receptor antagonist that also blocks alpha1-adrenergic receptors and is a potent ...
Kiriazis H - - 2008
The role of beta-adrenoceptors in heart disease remains controversial. Although beta-blockers ameliorate the progression of heart disease, the mechanism remains undefined. We investigated the effect of beta-adrenoceptors on cardiac hypertrophic growth using beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoreceptor knockout and wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were subjected to aortic banding or sham surgery, and ...
Savoia Carmine C Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2008
Some antihypertensive agents may improve resistance artery remodeling in hypertensive patients whereas other agents may not, for similar blood pressure reduction. We questioned whether the selective mineralocorticoid receptor blocker eplerenone improves resistance artery remodeling in hypertensive patients versus the beta-blocker atenolol. Sixteen hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to double-blind daily ...
Lakkireddy Dhanunjaya - - 2008
We retrospectively evaluated perfusion defect presence, extent, and severity in 158 consecutive patients receiving beta blockers, who underwent adenosine single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary angiography. Seventy-six patients (group 1) had their beta blockers withdrawn 48 hours prior to testing, and 82 patients (group 2) remained ...
Ma?yszko Jolanta - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is associated with hemostatic abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction. thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a glycoprotein linking coagulation and fibrinolysis. Objectives. We evaluated TAFI concentrations in patients with essential hypertension in relation to blood pressure. Additionally, we studied TAFI activator, thrombin activity (thrombin-antithrombin complexes--TAT, prothrombin fragments F1 + ...
Ignarro Louis J - - 2008
Nebivolol is a racemic combination of d-nebivolol (+SRRR nebivolol) and l-nebivolol (-RSSS nebivolol) that differs chemically from other beta-blockers, with an absolutely symmetrical configuration developing from a central nitrogen atom. D-nebivolol and l-nebivolol divaricate pharmacologically and therapeutically, with a noticeably different profile from that of conventional beta-blockers; for instance, the ...
Owczarek Jacek - - 2008
Beta-blockers are widely used in clinical practice. It is connected with their multiple cardiac effects: slowing heart rate, decrease of myocardial contractility and lowering of systemic blood pressure. Early use of beta-blocker in acute myocardial infarction reduces the risks of reinfarction and ventricular fibrillation. However, the above effects may be ...
Bakris George L - - 2008
Few patients with hypertension meet recommended target blood pressure goals, and most hypertensive patients require at least 2 antihypertensive medications from different pharmacologic classes to adequately lower blood pressure. beta-Blockers are guideline-recommended for the treatment of hypertension with compelling indications. beta-Blockers differ with respect to pharmacology (particularly receptor biology and ...
Stafylas Panagiotis C - - 2008
Although beta-blockers have been previously shown to effectively reduce blood pressure (BP) and have been used for hypertension treatment for over 40 years, their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients remains controversial and its use in uncomplicated hypertension is currently under debate. However, data on the above ...
Prisant L Michael - - 2008
Beta-blockers are well-established therapeutic agents in the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, these agents are highly heterogeneous. Beta-blockers differ in their ancillary pharmacologic properties, which are clinically important. Nebivolol is a highly selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor blocker that induces vasodilation through stimulation of the endothelial nitric oxide/L-arginine pathway. As ...
Chen Wei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nervous activity, which is regulated by the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR), is an important determinant of the arterial wall-stiffening process. This study examines the genetic influence of beta-AR gene polymorphisms (beta(1)-AR Arg389Gly, beta(2)-AR Arg16Gly, and beta(3)-AR Trp64Arg) on arterial stiffness in black and white young adults. METHODS: The study ...
Takaki Akira - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Beta is an index of arterial stiffness independent of blood pressure. Beta of the thoracic descending aorta (TDA) has been obtained by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new noninvasive estimation of beta. METHODS AND RESULTS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ...
Bangalore Sripal - - 2007
Traditionally, beta-blockers, used as first-line agents to treat uncomplicated hypertension, were recommended by national and international guidelines despite a paucity of evidence regarding their cardiovascular benefit. However, evidence from recent trials and meta-analyses has questioned the use of beta-blockers as preferred agents. This article reviews the data available from clinical ...
Wu Akira - - 2007
Beta-blockers have long being used as first-line therapy for hypertension as their use had resulted in a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in controlled clinical trials. A recent meta-analysis comparing beta-blockers to all other anti-hypertensive drugs taken together has found that stroke reduction was sub-optimal. Specifically, atenolol was associated ...
Caeiro Ximena - - 2008
Considerable evidence has been gathered involving the endogenous opioid system in blood pressure regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of administering beta-Endorphin into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and whether this administration was capable of modulating the pressor response ...
McConville Patrick - - 2007
Differences in energy metabolism during beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) stimulation have been shown to translate to differences in the elicited functional responses. It has been suggested that differential access to glycogen during beta(1)- compared with beta(2)-AR stimulation may influence the peak functional response and modulation of the response during ...
Butkovskaya Nadezhda - - 2007
A high-pressure turbulent flow reactor coupled with a chemical ionization mass-spectrometer was used to determine the branching ratio of the HO(2) + NO reaction: HO(2) + NO --> OH + NO(2) (1a), HO(2) + NO --> HNO(3) (1b). The branching ratio, beta = k(1b)/k(1a), was derived from the measurements of ...
Jaber Wissam A - - 2007
Understanding diastolic function mandates feasible and accurate methods to construct and compare the diastolic pressure (P)-volume (V) relationship (PVR). This study compared the relaxation-corrected single beat (RC-SB) to the multiple-beat (MB) (vena cava occlusion) method for constructing the diastolic PVR in 26 young normal or old hypertensive dogs before and ...
Ablad Bengt - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study whether and how a lipophilic and a hydrophilic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist affects ventricular fibrillation (VF) after coronary artery occlusion in a rabbit model with high sympathetic and low cardiac vagal activation. DESIGN: Rabbits were treated for 3 weeks (series 1) or 2 hours (series 2) with metoprolol, atenolol ...
Barbier J - - 2007
1. beta(3)-Adrenoceptors (AR) have been reported to be present in numerous species, where they mediate multiple responses. 2. The aim of the present study was to determine whether beta(3)-AR are present in intact rat heart and the functional implications of beta(3)-AR stimulation. The response to the cardiac beta(3)-AR-selective agonist BRL37344 ...
Pedersen Michala E - - 2007
Although well established in treating hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) disease, clinical trial data suggest that beta-blockers (eg, atenolol) may be less effective than other antihypertensive classes in reducing stroke and CV mortality despite similar blood pressure (BP) reductions. One possible explanation is that atenolol is less effective in reducing central ...
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