Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1787
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Hawken E R - - 2001
To date, there have been no reports on the use of propranolol in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced migraine; we describe a 32-year-old woman who was successfully treated with propranolol for this condition. Over a course of ECT, the patient developed increasingly severe migraine which was refractory to treatment with acetaminophen, codeine, ...
Veglio F - - 2001
Hypertension is a condition where adrenergic responsiveness, sympathetic activity and adrenoceptors are somewhat altered. Many techniques are available to assess human sympathetic nervous system activity. They each present limitations and disadvantages. Characterization and subdivision of the alpha and beta-adrenoceptors, according to their localization and answer to different agonists, was facilitated ...
Hart S M - - 2000
To briefly discuss the pathophysiology of heart failure and the rationale for the use of beta-blockers in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Key morbidity reduction trials are briefly mentioned, and recent mortality reduction trials are reviewed. General recommendations regarding the use of beta-blockers in heart failure are also included ...
Mortara A - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to investigate in a case-controlled study whether carvedilol increased baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability (HRV). In chronic heart failure (CHF), beta-adrenergic blockade improves symptoms and ventricular function and may favorably affect prognosis. Although beta-blockade therapy is supposed to decrease myocardial adrenergic activity, data ...
Laviades C - - 2000
We investigated whether a relationship exists between circulating transforming growth factor beta -1 (TGF-beta(1)), collagen type I metabolism, microalbuminuria, and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension and whether the ability of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan to correct microalbuminuria and regress left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensives is ...
Takeda H - - 2000
In the present study, the beta-adrenoceptor subtypes distributed in the detrusor of the ferret were investigated in functional experiments in vitro and in vivo using a variety of beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. All the beta-adrenoceptor agonists tested relaxed the isolated detrusor strip, the rank order of potency being (+/-)-(R*, R*)-[4-[2-[[2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-amino]propyl]phenoxy]- ...
Wang T - - 2000
The cardiovascular actions of python bradykinin (BK) and substance P (SP) have been investigated in the anesthetized ball python, Python regius. Bolus intra-arterial injections of python BK (0.03-3 nmol/kg) produced concentration-dependent increases in arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and cardiac output concomitant with small decreases in systemic resistance and ...
Witte K - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic heart failure frequently show blunted circadian blood pressure profiles. The mechanisms involved in the loss of physiological day-night variation are still unclear, but a continuously active sympathetic nervous system could play a role. The present study evaluated long-term consequences of rat heart failure on cardiovascular circadian ...
Cameron O G - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Increases in adrenergic activity are associated with stress, anxiety, and other psychiatric, neurological, and medical disorders. To improve understanding of normal CNS adrenergic function, CBF responses to adrenergic stimulation were determined. METHODS: Using PET, the CBF changes after intravenous yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoreceptor antagonist that produces adrenergic activation, were compared ...
Witchitz S - - 2000
Treatment with beta blockers results in improvement in functional status, and reduces mortality in patients with heart failure. A number of differences in the results noted could be due to additional properties of the specific beta blockers studied: absence of cardioselectivity, and existence of a vasodilator effect and of an ...
Antic V - - 2000
We have previously reported that weight gain induced by high-fat diet (HFD) leads to an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP, +14%) and heart rate (HR, +31%) in the adult rabbit. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system may contribute ...
Tsao D A - - 2000
Lead exposure is considered to be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. To investigate the relationship between lead and cardiovascular disease/hypertension in lead exposure, beta-adrenergic system is explored in this study. We address three topics in this study: (a) the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor and lead level in heart, aorta, ...
Reddy P L - - 2000
Hemoglobin H (HbH) is a tetramer of four beta chains (present in erythrocytes of alpha thalassemia), whereas hemoglobin A is a tetramer of two alpha and two beta chains. Since HbH is known to bind four times more nitric oxide (a vasodilator) at its sulfhydryls compared to HbA, the present ...
Xu B - - 2000
Some studies suggest that beta-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation is in part mediated through nitric oxide (NO) release. We wished to determine the contribution of the L-arginine / NO system to vasodilatation in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoprenaline or cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) elevation with forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in vivo, ...
Nagatsu M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: It is clear that beta-blockers are effective for treatment of congestive heart failure, but their mechanism of action remains controversial. Hypothesized mechanisms include normalization of beta-receptor function and myocardial protection from the effects of catecholamines, possibly by the institution of bradycardia. We hypothesized that beta-blockade-induced bradycardia was an important ...
Anthonio R L - - 2000
In the present study, predictors of complicated initiation of beta blockade in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was studied. We found that generally accepted measures of severity of heart failure are not predictable, whereas low systolic blood pressure (< or =120 mm Hg) was the strongest predictor for problematic (up)titration.
Zhang Y C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: beta-Blockers are the first line of therapy for hypertension. However, they are associated with side effects because of central nervous system (CNS) effects and beta(2)-adrenergic antagonism. To overcome these problems and provide a long-term beta(1)-blockade, antisense oligonucleotides against rat beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)-AR) mRNA (beta(1)-AS-ODN) were designed and tested for ...
Brock G - - 2000
Vasomax is an oral preparation of phentolamine mesilate (Zonagen Pharmaceuticals) currently undergoing worldwide regulatory approval for distribution. Phentolamine is primarily an alpha-adrenergic antagonist with mild sympatholytic action and a beta-adrenergic stimulating action. Over 30 years of clinical experience has shown it to be a strong direct vasodilator on muscular walled ...
Portaluppi F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Marked alterations have been demonstrated to occur in the platelet alpha2-adrenoceptors of patients with essential hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether antihypertensive treatment with alpha-adrenergic blocker doxazosin or beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol can affect the affinity and the density of platelet alpha2-adrenoceptors in such patients. SUBJECTS ...
Shaw L - - 2000
1. The influence of 17 beta-oestradiol on pressurized isolated rat mesenteric and coronary small arteries was investigated. 2. 17 beta-oestradiol caused rapid (t1.0 < 5 mins) concentration-dependent relaxations of pre-contracted pressurized (50 mmHg) isolated rat mesenteric and coronary arteries. Similar responses were observed in both vessel types. Significant relaxations were ...
Warltier D C - - 2000
Goals for the perioperative management of patients with coronary artery disease include: * Prevent increases in sympathetic nervous system activity: reduce anxiety preoperatively; prevent stress response and release of catecholamines by appropriate use of opioids or volatile anesthetics and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists; beta-blocker therapy should be initiated before and continued during ...
Clare Zhang Y - - 2000
beta-Blockers are widely used for hypertension treatment but must be taken daily. We have developed a novel beta-blocker by targeting beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)-AR) mRNA with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (beta(1)-AS-ODN). A single intravenous injection of beta(1)-AS-ODN significantly reduced cardiac contractility and blood pressure (38+/-5 mm Hg, P<0.05) in spontaneously hypertensive rats for ...
Murakami M - - 2000
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a selective beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, (R, R)-5-[2-[[2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-amino]propyl]-1, 3-benzodioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate (CL 316243), on the acutely obstructed ureter in anesthetized dogs. After a complete ureteral obstruction produced by the inflation of a balloon catheter placed within the left lower ureter, the intraluminal ...
Lindenfeld J - - 1999
To report a case of marked hypotension resulting from the concomitant use of low-dose carvedilol and intravenous dobutamine. A 54-year-old white man with severe heart failure was placed on carvedilol 3.125 mg orally twice a day; three days later the dosage was increased to 6.25 mg orally twice a day. ...
Hosseini-nia T - - 1999
Pressure-induced conformational changes in D(2)O solutions of the two genetic variants of beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-lg A) and beta-lactoglobulin B (beta-lg B) and an equal mixture of both variants (beta-lg A+B) were studied by employing variable-pressure Fourier transform infrared (VP-FTIR) spectroscopy. Changes in the secondary structure of beta-lg A were observed ...
Eno A E - - 1999
A crude extract was prepared from the roots of E. drupifera. Lethality studies in mice showed a dose-mortality relationship with an LD(50) of 145 mg/kg mice i.p. The extract (2-260 microg/kg. i.v.) was tested in graded doses on the blood pressure and heart rate of urethane anaesthetized rats. The results ...
Seljeflot I - - 1999
Elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), both markers indicative of endothelial function, are associated with hypertension. In a randomized open study we investigated the effect of antihypertensive treatment with the alpha-blocker doxazosin (n = 23) or the beta-blocker atenolol (n = 22) for 22 weeks on ...
Petzold T - - 1999
For the testing of heart assist devices most animal models of acute cardiac failure that are usually used show certain disadvantages. We therefore developed a new method using the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist carazolol. We administered a bolus injection of 1 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/h in adult ...
Neubauer S - - 1999
Oral feeding with the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionate (beta-GP) reduces myocardial phosphocreatine and creatine concentrations by about 80%in vitro, this is accompanied by reduced contractile performance. We hypothesized, thus, that beta-GP feeding leads to hemodynamic changes in vivo characteristic of heart failure. beta-GP was fed to Wistar rats for up to ...
Cleophas T J - - 1999
Day-activity rhythms of heart rate and blood pressure are thought to be mediated mainly through the sympathetic nervous system and may have greater amplitudes in patients with hypertension owing to increased daytime and largely normal nighttime values. Drug-induced nighttime hypotension in patients with chronic hypertension has been associated with the ...
Cases A - - 1999
Nebivolol is a novel, potent and highly selective beta(1)-adrenergic antagonist, devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, that induces endothelium-dependent arterial and venous dilatation via the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Nebivolol reduces blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance and does not depress, but rather maintains or improves, left ventricular function in healthy subjects ...
Jarén-Galán M - - 1999
Paprika oleoresin was fractionated by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide (SCF-CO(2)). Higher extraction volumes, increasing extraction pressures, and similarly, the use of cosolvents such as 1% ethanol or acetone resulted in higher pigment yields. Within the 2000-7000 psi range, total oleoresin yield always approached 100%. Pigments isolated at lower pressures ...
Hayreh S S - - 1999
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of topical beta-blocker eyedrops on nocturnal arterial hypotension and heart rate and on visual field deterioration. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 275 white patients, 161 with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and 114 with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and diurnal curve ...
Wójcicki J - - 1999
The lipophilic beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol has been studied to define its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics in hyperlipidemic patients. A total of 48 subjects were allocated to four study groups: (1) healthy volunteers, (2) hypercholesterolemic patients, (3) hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and (4) patients with a mixed form of hyperlipidemia. Propranolol was given ...
Erzouki H K - - 1999
The cardio-respiratory effects of cocaine were compared to various Na+ channel blocking Class I antiarrhythmics. Anesthetized rabbits were treated with various doses of either cocaine, quinidine, procainamide, lidocaine or flecainide. Cocaine produced clear decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. None of the other sodium channel blockers produced any change ...
Locker G J - - 1999
Opioids are well known to cause cardiovascular depression. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether an interaction of opioid derivatives with catecholamines might be involved in these hemodynamic alterations. Six comatose patients were enrolled into a prospective, nonrandomized pilot trial. All patients first received a continuous i.v. ...
Roul G - - 1999
Our objective was to evaluate the effects of beta-blockers on the neurohormonal profile, particularly vasopressin (VP) release, in vasovagal syncope and to gain further insight on the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Patients (< or =75 years) with no cardiovascular, neurological disorders, or contraindications to the use of isoproterenol or beta-blockers ...
Reid J L - - 1999
There are several lines of evidence implicating increased sympathetic activity not only in the maintenance of raised blood pressure but in the pathophysiology of hypertensive complications including atherosclerosis. Beta blockers are one of the best documented classes of drugs in terms of long term safety and improvement in outcome in ...
Arendash G W - - 1999
Hypertension has been recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, serum beta-amyloid (A beta) levels are elevated in several mutations linked to familial AD, as well as in some sporadic AD individuals. To determine the in vivo effects of A beta on blood pressure, A beta(1-40) was ...
Schmetterer L - - 1999
There is evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the chronotropic, the inotropic, and the vasodilator response to beta-adrenoceptor agonists. In the present study we hypothesized that inhibition of NO synthase may modulate the systemic vascular and cardiac effects of isoprenaline, a beta-adrenoceptor agonist, in healthy subjects. Subjects received ...
Mores N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The use of the decongestant pseudoephedrine has been cautioned in patients with arterial hypertension, due to the possible rise in blood pressure induced by the sympathostimulatory properties of the drug. This effect could be enhanced in hypertensives treated with beta-blockers, in whom the vasoconstrictor effect of alpha-adrenergic stimulation is ...
Schäfers R F - - 1999
In humans, prolonged administration of the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline leads to a desensitization of beta 2-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiovascular responses, which can be blunted by concomitant administration of the antianaphylactic drug ketotifen. This study investigated the effect of disodium cromoglycate, another antiallergic drug, on terbutaline-induced desensitization of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiovascular and noncardiovascular ...
Maekawa K - - 1999
This study evaluated the effect of intravenous infusion of a non-selective alpha-adrenergic blocking agent on masseter muscle haemodynamics induced by 4 degrees C cold pressor stimulation (CPS) of the right foot and ankle, which reportedly evokes a rapidly increasing sympathetic nerve activity in human skeletal muscle. Nine healthy non-smoking males ...
Tripathi C B - - 1999
The objective of the present study was to compare the cardiovascular beta-blocking activity of two different formulations of esmolol. Spontaneously beating guinea-pig isolated atria and the heart rate and blood pressure of anaesthetized cat were employed in the study to compare the beta-blocking efficacy of the two formulations of esmolol ...
Jakubetz J - - 1999
The aim of this study was to find out whether cardiac responses to the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) xamoterol and celiprolol are mediated by cardiac beta1- or beta2-adrenoceptors or both. For this purpose we assessed, in six healthy male volunteers, the effects of xamoterol (100 and 200 ...
Shinohara K - - 1999
Pachinko is a popular form of recreation in Japan. However, in recent years, along with Pachinko's popularity, "Pachinko dependence" has become topical news. The purpose of this study was to investigate beta-endorphin, catecholamines, immune system responses and heart rate during the playing of Pachinko. The following significant results were observed. ...
Chen X - - 1999
The objective of this analysis was to determine whether changes in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) within 35 hypertensive patients (25 M, 10 F, mean age 47 years) treated with beta-blockade as monotherapy relate to reductions in ambulatory blood pressure (BP) or its variability. BP was recorded intra-arterially directly from the brachial ...
Braakman R - - 1999
PURPOSE: Based on diameter measurements on the short posterior ciliary artery, this study was intended to determine the direct pharmacologic effect of beta-blockers; to determine the differences among a selective beta-blocker betaxolol, a beta-blocker with intrinsic sympathetic activity befunolol, and a nonselective beta-blocker timolol; and to find experimental evidence for ...
Montastruc J L - - 1999
In order to investigate the putative role of beta3-adrenoceptors in central and peripheral cardiovascular regulations, the effects of intracisternal (i.c.) and intravenous (i.v.) injections of SR 58611 A (10, 50, 100 and 200 nmol kg-1), a selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonist, were investigated in chloralose anaesthetized dogs. In normal dogs, i.v. SR ...
Bristow M R - - 1999
Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. Mechanisms which maintain normal function in the short term in the pressure overloaded heart have longer term deleterious effects. These include left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and chronic activation of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems. beta-Blocking agents are capable ...
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