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Chapple Christopher R - - 2005
alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists are now well established as the most common treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of bladder outflow obstruction associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Both alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors are accepted treatments for LUTS, but with finasteride this applies only to patients with clinically enlarged prostates, ...
Kubo Kozue - - 2005
Romano-Ward (R-W) syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder and is characterized by a prolonged QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), syncope, and sudden death. We report here a case of cesarian section in a patient with R-W syndrome whose QT prolongation was successfully managed with landiolol, a selective beta1 ...
Ben-Abraham Ron - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The recommended dose for endotracheal adrenaline (0.02 mg/kg) causes a pronounced initial decrease in diastolic blood pressure which is detrimental at the initial phase of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This effect was previously attributed to an early and preferential stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors causing vasodilatation unopposed by an alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction. ...
Shyu Kou-Gi - - 2005
The use of beta-blockers has emerged as a beneficial treatment for cardiac hypertrophy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is tightly regulated in the ventricular myocardium. However, the expression of HIF-1alpha in cardiac hypertrophy due to pressure overload and after treatment with beta-blocker is little known. To evaluate the effect of carvedilol on ...
Peter Doris - - 2005
Aliskiren is the first in a new class of antihypertensive drugs that inhibits the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I by renin, thereby inhibiting production of angiotensin II, the key mediator in the regulation of body fluid volume and blood pressure. Aliskiren is currently in phase III trials as monotherapy ...
Leenen Frans H H - - 2005
In healthy humans, ganglionic blockade unmasks a clear age-related decrease in cardiac responses to isoproterenol but not to epinephrine. We postulated that an age-related decrease in neuronal uptake (which affects epinephrine but not isoproterenol) may offset a parallel decrease in beta-receptor-mediated responses. To test this concept, nine young (mean 29 ...
Lin Shan-Yang - - 2004
We used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to investigate pressure-induced conformational changes in secondary structure of fibrinogen (FBG). Solid state FBG was compressed on a KBr pellet (1KBr method) or between two KBr pellets (2KBr method). The peak positions of the original and second-derivative ir spectra of compressed FBG samples ...
Shen Weiqun - - 2005
We compared the cardiac inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic responses to the Na(+) channel enhancer LY-368052 in conscious dogs before and after development of congestive heart failure (CHF). We also examined the effect of LY-368052 on baroreflex sensitivity and the efferent neural mechanisms of the bradycardic response in heart failure. Dogs ...
Chang Shu-Hua - - 2004
A rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency, may be misdiagnosed as 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the most common form of CAH, because of similar clinical presentations at times and elevated level of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in both conditions. We report a case of 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency that was originally misdiagnosed ...
Bruck Heike - - 2004
The intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker can be mediated by beta(1)- or beta(2)-adrenoceptors. The aim of this study was to characterize the ISA of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker carteolol in healthy volunteers. Two approaches were employed. First, we assessed the effects of carteolol (20, 40 or 80 mg ...
Zanchetti Alberto - - 2004
New evidence from recently completed clinical studies performed with nebivolol, a highly selective beta-1 beta-blocker, endowed with additional vasodilating activity mediated by nitric oxide (NO) endothelial release, confirm previous findings that nebivolol differs from other beta-blocking agents and that the combination of beta-1 blockade and NO-mediated vasodilation not only potentiates ...
Day Douglas G - - 2004
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the persistency and treatment costs for latanoprost, bimatoprost, or beta-blockers in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertensive patients. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, multicenter, parallel, active-controlled comparison of patients who were prescribed with ocular hypotensive monotherapy between September 1996 ...
Takahara Akira - - 2004
Cardiovascular effects of cilnidipine, a dual L/N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, were evaluated in the chronic atrioventricular block dogs, of which systemic blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased in the pre-drug control. Administration of antihypertensive doses of cilnidipine (1 and 3 microg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased the total peripheral vascular ...
Oliveira Paulo J - - 2004
Carvedilol is a neurohormonal antagonist of multiple action which is used in clinical practice for the treatment of congestive heart failure, mild to moderate hypertension and myocardial infarction. Previous results from our group have demonstrated that one of the main targets for the protective effect of carvedilol is the cardiac ...
Iakovou Ioannis - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The integration between arterial and ventricular function has been studied by mostly invasive techniques. We considered assessing the influence of various antihypertensive medications on arterial-ventricular coupling (AVC) with the use of a non-invasive echocardiographic method. METHODS: A total of 9037 patients, who had been under treatment for essential arterial ...
Ahmed Ali - - 2004
Most heart failure patients are older adults. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with systolic heart failure. However, the annual mortality rate in patients with systolic heart failure receiving ACE inhibitors is about 12%. Beta-blockers further reduce mortality rate by an additional 35% to 65%. Because ...
McEniery Carmel M - - 2004
Arterial stiffness is a key determinant of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. beta-Blockers appear to be less effective than other drugs in improving outcome in hypertensive patients, and a potential explanation may be that beta-blockers are less effective in reducing arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to assess ...
O'Leary Donal S - - 2004
We investigated to what extent heart failure alters the ability of the muscle metaboreflex to improve ventricular function. Dogs were chronically instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and central venous pressure (CVP) at rest and during mild treadmill exercise (3.2 ...
Harding Sian E - - 2004
Beta blockers have been shown in clinical trials to improve cardiac function and reduce mortality of heart failure patients. However, these agents require careful titration since they can produce an initial decrease in cardiac output. The authors have recently shown that beta blockers, including some used clinically, can directly depress ...
Cordeiro Yraima - - 2004
The main hypothesis for prion diseases proposes that the cellular protein (PrP(C)) can be altered into a misfolded, beta-sheet-rich isoform (PrP(Sc)), which undergoes aggregation and triggers the onset of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Here, we compare the stability against pressure and the thermomechanical properties of the alpha-helical and beta-sheet conformations of ...
Yarangümeli Alper - - 2004
The cardioselective beta-blocker, betaxolol, is an effective ocular antihypertensive agent. Its mode of action in lowering intraocular pressure is similar to that of the nonselective blockers, by suppressing the flow of aqueous humor. The most frequent adverse reaction to betaxolol is stinging upon administration, which is minimised by an ocular ...
Dorn Gerald W GW - - 2004
Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to any cardiac insult or stress that increases hemodynamic load. Cardiac hypertrophy can exist in a state of compensation or progress to a decompensated state (i.e., heart failure) over time. It has been established through transgenic overexpression and gene ablation studies that multiple signaling ...
Foster Paul S - - 2004
Integrating findings from research concerning the cerebral and cardiovascular effects of increasing emotional intensity suggests that changes in functional cerebral system activation and changes in heart rate and blood pressure are related. Research has indicated that the left and right cerebral hemispheres are specialized for parasympathetic and sympathetic control of ...
Cockcroft John - - 2004
Nebivolol is a vasodilating beta-blocker, which can be distinguished from other beta-blockers by its haemodynamic profile. It combines beta-adrenergic blocking activity with a vasodilating effect mediated by the endothelial L-arginine nitric oxide (NO) pathway. The blood pressure lowering effect of nebivolol is linked to a reduction in peripheral resistance and ...
Jackson Dwayne N - - 2004
The role of endogenous Y(1)-receptor activation on skeletal muscle vasculature under baseline conditions is currently debated and no in vivo studies have been performed to address this issue. Therefore, this study was designed to address the effect of Y(1)-receptor and/or alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism on basal hindlimb vascular conductance in male Sprague-Dawley ...
Summers Richard L - - 2004
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta adrenergic blockers, and nesiritide are pharmacologic agents for heart failure with both short- and long-term neurohormonal and hemodynamic effects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta adrenergic blockers reduce morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. Higher doses may result in better outcomes than lower doses, but concern ...
Nollen G J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the heterogeneous response to beta blockade in patients with Marfan syndrome by non-invasive assessment of the aortic pressure-area curve. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 25 patients with the Marfan syndrome who used beta blocking agents (mean (SD) age, 29 (10) years; 20 men, five women), seven without beta blockade ...
Iijima Takehiko - - 2004
PURPOSE: Pulse dye-densitometry, a novel monitor that measures circulating blood volume (CBV) and cardiac output (CO), was used in patients with pheochromocytoma to determine the relationship between CBV and post resection hypotension. METHODS: Case control study. An alpha blocker was administered for approximately two weeks, and its effect on the ...
Bale Tracy L - - 2004
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its paralogues urocortin (Ucn)I, -II, and -III signal by activating their receptors, CRF receptors (CRFR)1 and -2, to maintain homeostasis through endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses. CRFR2 is found in cardiomyocytes and in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the systemic vasculature. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization ...
Layland Joanne - - 2004
PKA-dependent phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) contributes significantly to beta-adrenergic agonist-induced acceleration of myocardial relaxation (lusitropy). However, the role of PKA-dependent cTnI phosphorylation in the positive inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation is unclear. We studied the contractile response to isoprenaline (10 nm) in isolated hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes from ...
Melgar-Fernández Roberto - - 2004
The synthesis of four novel analogues of metoprolol, a well-known beta1-blocker used to reduce arterial blood pressure, is described. The preparation of (2S,2'S)-7, (2R,2'S)-7, (2R,2'R)-8, and (2S,2'R)-8 was based on the reaction of racemic 2-[4-(2'-methoxyethyl)-phenoxymethyl]-oxirane (4) with (R)- or (S)-2-amino-1-butanol. Salient characteristics of analogues 7 and 8 relative to metoprolol ...
Milne Brian - - 2004
Consideration regarding human aging and sympathetic nervous system activity suggests that old age represents a hyperadrenergic state. With advancing age the sympathetically mediated stress on the body, specifically the cardiovascular system, may outweigh the benefits an intact sympathetic nervous system conveys for short-term survival. Beta blockers temper the effects of ...
Nürnberger Jens - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a classic marker of vascular stiffness. Recent studies showed that heart rate is an important determinant of PWV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of myocardial function in determining PWV under resting conditions and under adrenergic stimulation. DESIGN AND METHODS: ...
Elizur Arnon - - 2003
Tracheal epinephrine (adrenaline) has been associated with two major deletorious side effects: increased heart rate (HR) and an initial decrease of blood pressure (BP). This prospective randomized animal study compared the haemodynamic responses to tracheally administered epinephrine or norepinephrine (nor adrenaline) alone versus each after pretreatment with propranolol for ameliorating ...
Chang Joseph J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Widened pulse pressure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in older persons. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between antihypertensive medication class and the magnitude of pulse pressure among persons receiving treatment for hypertension in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: ...
Papageorgiou Peter C - - 2004
"New pressor protein" (NPP) derived from normal human plasma is an extra renal enzyme that shares strong sequence homology with human coagulation beta-FXIIa. Under our bioassay conditions, human NPP (10-20 microl plasma equivalent/ approximately 300 g rat iv) can raise the systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 40-50 mmHg, the diastolic ...
Kooijman Miriam - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Supraspinal sympathetic control of leg vascular tone is lost in spinal cord-injured individuals, but this does not result in a reduced leg vascular tone: Leg vascular resistance is even increased. The aim of this study was to assess the alpha-adrenergic contribution to the increased vascular tone in the lower ...
Messerli Franz H - - 2003
Over the past decade, national and international guidelines have proposed beta-blockers to be used on an equal footing with diuretics for initial therapy of hypertension. This preferred status was supposedly based on evidence documenting a reduction in morbidity and mortality with beta-blocker therapy in hypertension. We systematically analyzed all available ...
Paluch M - - 2003
Dielectric spectra of the polyalcohols sorbitol and xylitol were measured under isobaric pressures up to 1.8 GPa. At elevated pressure, the separation between the alpha and beta relaxation peaks is larger than at ambient pressure, enabling the beta relaxation times to be unambiguously determined. Taking advantage of this, we show ...
Ubbink Dirk Th - - 2003
This study was undertaken to investigate the possible negative effect of beta-blockers on skin microcirculation in patients with intermittent claudication and hypertension. Methods and materials In this clinical crossover study, 20 patients with mild to moderate hypertension, treated with long-term beta-blockade, and intermittent claudication or ischemic rest pain, underwent assessment ...
Hryniewicz Katarzyna - - 2003
Adrenergic receptor blockers used in the treatment of heart failure have distinct receptor affinity profiles. We hypothesized that alpha-adrenergic-blocking effects of carvedilol would limit vasoconstriction in response to adrenergic stimuli when compared with metoprolol. Forearm vascular resistance responses to isometric handgrip and cold pressor test were determined by plethysmography before ...
Crossley Dane A DA - - 2003
Our understanding of avian embryonic cardiovascular regulation has been based on studies in chickens. The present study was undertaken to determine if the patterns established in chickens are generally applicable to the emu, a ratite bird species. We studied cardiovascular physiology over the interval from 60% to 90% of the ...
Lamarre-Cliche Maxime - - 2003
The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) is believed to reflect sympathovagal balance. It has also been established that beta-blockers and dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blockers (DHPCCB) influence the autonomic nervous system. This study tested the hypothesis that QTc interval length is a predictor of the blood pressure reduction induced ...
Chi Dong-sheng - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of the echocardiographic observation of the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in diagnosing myocardial microvascular damage in patients with essential hypertension (EH). METHODS: After intravenous injection with Quanfuxian (a contrast agent consisting of albumin and C3F8 prepared by Nanfang Hospital), the values of A (the maximum ...
Snapir Amir - - 2003
Common naturally occurring polymorphisms have been identified in the coding regions of the alpha(1A)-, alpha(2B)-, beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) genes [alpha(1A)-AR R492C, alpha(2B)-AR insertion/deletion (I/D), beta(1)-AR R389G, beta(2)-AR G16R and beta(2)-AR Q27E] and are associated with modified in vivo and in vitro functionality. We tested their possible effects on the ...
Schönauer Verena - - 2003
High factor VIII (FVIII) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The pathomechanism by which high FVIII leads to an increased risk of VTE is unknown. Physical activity and infusion of adrenalin provoke a rise in FVIII, which can be blocked by a nonselective beta-blockade. We tested the hypothesis ...
Sofowora G G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A common polymorphism of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor Arg389Gly markedly affects function in vitro, but little is known about its in vivo significance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting and exercise hemodynamic responses were measured in subjects homozygous for Arg389 (n = 21) or Gly389 (n = 13) alleles before and 3 ...
Segers Patrick - - 2003
Maximal left ventricular (LV) hydraulic power output (PWR(max)), corrected for preload as PWR(max)/(V(ed))(beta) (where V(ed) is the end-diastolic volume and beta is a constant coefficient), is an index of LV contractility. Whereas preload-adjusted maximal power (PAMP) is usually calculated with beta = 2, there is uncertainty about the optimal value ...
Bonomi Francesco - - 2003
Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin before, during and after treatment at 600 MPa and pH 6.8 for 10 min at 30, 37 and 44 degrees C. The extent of beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysis under pressure was noticeably higher than at atmospheric pressure, particularly when chymotrypsin was used. Addition of ...
Gielerak Grzegorz - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A degree of reduction of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) values following beta-blocker administration has been shown to indicate beta-blockade effectiveness. Whether this parameter is also useful in the identification of patients with vaso-vagal syncope (VVS) who could benefit from beta-blocker therapy, has not yet been established. ...
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